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historical recollections of Roman con- The river here takes the name of Rhine, quests and defeats, of the chivalric ex- and is 230 feet wide. It passes through ploits of the feudal period, of the wars and the Bodensee (lake of Constance, q. v.). negotiations of modern times, of the cor- From Reichenau to Båsle it is navigable onations of emperors whose bones repose at intervals, sometimes only by rafts. Beby its side; on whose borders stand the fore it falls into the lake of Constance, it two grandest monuments of the noble arch- forms the cataract of Schaffhausen, in itecture of the middle ages; whose banks the canton of Zürich, where the river present every variety of wild and picture is closely compressed by rocks, and esque rocks, thick forests, fertile plains, falls with great fury eighty feet. Afier vineyards sometimes gently sloping, some- having traversed or touched several cantimnes perched among lofty crags, where tons of Switzerland, also Austria, Baden, industry has won a domain among the France, Bavaria. Hessia, Nassau, Prussiu fortresses of nature; whose banks are or- and the Netherlands, it divides into sevnamented with populous cities, flourishing eral branches. Hardly has it entered Holtowns and villages, castles and ruins, with land (at Emmerich), when it sends off to which a thousand legends are connected, the left a considerable branch, the Waal, beautiful and romantic roads, and salutary which joins the Meuse at Woudrichem. mineral springs; å river whose waters Somewhat lower down, a little above Arnoffer choice fish, as its banks offer the heim, on the right, a branch is formed choicest wines; which, in its course of which occupies the bed of a canal con900 miles, affords 630 miles of uninter- structed by Drusns; this is the New-Ysrupied navigation, from Bàsle to the sca, sel, which, after having joined the Oldand enables the inhabitants of its banks Yssel, at Docsburg, takes the name of to exchange the rich and various products Yssel, or Over-Yssel, and empties into of its shores; whose cities, famous for com- thie Zuyder-Zee. Arrived at Wyk-bymerce, science, and works of strength, Duurstede, twenty-seven miles east of Arnwhich furnish protection to Germany, are heim, the Rhine divides into two branches; also famous as the seats of Roman colo- one of which, the chief continuation of nies, and of ecclesiastical councils, and are the river, is called Lech, and joins the associated with many of the most impor- Neuse: it forms on its right the Nedertant events recorded in history ;-such a Yssel, which also joins the Meuse; the river it is not surprising that the Germans other branch, formerly the most considerregard with a kind of reverence, and tre- able, but now small

, is now called the quently call in poetry father Rhine, or Crooked Rhine (Kromme-Rhyn), and takes king Rhine. (See Byrou's verses on the its course to Utrecht, where again it Phive, in Childe Harold, canto iii, stanzas splits: the north-vest branch is called 55—61.) Since the French revolution, Vechi, and empties into the Zuyder-Zee; the Rhine has been frequently called in the other, western branclı, called Old France the natural boundary between Ruine (Oude-Rhyn) empties into the France and Germany: with equal reason North sea, two leagues from Leyden. It the Elbe might be called so, and perhaps formerly disappeared in the downs of would have been called so, had the French Katwyk, formed in 800; but it has been empire continued, as it had extended al- conducted by a canal from Leyden to the ready to that river at one point.* The The most important rivers which Rhive rises in the Swiss canton of the Gri- flow into it are, the Aar, Kinzig, Murg, sons (9. v.), from three chief sources. The Neckar, Maine, Nahe, Lahn, Moselle, Erti, first comes from the mountain called Rubr, Lippe: the most important places Crispalt, north-east of the St. Gothard, and on the banks are Constance, Schaffhausen, unites at Dissentis with the second, which Bàsle, Spire, Manheim, Worms, Mentz, comes from the Lucmanian mountain: Bingen, Coblentz, Bonn, Cologne, Dusselboth unite with the third, which comes dort, Wesel, Emmerich, Arnheim, Utrecht, from a glacier in the mountain of Adula, Leyden. The whole basin of the Rhine about twenty leagues distant from Reiche- is about 180 leagues long, and 100 leagues nau, the point of confluence of all three. wide, where it is the widest, and com

* Rivers are, generally speaking, poor means prises about 10,000 square leagues. The of political separation, because they are, in fact, canal of the Rhone and Rhine uuites means of connexion rather than of separation. these two rivers by means of the Saône • Mountains and languages furnish far more effectu. the great canal of the North uniting the al lines of demarkation. The only reason why Rhine with the Meuse and the Nethe, and rivers have often been taken as frontiers is, be thus with the Scheldt. In the article Daneause they are lines drawn by nalure, which can be easily designated in treaties.

ube, we have spoken of the projected


canal which was to unite the Danube and varia, commonly called Rheinbaiern, septhe Rhine, the Black sea and the North- arated from the rest of the kingdoni, on ern ocean. The Rhine furnishes excel- the left bank of the Rhine. It is chiefly lent salmon (called Lachse when they as- composed of the former French deparicend the river in spring, coming from the ment Mont-Topnere. The Mont-Tonsea, and Salmen when they descend in nere, 2100 feet high, is the summit of autumn to the sea), sturgeons, lampreys, the Vosges (9. v.), which traverse the cirpikes, and excellent carps. From Stras- cle. Inhabitants, 517,081 ; square miles, burg to Spire, the Rhine is about 1100 feet about 3000. wide; at some parts of the Rheingau, it is RainE, DEPARTMENTS OF THE UPPER 1800; at Cologne, 1300. At Schenken- AND LOWER. (See Department.) schanz, wbere it enters the Netherlands, it Ruine, CONFEDERATION OF. (See Conis 2150 feet wide. Its depth from Båsle to federation of the Rhine.) Strasburg is between ien and twelve Rhine,LOWER (in German, Viederrhein), feet; at Mentz, twenty-four; at Dussel- a Prussian province, with the title of a dorf, fifty. When the snow melts in grand-duchy, formed by the congress of Switzerland, the Rhine rises from twelve Vienna, in 1815, containing 1,127,297 in10 thirteen feet above its common level. habitants and 6100 square miles, embraces The mean descent of the river is about sev- both banks of the Rhine, and is bounded en feet a mile; its current runs about 288 by the Prussian provinces of Juliersfeet in a minute, or about three and a third Cleves-Berg and Westphalia, by Nassan, iniles per hour. Vessels of from 300 10 450 Hesse-Darmstadt, France, the Netherfons go up the river to Cologne, those of lands, and several smaller territories. The 125 10 200 to Mentz, those of 100 to Hundsrück (9. v.) traverses the province 125 to Strasburg. Steam-bonts and" water of the Lower Rhine between the rivers diligences” render communication easy. Nahe and Moselle, and joins the Vosges. The congress of Vienna, in 1815, declared The Eiffel and the High Veen are ridges the navigation of all the Gernian rivers of bills coming from the Arennes. The free; but this ordinance has not been car- province furnishes game, fish, grain, fruits, ried into effect as regards the Danube flax, bemp, wine, wood, silver, iron, cop(q.v.), and it was not till after fifteen per, lead, calamine, marble, slate, sand years' negotiation between the various and mill stones, basalt, tufa, porphyry, powers, and after 503 protocols had been alum, sulphur, coals, and mineral waters. drawn up on the subject that the naviga. In some parts much manufacturing induistion of the Rhine was made free, in the try exists. Much cloth is made in and year 1831.

Three books contain every near Aix-la-Chapelle. The other manuthing necessary for a journey along the factures are linen, silks, leather, iron and Rhine: one, by Lange, comprehends the steel wares. The inhabitants are mosily journey from Mentz to Dusseldorf, the Catholics; in the southern part French is most romantic part south of Basle ; anoth- spoken in some places. The province is er, by Aloys Schreiber, comprehends the divided into three governments-Aix-lawhole course of the Rhine, with excur- Chapelle, Treves, and Coblentz. Aix-lasions into neighboring parts ; the third is Chapelle (q. v.) is the chief place. The by Ch. A. Fischer-Newest Guide from province comprehends the chief part of Mayence to Cologne (Frankfort, 1827). the ancient archbishopric of Treves, the There exist excellent representations of abbeys of Prüm, Cornely-Munster, Malthe scenery, of the Rhine, semi-per- medy, part of the old archbishopric of spective and semi-topographic, very in- Cologne, of the duchy of Luxemburg and genious productions, which afford the Juliers, &c. traveller' the highest gratification.- RHINOCEROS. This is a large animal, See, also, the Panorama of the Rhine, belonging to the order of pachydermata, from Mayence to Cologne, by Delkeskamp having each foot divided into three toes, (Dresd. and Frankf., 1825, in 80 engrav- and furnished with one or more horns on ings), also Primavesi's Course of the the snout. There are several species, the Rhine from its Sources to its Mouth, best known of which are the Indian, or drawn from Nature (1818), and Historico- one-horned, and the African, or two-hornStatistical Panorama of the Rhine, from ed.-One-horned rhinoceros, This species. Bingen to Coblentz, by Dahl (Heidelberg, is a native of India, particularly of that part 1820). Aloys Schreiber's book contains beyond the Ganges. It is a clumsy and a catalogue of all the works ou the Riline deformed looking animal : a single black or relating to it.

horn, placed near the end of the nose, Ruine ; one of the eight circles of Ba- makes its specific character. The upper

lip is very large, and overhangs the lower: ferior to the elephant in docility, and has it is furnished with strong muscles, and is never been made sociable to mau. The employed by the aniinal somewhat as the skin is used for whips and walking-canes, elephant uses his trunk. The ears are and of the horns drinking-cups were lurge, erect and pointed. The skin is made, which were highly estcened by the naked, rough, and extremely thick; about East Indians, as they imagined that it the neck it is gathered into large folds; a poison were put into them, the liquor fuld also extends between the shoulders would ferment till it ran out of the vessel. and fore legs, and another from the binder Martial informs us, that Roman ladies part of the back to the thighs. The tail used these horns as cascs to liokl their is slender, flat at the end, and furnished at essence bottles and oils. The skin of the tie sides with very stiff, black hairs. The rhinoceros is also used by the Javanese legs are very short. This animal was for shields. well known to the ancients, and was in- RHINOPLASTIC (from pev, the nose, and troduced into the games of the circus by decrian, the art of forming). The art of Pompey; in all probability it is the reem

restoring the nose, when lost by disease or (unicorn) of the Bible. Froin the line external injury, was early practised, in Inof the fall of the Roman empire, liowev- dia, by the Bramins, and is even now er, it was lost sight of so completely, ibat, practised by the descendants of this caste, prior to the sixteenth century, naturalists the Coomus, by means of a piece of skin were of opinion, that it had never existed, cut from the forehead. In 11-12, Branca, or, if so, that it was extinct. When the

a Sicilian physician, operated by means of Portuguese, however, doubled the cape of

a piece of skin cut from the arm of the inGood Hope, and opened the way to India, dividual ; and, after him, this nicthod was these aniinals again became known, and preserved in the family of the Bajani as a many were introduced into Europe. The secret, until Caspar Tagliacozzi (born in first that appeared in England was in 1546, died in 1589) practised it in Bologna, 1684. The rhinoceros lives in shady for- and made it public in 1597. He pursued ests adjoining rivers, or in the swampy the method of taking the skin from the jungles with which its native country arm. This method was last practised by abounds. Though possessed of great Molinetti, in the beginning of the sevenstrength, and more than a match for either teenth century. In 1816, Gräfe, a Gerthe tiger or the elephant, it is quiet and man physician, attempted the formation inoffensive unless provoked. The fe- of the nose froin the skin of the arm upon male produces one at a birth. The a young soldier who had lost his nose by growth of the young is very gradual, as, a sabre cut. The method differed but litat the age of two years, it scarcely attains ile froin that of Tagliacozzi.—See Gräfe's half its height. The sight of the rhinoce- Rhinoplastic (Berlin, 1818, quarto). ros is by no means acute, but, on the con- RHODE ISLAND, one of the U. States, trary, its senses of smelling and hearing includes what was formerly known by the are very vivid. I:s chief food is canes

name of Rhode Island and Providence and shrubs. It was for a long time sup- Plantations ; it originally consisted of two posed that the tougue was hard and ex- plantations, or provinces. This state is ceedingly rough ; but recent observations bounded north and east by Massachusetts, have shown that it does not present these south by the Atlantic ocean, and west by peculiarities

. The flesh somewhat re- Connecticut ; length 49 miles ; breadth sembles pork in taste, though of a coarser 29; square miles 1350 ; population in grain and stronger taste.—Two-horned 1810, 70,931 ; in 1820, 83,059, including 48 rhinoceros. This species is a native of slaves ; in 1830,97,212, including 14 slaves; Africa, and resembles the preceding in lat. 41° 22 to 42° 3. N.; lon. 71° 6' to 71° many particulars, but differs in being pro- 38' W. In the north-west part of the state, vided with an additional horn, of a smaller the country is hilly and rocky, but in othsize, situated nearer the forehead; the er parts it is mostlý level. The soil is betskin also is not thrown into the folds so ter adapted to grazing than tillage, except remarkable in the Indian species ; at on the island of Rhode Island, which has least, this is the account given by Sparr- an excellent soil, adapted to the growth man, whilst Bruce represents it as having of every thing that is suited to its climate. them. The two-horned rhinoceros was A considerable part of the state has a thin better known to the ancients than the last- soil, and affords small crops of New Engmentioned kind, and is represented on Jand productions ; but the country near many of their coins, especially those of Narraganset bay is generally very fertile. Domitian. The rhinoceros is greatly in. Great numbers of cattle and sheep are

produced on the islands, and on the mar- Principle Baptists about eight churches gil of the bay; and butter and cheese, ci- and 800 communicants. There are many der, many kinds of fruit, corn, rye, barley, Friends, and some of other denominations. and oats, are produced in abundance. The The settlement of Rhode Island was comrivers and bays afford a great variety of menced, at Providence, in 1634, by the excellent fish. Iron in abundance, small celebrated Roger Williams, a minister, quantities of copper, limestone, and a who was banished from Massachusetts on mine of anthracite, are the minerals and account of liis religious opinions. (For fossils that have hitherto been found. The further information respecting the liistory, rivers are the Pawtucket, Providence, and see Proviilence, and New England.) Pawtixet. Narraganset bay extends from RuodE ISLAND ; an island situated in south to north through nearly the whole Narragunset bay; Int. 41° 25' N.; lon. 71° length of the state, and embosoms Rhode 20 W. The state of Rhode Island takes Island, Connecticu:, Prudence, Patience, its name from this island. It is about fitHope, Dyer's, and log islands. Block teen miles from 10111 to south, and three island, in the Atlantic, south of the state, and a half wide, and is divided into three is the most southerly land belonging to it. townships, Newport, Portsinouth and MidThe exports of Rhode Island consistprir- dletown. It is a poted resort for invalids cipally of flar-scei, lumber, horses, cattle, from southern climates. The island is beef, pork, fish, poultry, and cotton and very fertile, pleasant, and healthful; and linen goods. Its manufactures have great- nany travellers call it the Edlen of Ameoly increased within the last ten years, and ice. It suflere greatly by the war add gready to its wealth. The value of of the revolution, but has been, in a conits experts of demestic produce, during siderable degree, restored to its former the year ending September 30, 1629, was beauty and value. About 40,000 sheep $331,16. Its tomage in 1828 was 4:3,100. are fil on the islanıl, besides neat cattle Since these perials, the commerce of the and horses. There is a cval-mine on the state has rajidly increased. The com- north part of the island, but the coal is mercial and manufacturing interests of not, at present, much esteemed. Rhode Island are principally centred in Ruodes (Podos, frem jošov, a rose, or from Providence. This has become one of the sodus, noise of waters); an island in the mest important cities of New England, Grecian archipelago, lying between Crete and contains now about one fifth of the (Candia) and Cyprus, ten miles from the population of the state. Newport is some- southern coast of Asia Minor ; thirty-six what less than half the size of Providence, miles in length, and fourteen in breadth ; and the other towns are not large. The 450 square miles. Rhodes was, in angeneral assembly of Rhode Island meets cient times, sacred to the sun, and was four times in a year: at Newport on the celebrated for its serene sky, its soti clifirst Wednesday of May, wliich is the mate, fertile soil, and fine fruits. The recommencement of the political year, and public of Rhodes was an important naval again at the same place in June; in Octo- power, and planted colonies in Sicily, Itaber, it meets alternately at Providence and ly and Spain. The beauty and size of its South Kingston; and in January at East works of art were admired in all Greece, Greenwich, Bristol, or Providence. Brown and it was much visited by the Romans university is situated at Providence. At on account of them. The commercial the same place there is a seminary styled laws of the Rhodians were adopted, as the the Friends' boarding-school, and there are basis of marine law, on all the coasts eight or ten academies in the state. (See of the Mediterranean, and some fragments Providence.) The state now pays $10,000 of them still retain their anthority. (See

annually for the support of free schools; Commercial Law.) This rich and power: and this sum is divided among the several ful republic took an important part in sev

towns, according to their population. This, eral of the Roman wars, and was first however, affords but imperfect means for made a Roman province in the reign of the education of the poorer classes of so- Vespasian. In 1309, after the loss of Palciety. In 1831, the Baptists in Rhode estine, the knights of St. John occupied the Island had sixteen churches, twelve min- island, and were thence called the knights isters, 2600 communicants; the Method- of Rhodes. In 1480, they repelled az atists ten preachers, 1,100 members; the tack of the Turks, but, in 1522, were Congregationalists ten churches, ten min- obliged to surrender the island to Soliman isters, 1000 communicants; the Unitarians IL (See John, Knights of St.) The poptwo societies, two ministers; the Sabbata- ulation is differently estimated, by Savary rians about 1000 communicants ; the Six- at 36,500, of which about one thind are


Greeks, with an archbislıop. The island is found, within the U. States, only on the is governed by a pacha, who is under the summits of the White mountains of New capudan pacha or high-admiral and gover- Hampshire. An Oriental species, somenor of the islands of the Archipelago. The times seen in our green-houses, resembling revenue of the sultan from the island is es- the R. maximum, but with brilliant scarlet tirnated at 90,000 piasters. The productions flowers, hardly yields in magnificence to are corn, wine, oil, cotton, fruits, wax, honey, any production of the vegetable creation. &c. The capital, Rhodes (lon. 28° 12' E.; All the species are cultivated in gardiens lat. 36° 26' N.), has a population of 6000 on account of the beauty of tlieir flow. Turks. The suburb Neachorio is inhabited by 3000 Greeks, who are not permitted Rhone (Rhodanus); a great river in the to reside within the city. The town is south of Europe, which rises in the censurrounded by three walls and a double tral and highest part of Switzerland, at ditch, and is considered by the Turks as the foot of mount Furca, only five miles impregnable. It has two fine harbors, from the source of the Rhine. Jo flows separated only by a mole. The celebrat- in a western direction through a long and cd colossus probably stood here. (See wide valley of the Swiss canton of the Colossus.)

Valais, and, being swelled by a number Rhodium ; a new metal, discovered of mountain streams, it passes througla among the grains of crude platina by doc- the lake of Geneva. Flowing southward, tor Wollaston. Its specific gravity is 11. and being joined by the Saône and other It readily alloys with every other metal, streams, such as the Isère, the Drùme, the except mercury. One sixth of it does not Ardeche, and the Durance, it discharges perceptibly alter the appearance of gold, itself

, after a course of nearly 500 miles, but only renders it more fusible. When by three months, into the part of the Medpure, it is brittle, and requires a much iterranean called the gulf of Lyons, where higher temperature for its fusion than any its branches form the island of Canargne. other metal, unless it be iridium. It is in- The principal cities on the Rhone are Ge. soluble in all acids. Doctor Wollaston neva, Lyons, Vienne, Avignon, Beaucaire made silver pens, tipped with rhodium, and Arles. It is the most rapid river of which, from its great hardness, were not Europe. The navigation down the stream liable to be injured by use.

is easy, but the upward can be performed RHODODENDRON MAXIMUM, or Dwarf only by draught or steam. (See Canals.) Rose Bay; one of the most ornamental It carries down large quantities of earth, shrubs of North America. It is generally which it deposits at its mouth. Below about ten feet high, but sometimes reaches Lacluse, the river plunges, with great to twenty or twenty-five, with a trunk four noise, into a cavity of the rocks, and disor five inches in diameter. The leaves are appears for the distance of sixty paces. large, oval, oblong, coriaceous, smooth and Several miles below this place, at a point shining ; the flowers large, rose-colored, called Malpertuis, it again almost entirely with yellow dots on the inside, and are dis- disappears under the rocks. posed in an elegant terminal cluster. It RHÖNGEBIRGE; a range of mountains in is most abundant about the Alleghany Germany, extending from Kaltennordmountains, where it sometimes forms im- heim to beyond Bischofsheim, about 30 penetrable thickets, presenting a magnifi- miles in length; it traverses the northcent appearance when in flower. The west of Bavaria, and part of Hesse Caswood is hard, compact, and fine-grained, sel, approaching the Thuringian forest but inferior, in these respects, to that of on the north, and the Spessart towards the mountain-laurel, and has not hitherto the south. The highest summit is the been applied to any useful purposes. Two Kreutzberg, 2800 feet high. other species of rhododendron inhabit the RHUBARB (rheum); a genus of plants, more southern parts of the Alleghanies. mostly inhabiting the interior of Asia. It The species of rhododendron are shrubs, belongs to the family polygoneæ, togethwith alternate, entire, evergreen leaves, er with the docks, which it somewhat and ornamental flowers, usually disposed resembles. It is one of the few genera in terminal corymbs. About eighteen spe- which have nine stamens, the enneandria cies are known, which inhabit the cold of Linnæus. The roots and leaves are and temperate parts of the northern hem- remarkably large, and the flowers inconisphere, and especially mountainous dis- spicuous, but disposed in very ample tricts. One, the R. Lapponicum, grows as panicles. The seeds are provided, at the far north as civilized man has penetrated, angles, with a membranous wing. The and, in common with other arctic plants, roots of all are mildly purgative, com

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