« PředchozíPokračovat »
1798—1801).-In the U. States, the prin- None, for instance, would have denied cipal journals of this kind are the North the Arabs in Egypt, or the Berbers in American Review, and the American Barbary, the right to rise against what Quarterly Review. The former was es- was called their government-a band of tablished at Boston, in 1815, by William cruel and rapacious robbers. But at what Tudor, and at first consisted of essays, se- point does this right of insurrection belections, poetical effusions, &c., with but gin? This point it is impossible to fix in little criticism. It was afterwards under the abstract. A treatise not confined to the editorship of Mr. Channing, now pro- narrow limits, like this article, might make fessor of rhetoric in Harvard college, and a full statement of cases imaginary or assumed more the character of a critical real, and point out what was demanded journal. In 1820, it passed into the hands in each; might hold up to view the evils of Mr. Edward Everett, and in 1825 into of a bad government on one side, and of those of Mr. Jared Sparks, from whom it civil war on the other, and endeavor to was transferred, in 1830, to the present edi- show under what circumstances it was tor, Mr. Alexander H. Everett. A general better to endure the one or to bazard the index of the twenty-five first volumes was other; but it could not lay down any genpublished in 1830. The work contains a eral rule but the vague one already given. mass of valuable information in regard to The character of insurrections, which, American politics, law, history, &c. The while they present some of the brightest American Quarterly Review (Philadel- and some of the foulest spots in history, phia, 1827) is edited by Mr. Robert always derange the frame-work of sociWalsh. The Southern Review (Charles- ety, is such, that they will not, generally ion, 1828), which was very ably con- speaking, be lightly entered into. Fanatducted by the late Mr. Elliott (9. v.) and ics may sometimes take up arms from Mr. Legare, was discontinued with the slight causes; but, generally speaking, that close of the eighth volume (1832). principle in human nature which leads
Revise, among printers; a second or men to endure the evils of established third proof of a sheet to be printed ; taken systems as long as they are endurable, off in order to be compared with the last will be a sufficient security against the proof, to see whether all the mistakes abuse of the indefinite rule which we marked in it are actually corrected. have stated. But while we maintain the
REVOLUTION, and INSURRECTION. We right of insurrection, under certain cirshall not here go into the question of the cumstances, from the inalienable rights of great changes wrought in the condition mankind, we also admit that it can never of society by political revolutions, which be lawful in the technical sense of the seem necessary to its progress, but shall word, because it is a violation of all rules confine ourselves to a few remarks on of positive law. All the rights which a the right of insurrection against estab- citizen, as such, enjoys, emanate from the lished governments. There has been idea of the state; and the object of an inmuch speculation on the subject whether surrection is the destruction, at least for citizens, under any circumstances, are al- the time, of that order which lies at the lowed to take up arms against estab- basis of the state, by the substitution of lished authorities, and, if so, under what force for law. The right of a citizen, as circumstances, &c. Without being able such, to rebel, is a contradiction in terms, to enter here into all the arguments on as it implies that the state authorizes its this subject, the question may be briefly own destruction. An insurrection beconsidered thus : If governments are comes lawful, in the technical sense of instituted merely for the benefit of the the word, only when it has become a revpeople, it is clear that, if they have failed olution, and has established a new order to answer their end, and will not sub- in the place of the old. We speak, of mit to such changes as the people con- course, of insurrections against established sider necessary, the people have the governments. An insurrection to overright, nay, are even under obligation, to throw an usurpation is of a totally differoverturn the existing system by force, ent character, as its object is the restoraon the general principle that all rights tion of the established order, which has may be maintained by force when other been arbitrarily interrupted. While, theremeans fail. The principle is so evident fore, the right of insurrection is inherent that it would never have been disputed, in man, it can never be rationally adınithad it not been for monarchs and their ted as a principle of any constitution of supporters, who dreaded its application. government; and it was equally unphiloIn extreme cases, it is admitted by all. sophical and inexpedient for one of the early French constitutions to give the friends and patrons. Among the latter right of opposing by, force the exercise of was captain (afterwards lord) Keppel, uulawful power; but, from the constitu- whom he accompanied on a cruise in the tion of human society, it bardly seems pos- Mediterranean. He then proceeded to sible to avoid the occurrence of forcible Rome, in which capital and other parts of changes in political systems. Nothing in Italy he spent three years. On his return this world can last forever; institutions to London, he painted a full-length portrait established centuries ago, to answer the of captain Keppel, which was very much demands of a state of things which lias admired, and at once placed him at the long ceased to exist, frequently become head of the English portrait-painters. Reextremely oppressive, from their incon- jecting the stift, unvaried and unmeaning sistency with the new tendencies which attitudes of former artists, he gave to his have sprung up in society. Sometimes figures air and action adapted to their the evil may be remedied without blood- characters, and thereby displayed someshed; sometimes happy accidents facili- thing of the dignity and invention of histate a change; at other times, however, tory. Although he never attained to perthe old order of things assunes a tone offect correctness in the naked figure, he has decided hostility to the new tendencies; seldom been excelled in the ease and eleood this is what must be expected in á gance of his faces, and the beauty and large proportion of cases. Then it is that adaptation of his fancy draperies. His revolutions break out, and eventually es- coloring may be said to be at once his extablish a new order, from wbich new cellence and his defect. Combining, in a rights and laws emanate. While, there- high degree, the qualities of richness, brilfore, the pbilosopher and historian ac- liaucy and freshness, he was often led to knowledge the necessity, and even obliga- try modes which, probably from want of tion, of insurrections, they will, neverthe- a due knowledge in chemistry and the less, not fail to utter a solemn admonition mechanism of colors, frequently failed, against resorting rashly to this extreme and left his pictures, after a while, in a remedy for violated right. There is a faded state. He rapidly acquired opusolidity, an authority, a completeness, in a lence ; and, being universally regarded as political system which has acquired ma
at the head of his profession, he kept a turity by slow degrees and long struggles, splendid table, which was frequented by that can never belong to any new system the best company in the kingdom, in resuddenly substituted in its stead. There spect to talents, learning and distinction. can be no security for permanent liberty On the institution of the royal academy, till the civic element has become devel- in 1769, he was unanimously elected presoped, and men bave become attached to a ident; on which occasion the king confergiven system of social conrexions. The red upon him the honor of knighthood. common principle, therefore, of weighing Although it was no prescribed part of his the evil to be risked against the good to duty to read lectures, yet his zeal for the be gained, by a political revolution, needs advancement of the fine arts induced him to be strongly impressed upon every peo- before the academy on the principles and
to deliver annual or biennial discourses ple in a state of political excitement. RevolutionARY TRIBUNAL. (See Ter- nounced fifteen, from 1769 to 1790, which
practice of painting. Of these he prororism.)
were published in two sets, and form a REYNARD THE Fox. (See Renard.)
standard work. In 1781 and 1783, he REYNOLDS, sir Joshua, an eminent Eng- made tours in Holland and Flanders, and lish painter, was born at Plympton, in wrote an account of his journey, which Devonshire, in 1723, being the tenth child consists only of short notes of the pictures of the master of the grammar-school of which he saw, with an elaborate characthat town. He early discovered a predi- ter of Rubens. He was a member of the lection for the art of drawing, which in- celebrated club which contained the names duced his father to place him, at the age of Johnson, Garrick, Burke, and others of seventeen, with Hudson, the most fa- of the first rank of literary eminence, and mous portrait-painter in London, with seems to have been universally beloved whom he remained three years, and then, and respected by his associates. He is tho upon some disagreement, returned into favorite character in Goldsmith's poem of Devonshire. He passed some time with- Retaliation ; and Johnson characterized out any determinate plan, and, from 1746 him as one whom he should find the most to 1749, pursued his profession in Devon- difficulty how to abuse. In 1784, he sucshire and London, and acquired numerous ceeded Ramsay as portrait-painter to the king, and continued to follow his profes- of the body, often so great as to affect the sion, of which he was enthusiastically thermometer, take place in certain perfond, until he lost the sight of one of bis sons when they are in the vicinity of suheyes. He, however, retained his equable terranean bodies of water or ore, &c.; alspirits until threatened, in 1791, with the so peculiar sensations of taste, spasmodic loss of his other eye, the apprehension of contractions of particular parts, convulwhich, added to his habitual deafness, ex- sions often equal to electric shocks, giddiceedingly depressed him. He died in ness, sickness, disquietude, solicitude, &c. 1792, in his sixtieth year, unmarried, and Rliabdomancy was known even to the anwas interred in St. Paul's cathedral. Sir cients. “From the most remote periods," Joshua Reynolds, although there was says Kieser, in his System of Tellurism scarcely a year in which his pencil did not (in German, first volume), “indications are produce some work of the historical kiird, found of an art of discovering veins of ore ranks chiefly in the class of portrait- and water concealed in the bowels of the painters. His Ugolino, and his Death of earth, by a direct perception of their exCardinal Beaufort
, are, however, deemed, istence. The story of Lynceus is connectin grandeur of composition and force of ed with this notion. Snorro Sturleson expression, among the first performances (Heimskringla, eller Snorro Slurleson's of the English school. But, on the whole, Nordlänske Konunga Sugor, Stockholm, his powers of invention were inadequaté 1697, folio, p. 1, c. vii) relates that Odlin to the higher flights of historic painting, knew where gold, silver and ore lay hidalthough inexhaustible in portrait
, to den under the surface of the earth. Del which he gave the most delightful varie- Rio (Martin del Rio, Disquisitionum Magity. His character as a colorist has been carum Libri ser-Six Books of Magical already mentioned ; and, though not a Disquisitions-Cologne, 1633 quarto,) rethorough master in drawing, he gave lates that there were some Spaniards, much grace to the turn of his figures, and called Zahuris, who saw things concealed dignity to the airs of his headls. As a under the surface of the earth, such as writer, he obtained reputation by his Dis- veins of water and ores, and also dead courses, which are elegant and agreeable bodies, &c. The instruments of riiabdocompositions, although sometimes vague mancy are known under the names of the and inconsistent. He also added notes to sidercal pendulum, the bipolar cylinder, and Dufresnoy's Art of Painting, and gave the divining rod. The magnetic penduthrce papers on painting to the Idler. The lun consists of a small ball, of almost any Literary Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds substance (for example, metal, sulphur, were edited by I:Ir. Malone, in two vol- wood, sealing-wax, glass, &c.), which is umes quarto, in 1797, with a life of the au- suspended from an untwisted siring, such thor. Farington and Northcote have writ- as the human hair, unspun silk, &c. In ten Memoirs of his life.
using this, the string of the pendulum is RHABDOMANCY is the power considered held fast between two fingers, and reinains by some as existing in particular individu- suspended over the sidereal substance (as, als, partly natural and partly acquired, of for example, a plate of metal, or a cup discovering things hid in the bowels of the filled with water and salt), without motion. earth, especially metals, ores, and bodies If, now (say the advocates of rhaldomanof water, by a change in their perceptions; cy), the person who holds the pendulum and likewise the art of aiding the discová possesses, in any degree, the magnetic ery of these substances by the use of cer- susceptibility (the rhabdomantic quality), tain instruments, for example, the divining the pendulum will move in a circular rod. That rhabdomancy, generally speak- orbit, with some difierences, according to ing, is little more than self-delusion, or in- circumstances. These circumstances are tentional deception, is now the opinion of the substance of the pendulun and of most natural philosophers and physiolo- the objects under it, the distance of the gists; still it has some champions. Ac- pendulum from these objects, and the nacording to Ritter and Amoretti's accounts ture of the person who holds the pendu(see Physical and Historical Inquiries into lum, and of thos who come in contact Rhabdomancy, &c., in German, by Car- with him, &c. The principal difference lo Amoretti, from the Italian, with Sup- of the motion of the pendulum is, that it plementary Treatises by Ritter, Berlín, moves, in some cascs, from left to right, 1809, and Amoretti's Elementi di Elettro- that is, with the sun; in others, from right metria Animale, Milan, 1816), an accelera- to left, or against the sun. That the rietion or retardation of the pulse, and a chanical motion of the fingers does not sensation of cold or heat in different parts produce the vibration of the pendulum, at least in many cases, appears from accurate Achilles, were the three judges, who observation of many experiments of this administered justice to the dead at the enkind; and this circunstance is, moreover, trance of the kingdom of spirits, near the remarkable, that the vibrations do not en- throne of Pluto, continuing the occupasue unless the hand of a living person tion in which they had spent their earthly comes in immediate contact with the existence; for it was then the common string. The bipolar cylinder consists of a opinion of the Greeks that the spirit, body having two poles, and easily moved, which arrived in the dark kingdom of as, for instance, a magnetic needle, or a Tartarus, strove to continue the business cylindrical bar, of two different metals; of life. The whole notion of Tartarus, any light cylindrical body, such as a quill however, in this view, was rather a philowith the feathers on, will serve. The di- sophical allegory than a true mythus. viner holds the cylinder in a perpendicu- Rhætia included the two countries of lar direction, between his thumb and fore- Rhætia Proper and Vindelicia, which finger, while with his other hand he were afterwards separated under the touches some magnetic body, as, for in- dames of Rhætia Prima and Secunda (First stance, a meta). Under these circum- and Second Rhætia). The former, or stances, a slow, revolving motion of the Rhætia Proper (Rhatia Propria), extended cylinder takes place between the fingers, from the Rhine to the Norican Alps, and which likewise, as in the case of the pen- from Italy to the borders of Vindelicia. dulum, sometimes moves in a forward and li contained the rivers Rhine (Rhenus), sometimes in a retrograde direction, ac- Inn (Alnus), Adige (Athesis), and many cording to circumstances. (For the di- smaller ones, and included the modern yining rod, see the article under that Vorarlberg and Tyrol, with a part of the head.) The two ends of this rod are country of the Grisons. At an earlier held in the hand, so that its curvature is in- period, the Etrurians, under their leader clined outwards. If the person who holds Rhætus, took possession of this mounthe rod possesses the powers of rhabdo- tainous region ; but, being afterwards drivmancy, and touches the metallic or any en out by the increasing power of the other magnetic substance, or comes near Gauls, they went to Italy, where they them, a slow, rotatory motion of the rod played a conspicuous part in its early civensues in different directions, according to ilization. Justin, Pliny and Stephen the particular circumstances; and, as in the Byzantine, therefore, called the Rhætians Other cases, no motion takes place with- an Etrurian race. (See Etruria.) Among cut a direct or indirect contact with a liv- the Gauls who subsequently occupied this ing person. In the south of France, and country, the Brenni are more distinguishin Switzerland, this art is frequently made ed by name than by importance. The use of under the name of metalloscope Romans planted colonies here as in the (the art of feeling or discovering metals), other provinces; among which Tridenand of hydroscope (the art of feeling or tum (Trent), Bellunum (Belluno), Bauzadiscovering water). In the practice of
num (Bolzano), Bilitio (Bellinzona), Clathis art, the direction, duration, and other
venna (Chiavenna), and Curia (Coire), were circumstances, of the motion of the instru- the principal. Several of these cities, ments, determine the quality, quantity, however, were only indebted to the Rodistance and situation of the subterranean mans for their extension and embellishsubstances, or the different sensations of
The Rhætians repeatedly laid different rhabdomantists, are taken into waste the Roman territories, in conjuncaccount.
tion with the Gauls, and Augustus, thereRHADAMANTHUS was the brother of fore, sent his step-son Drusus against Minos, the first lawgiver of Crete and the them. The latter defeated them (16 B. C.) Grecian world. According to another near Trent; but as this victory was not tradition, Rhadamanthus himself laid the decisive, he undertook, with his brother foundation of the Cretan code of laws, Tiberius, a second campaign, in which which his brother Minos only completed. Tiberius attacked the Vivdelici from lake He, probably, belonged to the family of Constance, while Drusus advanced against Dorus (a descendant of Deucalion), whose the Rhætians by land. In this expedition, son Tectamus, or Teutamus, went to the Romans were victorious, and both Crete with his son Asterius (who was, countries were made Roman provinces. probably, the father of Rhadamanthus and Rhætja Transdanubiana,the country on the Minos), in that time of general emigra- left bank of the Danube, was well known tion in Greece. Rhadamanthus, and to the Romans, but never conquered by Minos and Æacus, the progenitors of them. After the fall of the Roman pow
er, the Alemanni and Suevi occupied these ancient prophecy (see Saturn), had swalprovinces.
lowed his children at the moment of birth. RHÆTIAN Alps. (See Alps.)
She thus saves from destruction three Rhamazan, or RAMADAN; the ninth sons and three daughters, Jupiter, Vesta, month in the Turkish year. As the Mo- Ceres, Juno, Neptune and Pluto, the new hammedans reckon by lunar time, it be- inbabitants of Olympus, and overthrows gins each year eleven days later than in her own power. She continued to retain the preceding year, so that in thirty-three the power of prophecy; and some traces years it occurs successively in all the sea- of her were preserved in the mysteries, in
In this month the Mohammedans which, however, she was confounded with have their great fast daily, from sunrise to Cybele. As the preserver of the future sunset. This fast and the Bairam (q. v.) sovereign of gods and men, she was the feast, which immediately follows it, are symbol of the productive power of nature, the two principal Mohammedan festivals. the preserving and life-giving principle
RHAPSODY (from the Greek) was origi- of the world. Her attributes, as the tamer nally a series of poetical effusions, which, of lions, which are harnessed to her charithough separate, yet had still a covnexion ot, and as the companion of Bacchus, and with each other, as, for example, the po- her crown of turrets, point to the same ems of Homer. (q. v.) Those wandering symbol. Her worship was the rudest minstrels ainong the ancient Greeks, form of natural religion, and was attendwho sang the poems of Homer (these ed with the greatest excesses of licentiouswere also called Homerides), or their ness and cruelty. own composition, were called rhapso- Rhea, Sylvia, lived about 800 B. C., dists. They derived their pame, accord- and was the daughter of Nuwitor, king ing to some, from the staff which they of Alba, in Italy. Although a vestul vircarried in their hand; according to Pin- gin, from the embrace of Mars, she brought dar, however, they were thus named from forrit twins, Romulus and Ruinus, the their connecting together many detached founders of Rome. pieces of poetry. At present, we under- Rheims, or Reims (Remi); a city of stand by rhapsody, a collection of poetical France, department of the Mirne, ninety effusions, descriptions, &c., strung togeth- miles north-east of Paris; lat. 46° 14'north; er, without any necessary connexion. lon. 4° 2' east; population 38,000. Rheinis
Rhea. The older deities of the Greek is a very old town: the streets are, in mythology are enveloped in such a mist, general, broad and regular, the houses that we often find the mythuses of differ- well built, and there are numerous large ent ages and people combined together, as gardens. It contains soine remarkabina is the case with the mythological accounts public buildings, among which are the of Rhea and Cybele. (9. v.) Rhea was a hótel de ville, finished in 1825; a magnitiTitanide, and of Grecian origin, while cent cathedral of the twelfth century, one Cybele was of Phrygian derivation; they of the finest monuments of the kind in were first confounded, probably, in Crete, France, with a portal of great beauty ; on account of the similarity of their attri- and the church of St. Remy, in which was butes. Still the evidences of their inde- preserved the holy oil used in the consependent origin are visible; and, although cration of the kings. (See Ampulla.) The we are acquainted with the mythus of Cy- coronation of the French kings from the bele only through that of Rhea, yet the time of Philip Augustus (1179) to Charles latter was finally swallowed up by the X (1825), with the exception of Henry IV, former. Rhea, one of the most distin- crowned' at Chartres, Napoleon, crownguished of the Titanides (see Titan), was ed at Paris, and Louis XVIII, who was the sister and wife of Saturn, and with not crowned at all, took place in the cathehim a symbol of the first creation. Rhea, dral of Rheiins (see Coronation); but this the Flowing (from pee to flow), is the expensive ceremony was abolished in symbol of the struggle between chaos and 1830. This town was the scene of some order. The former is yet superior; by the hard fighting between the French and side of Rhea is Saturn, jealous of the new Russians, in 1814. The latter took posforms, and annibilating them at the mo- session of Rheims, March 12, but were ment of their creation—the symbol of all driven out by Napoleon, then on his march devouring time. But in the end, order from Laon, on the 13th, with the loss of must prevail; the decisive moment has ar- their general, St. Priest, and 2000 men. rived; by the advice of Gaia, her mother, (See Châtillon, Congress of.) Rhea gives a stone, instead of her infant, RHEINGAU ; a part of the duchy of Nasto her husband Saturn, who, terrified by sau, along the right bank of the Rhine,