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of the heavens; which is easily reexamined at any time with little more than a tranfient view; and which yet will fhew on the first glance, if there fhould have happened in it any variation of confequence. It is obvious, that very delicate obfervations are not to be made in this way.

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In order to explain my meaning more fully, a card fo marked fhall accompany this paper*. What I first happened to pitch upon was the conftellation of Corona Borealis, which then fronted one of my windows; and which I have fince purfued throughout in this method; making the ftars B, v, d, e, 2, 0, 1, 2, π, °, σ, and 7, fucceffively central; together with one or two belonging to Bootes, for the fake of connecting the whole together. Thefe I have transferred fince on a fheet of paper, to try how well they would unite into one map; which they have done with very little alteration. A copy of that alfo fhall be laid before this Society *.

My defign was, after marking down all such stars as are vifible with fo fmall a magnifier, to go over the whole again with another telescope of a higher power, divided in the fame way; and after that, with a third and a fourth; fo as to comprehend every ftar I could difcern. That would difcover fmaller changes but it must be a work of time, if attempted at all. After fuch a rough map of the conftellation is made, the endeavouring to afcertain the right afcenfions and declinations of these may perhaps be advifeable in the next place, rather than fearching for more.

In obferving in this way it is manifeft that the places of fuch ftars as happen to be under or very near any one of the wires must be more to be depended upon, than of what are in the intermediate fpaces, efpecially, if towards the edges of the field: fo alfo what are nearest to the centre, becaufe better defined, and more within the reach of one wire or another. For this reason, different ftars in the fame fet muft fucceffively be made central, or brought towards one of the wires, where any fufpicion arifes of a mistake,

*For these the curious reader must be

in order to approach nearer to a cer tainty: but if the ftand of the telefcope be tolerably well adjusted and fixed in its place, that is foon done.

In fuch a glafs it is very feldom that light is wanting fufficient to difcern the wires. When an illuminator is required, I find, that for this purpose, where you with to fee every small star you can, a piece of card or white pafteboard, projecting on one fide beyond the tube, and which may be brought forward occafionally, is better than one of any other kind. By cutting across a fmall fegment of the object-glafs, it throws a fufficient light down the tube, though a candle is at a great distance; and one may lofe fight of that falfe glare when one pleafes, by drawing back the head, and moving the eye a little fide-ways, and then one fees the smaller stars juft as well as if no illuminator were there.

This then is the method I would recommend to the practical astronomer, for becoming acquainted with the appearance of the ftars, and fetting a watch over the heavenly motions. After a very few trials, every one would find this eafy. And if each person of every rank among aftronomers would take a conftellation or two under his care, the numbers who could undertake it in this way would compenfate for the defects of a plan which cannot afpire at great accuracy. The labour of it, even at firft, is but little. It has coft me more time indeed than I ought commonly to allot to mere amufement; becaufe I had my apparatus to contrive, and feveral different and fruitless fchemes to try, before I could fatisfy myfelf. But a quarter, of at the most half, an hour is generally fufficient for the marking of one pretty full card in this way: and when once the cards are marked, and a general map of the conftellation is formed, a little time given to it in a fine evening, to examine whether the stars on fuch or fuch a card remain in their former pofition is little trouble in deed. Perfeverance is most likely to be wanting, and therefore must be determined upon; becaufe, after finding things time after time juft as they N 2 referred to the Philofophical Tranfactions.

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were, one's hopes of difcovering any thing new will flacken. But the different ftate of the air, or of one's own eye, will frequently occafion a fresh ftar to become vifible, or a fmall one which had been noted down to seem to have difappeared; and fuch a mere accident will ferve to re-kindle the defire of purfuing it. Befides, if we obferve no change after a tolerable interval of affiduous fearch, we may at any time turn to another conftellation: yet ought we never to abandon the former entirely, after having once publickly undertaken it, without giving notice of our fo doing.

In the cards or maps, it may be ob ferved, I have not marked the refpective fizes of the ftars. Nor have I diftinguished them in any way, excepting a few of them with Bayer's Greek letters. It was becaufe I have not hitherto fatisfied myself how to do it. Some method must be used by every one, to defcribe to himself what he means; but, in laying any thing before the public, a deference ought to be paid to what has been done by others. The calling any ftar by a new name would breed confufion: and as I was defirous this fhould appear before this Society in its first rude form, that a judgement might be made from it how far fuch a fcheme would promife fuccefs, I was unwilling to look into catalogues or capital maps for the numbers or names of the ftars, left I fhould be tempted to adapt the pofitions of what I had obferved to what I there found fet down by more able aftronomers. Nothing, therefore, but a hemifphere of Senex has been confulted, juft for knowing how far the conftellation is ufually reckoned to extend, and what are Bayer's references.

Should this plan meet with approbation, I fhould be happy to have propofed it; and will endeavour to forward it in any way that shall be judged proper: or fhould any other be preferred, which is within the abilities and leifure of one who is engaged in another profeffion, I fhall be as happy to lend what affiftance I can to it. My aim is only to render fuch obfervations as I am capable of making ufeful to fcience.

Before I conclude on this head, give me leave to add a few hints. Whether this method be followed, or any other, if a general plan be fet on foot, whoever undertakes a conftellation, or district, should determine to examine it with as great accuracy as he can; yet never be afhamed to let others know of his mistakes. The error of one proves a caution to another. Such a rough sketch, once made, will be found of great ufe to moft of us, in knowing which ftar next to examine with greater care. He who can do no more than this will do a ufeful work by going thus far: and his frequently fweeping over his district in this way may lead him to a difcovery which might escape a more regular aftronomer. But whoever can, ought to do more. By degrees the exact pofitions of every ftar he has noted down may be ascertained, by the method practifed by Mr. De la Caille in his Southern Hemisphere, or by any other which shall be esteemed more convenient. Every one, indeed, muft ufe fuch inftruments as he can procure: but affiduity can do more with indifferent ones than will ever be accomplished with the very bef without it. Whatever references are made for one's own convenience, when a map and catalogue are given to the public ftock, the old letters and numbers fhould be retained as far as they go: though yet notice fhould be taken, where the magnitudes of the ftars at prefent do not appear to correfpond with the order in which they have been laid down.

To render this more complete, it were to be wifhed that each fhould give in a copy of his original obfervations, with an account of the inftruments he ufed; fince they ought to be preferved as data from whence his deductions were made, which may then be re-examined at any future time. Yet muft it be defired, that no one would truft himfelf without carrying on his calculations as fast as the obfervations are made: they will otherwife multiply upon his hands till the labour will dishearten him from attempting it at all. A heap of crude, undigested ob fervations would be an unwelcome prefent to the public.

Having thus ftated this propofal, I fhall leave it to be proceeded upon, or not, as fhall be feen proper: and will now only fubjoin a lift of fuch occafional obfervations as I have had opportunity of making*, fince the laft which I communicated to this Society. I find, indeed, that it is much longer than I had apprehended: but as I perceive fome aftronomers abroad have referred to a few of thofe which have been honoured with a place in our Tranfactions, it may be as well to follow it up. An obfervation retained among one's own private papers I hold to be of little ufe.

One thing let me defire foreigners to remark: that the registers I gave of the going of my clock were meant only as the relations of a mere fact; that a clock, of fuch a conftruction,

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BIOGRAPHY.

THE LIFE OF ISAAC SAAC CASAUBON, one of the moft learned critics in the end of the fixteenth, and beginning of the feventeenth century, was born at Geneva, February 18, 1559, being the fon of Arnold Cafaubon and Jane RofHe was educated at firft by his father, and being a youth of excellent parts, made fo quick a progrefs in his ftudies, that at the age of nine years he could fpeak and write Latin with great eafe and correctness. But his father being obliged, for three years together, to be always abfent from home, on account of bufinefs, he came thereby to be neglected, and entirely forgot what he had learned. before. At twelve years of age he was forced to begin his ftudies again, and to learn as it were by himself; his father's frequent abfence, and ma

CASAUBON.

ny avocations, hindering his teaching of him, excepting at vacant times. But as he could not in this method make any confiderable progress, he was fent, in 1578, to Geneva, to complete his ftudies under the profeffors there. By his indefatigable application, he quickly recovered the time he had loft. He learned the Greek tongue of Francis Portus, the Cretan, and foon became fo great a matter of that language, that this famous man thought him worthy to be his fucceffor in the profeffor's chair, in 1582, when he was but three and twenty years of age. In 1586, Feb. 1, he had the misfortune to lofe his fathert. The 28th of April following, he married Florence, daughter of Henry Stephens, the celebrated printer, by whom he had twenty children. For

fourteen

*This Arnold was a native, and minifter, of Bourdeaux, a village of Diols, in Dauphine, but was obliged, on account of the perfecution for religion, to fly to Geneva. When that ceafed, he was chofen minister of Creft, in Dauphine; and here it was, that his fon Ifaac learned the first rudiments of grammar. That he was born at Geneva, he informs us himfelf; and, therefore, Moreri confounds, the father with the fon,, when he fays, that the latter was born at Bourdeaux.

+ He died at Die, aged 63. Charles Bonarfcius, and Andr. Eudemon-Joannes, have affirmed that he was hanged. But his fon hath fully confuted that falfe and fcandalous itory."

Who had withdrawn from Paris to Geneva. There had been a long intimacy between him and Cafaubon; and that, probably, is what gave the enemies of the latter occafion to affert that he had spent his youth in correcting the books printed by H. Stephens: which indeed is falfe, though no blemish to his reputation, if it had been_true,

fourteen years he continued profeffor of the Greek tongue at Geneva; and in that time ftudied philofophy and the civil law under Julius Pacius. He alfo learned Hebrew, and fome other of the Oriental languages, but not enough to be able to make use of them afterwards*. In the mean time he began to be weary of Geneva; either because he could not agree with his father-in-law, Henry Stephens, a morofe and peevish man; or that his falary was not fufficient for his maintenance; or because he was of a rambling and unfettled difpofition. He refolved, therefore, after a great deal of uncertainty, to accept the place of profeffor of the Greek tongue and polite literature, which was offered him at Montpellier, with a more confiderable falary than he had at Geneva. To Montpellier he removed about the end of the year 1596, and began his lectures in the February following. About the fame time, the city of Nifmes invited him to come and reftore their univerfity, but he excufed himfelf. It is alfo faid, he had an invitation from the univerfity of Franeker, but that is not fo certain. At his first coming to Montpellier, he was much efteemed and followed, and feemed to be pleased with his station. But this pleasure did not last long; for what had been promifed him was not performed; abatements were made in his falary; which alfo was not regularly paid: in a word, he met there with fo much uneafinefs, that he was just upon the point of returning to Geneva. But a journey he took to Lyons in 1598 gave him an opportunity of taking another, that proved extremely advantageous to him. Haying been recommended by fome gentlemen of Montpellier to M. de Vicq, a confiderable man at Lyons; this gentleman took him into his house, and

carried him along with him to Paris, where he caufed him to be introduced to the Firft-Prefident de Harlay, the President de Thou, Mr. Gillot, and Nicholas le Fevre, by whom he was very civilly received. He was also prefented to King Henry IV. who being informed of his merit, would have him leave Montpellier for a profeffor's place at Paris. Cafaubon having remained for fome time in fufpence which courfe to take, went back to Montpellier, and refumed his lectures. Not long after, he received a letter from the King, dated January 3, 1599, by which he was invited to Paris, in order to be profeffor of polite literature. He fet out for that city the 26th of February following. When. he came to Lyons, M. de Vicq advised him to ftay there till the King's coming, who was expected in that place. In the mean while, fome domeftic affairs obliged him to take a turn to Geneva, where he complains that juftice was not done him with regard to the eftate of his father-in-law. Upon his return to Lyons, having waited a long while in vain for the King's arrival, he took a fecond journey to Geneva, and then went to Paris; though he forefaw, as M. de Vicq and Scaliger had told him, he should not meet there with all the fatisfaction he at first imagined. The King gave him, indeed, a gracious reception; but the jealoufy of fome of the other feffors, and his being a Proteftant, procured him a great deal of trouble and vexation, and were the caufe of his lofing the profefforfhip, of which he had the promife. Some time after, he was appointed one of the judges on the Proteftants fide, at the conference between James Davy du Perron, Bifhop of Evreux, afterwards Cardinal, and Philip du Pleffis-Mornay t. As Cafaubon was not favourable to the latter,

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* About the year 1591, he fell into great trouble, of which he complains extremely in his let-, ters, by being bound in a great fum for Mr. Wotton, an Englishman, which he was obliged to pay. This ftraitened him, till he was reimburfed by the care of his friends, and particularly of Jofeph Scaliger, about a year after.

+ This conference was held at Fontainebleau, May 4, 1600. It was at firft defigned, that it fhould continue feveral days, but the indifpofition of Mr. du Pleffis-Mornay was the caufe of its lafting but one. The other judge on the Proteftants fide was Mr. Canaye, who convinced, as he pretended, by the arguments that were then used, became a convert to Popery. He uted his ut

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latter, who, as we are affured, did not acquit himself well in that conference; it was reported, that he would foon change his religion; but the event fhowed that this report was groundlefs. When Cafaubon came back to Paris, he found it very difficult to get his penfion paid, and the charges of removing from Lyons to Paris, becaufe M. de Rofny was not his friend; fo that it was not without an exprefs order from the King that he obtained the payment even of three hundred crowns. The 30th of May, 1600, he returned to Lyons, to haften the impreffion of his Athenæus which was printing there; but he had the misfortune of incurring the difpleafure of his great friend M. de Vicq, who had all along entertained him and his whole family in his own houfe, when they were in that city, because he refufed to accompany him into Switzerland. The reafon of this refufal was, his being afraid of lofing in the mean time the place of library-keeper to the King, of which he had a promife, and that was likely foon to become vacant, on account of the librarian's illness. He returned to Paris with his wife and family the September following, and was well received by the King, and by many perfons of diftinction. There he read private lectures, published feveral works of the ancients, and learned Arabic; in which he made fo great a progrefs, that he undertook to compile a dictionary, and tranflated fome books of that language into Latin. In 1601 he was obliged, as he tells us himself, to write against his will to James VI. King of Scotland, after wards King of England, but does not mention the occafion of it. That prince anfwered him with great civility, which obliged our author to write to him a fecond time. In the mean time, the many affronts and uneafineffes he received from time to

time at Paris made him think of leaving that city, and retiring to fome quieter place. But King Henry IV. would never permit him; and, in order to fix him, made an augmentation of two hundred crowns to his penfion: and granted him the reverfion of the place of his library-keeper, after the death of John Goffelin, the then librarian. He took a journey to Dauphiné, in May, 1603, and from thence to Geneva, about his private affairs; returning to Paris on the 12th of July. Towards the end of the fame year, he came into poffeffion of the place of King's library-keeper, vacant by the death of Goffelin*. His friends of the Roman Catholic perfuafion made now frequent attempts to induce him to forfake the Proteftant religion. Cardinal du Perron, in particular, had several difputes with him upon that point: after one of which a report was fpread, that he had then promifed the Cardinal he would turn Roman Catholic: fo that, in order to ftifle that rumour, the minifters of Charenton, who were alarmed at it, obliged him to write a letter to the Cardinal, to contradict what was fo confidently reported, and took care to have it printed. About this time, the magiftrates of Nifmes gave him a fecond invitation to their city, offering him a house, and a falary of fix hundred crowns of gold a-year, but he durft not accept of it, for fear of offending the King. In 1609, he had, by that prince's order, who was defirous of gaining him over to the Catholic religion, a conference with Cardinal du Perron, upon the controverted points; but it had no effect upon him, and he died a Proteftant. The next year two things happened that afflicted him extremely; one was the murder of King Henry IV. which deprived him of all hopes of keeping his place; the other, his eldeft fen's embracing Popery t. The

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moft endeavours to perfuade Cafaubon to follow his example; but not being able to prevail, he grew very cool towards him, and ceafed to have the fame regard and friendship for him as he had, till then, expreffed. As for Cafaubon, he clears himself, in several of his letters, of the imputation thrown upon him, of his favouring Popery.

*His being poffeffed of that place was a great advantage to him; not only on account of the falary, but because he had then free access to the books in that valuable library, which Goffelin would not permit him to have, as much as he defired or wanted.

This laft accident gave him a great deal of affliction and uneafinefs; and the more, because a

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