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Life of Mary Queen of Scots.

N of bor pobles, they would obey her as extraordinary composure and magnanimi.

The news of this atrocious murder their queen. During this parley, B: quickly spread abroad, and the suspicion well, aitended by a few followers, red

teil, with an almost universal content, on off the field, and was soon after obles by

the earl of Bothwell, of whose guilt there to leave the kingdom. Mary bar
his remains the fullest evidence, that the na- complied with the conditions proposed
for

ture of the action will admit. The queen the confederates, was sent under a frog
herself was accused of being privy to tbis guard to the caille of Lochlevin, belce
barbarous tranfa&ion, and her known ing to William Douglas, who received
sentiments with regard to her husband order, figned by the associated lords,
gave a great appearance of probability to detain her in lafe custody. They nog
the imputation. Bothwell put himself compelled her to resign the crown to the
upon his trial in April following ; but no infant son, and to appoint the earld
person appearing against him, he was ac. Murray regent during his minority.

quitted ; and a considerable number of In the beginning of May, 1568, the
hc
the nobility engaged in a bond of associa- queen escaped from het confinement

, and
to

tion to maintain bis innocence, and pro. collected a body of forces ; but being de
mote his marriage with the queen. Thus feated by the regent Murray, the fied to

Tipported, he raised a body of a thou. England, and implored the affistance et
vi

find horse, and intercepting Mary on her queen Elizabeth. However, upon her alle
return from Stirling, conveyed her to his rival there, she was detained as a prioad
ciftle of Dunbar. Soon after, having er, until ihe hould vindicate berseif from
obtained a divorce from his wife, he con- the charge of being acceffary to the mur.

ducted the queen to Edinburgh, where der of loid Darniey, who was a native of
Ć The created him duke of Orkney, and fi- England. Commissioners were appointed

nally married him on the 15th of May, to take cognizance of her cause ; depulisi
contrary to the general sense of her peo. were rent from Scotland to accuse her,
ple, and that regard which the ought to and York was named for the place of copo

have preserved for her own reputation. ference. This commision was foon te
1 This was undoubtedly an imprudent and called, and the matter brought to a hear

fatal step, by which she entailed upon her. ing at Weilminster, though without cf.
self numbei less mortifications, misery, fect. Mary's confinement, wbich was a
and ruin, Bothwell, not atisfied with strict one, occafioned repeated attemp?
the honour of espousing bis sovereign, en- both at bome and abroad to procure her
deavoured to make himself master of the deliverance, and even fume plots against
person of the young prince, (afterwards the life of queen Elizabeth: in conku
King James I, of England) who had been quence of which, in 1584, a general alls
committed hy his mother to the care of ciaticn was entered into by the subjeci!
the carl of Mar; but this nobleman re- of that queen in her defence. In ish
fused to deliver up bis charge.
Bothwell having rendered bimself odious having a fare in Babington's conspiracy,

the queen of Scots being charged win
to the generality of the Scottish nation, it was determined by the English minifteri
many of the nobility allembled at Stir. to bring her to trial, which was accordo
ling, and formed a league for the defence ingly done in October that year; and on
of the prince's person. They had well the 25th of the same month sentence of
nigh furprized the queen and her husband death was pronounced against her, which
at Holyrood- house, from whence he ef- was confirmed a few days after by the
caped with difficulty to the cafle of Borth- unanimous content of both houses of para
wick; but the earl of Home appearing liament, who petitioned queen Elizabeth
before that place, the retired to Dunbar, that it might be put in execution. Q.
Mean-while the confederate lords enter the ist of February, 1589, Elizabeth
ing Edinburgh, declared by proclamation, signed the warrant for Mary's death; but
that iheir design was to take vengeance on being desirous to have the blame of the
Bothwell for murdering the king, and action, as much as posible, removed from
conspiring against the life of the prince. herself

, the gave orders to her secretaries Thence they proceeded against the queen Wallingham and Davison to write to Sir and Both well,' who had levied a confide- Amias Pawiet and Sir Drwę Drury, the rable

force; and both fides prepared for queen of Scots" keepers, to put ber fer an engagement. Mary, however, pre- cretly to deain; but they declining this viouly deinanded a conference with Kirk- inhuman office,' her majélly commanded aldy of Grange, one of the confederates, that a letter thould be sent to Pawlet for who, in the name of the rett, promised the speedy execution of the warranty her, that, if she would dismiss her but Mary, on the

day of ber diffolution, which band, and govern the realm by the advice was the 8th of February, behaved with

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5.72
The History of the Empire of Indoftan.

Nor: anchor, and the fire was returned from to reduce it with thips working against a one of the so gun fhips, but with very contrary wind in a narrow channel, and little execution on either fide.

exposed without relistance to the fire of Mr. Boscawen now ordered the floop to the enemy's ships and batteries. But i reconnoitre the coast quite up to the has been discovered that the south-eat. port; and the reported, on her return, wind generally blows with least ttreagth that she had been fired upon by eight dif- about sun rise ; and it also happens, no ferent batteries planted along the shore, four or five days at intervals in the courte as well as from the forts at the entrance of a month, that early in the morning of the harbour, where a large ship of two this wind ceases in the northern part of tiers lay at anchor, with her broadside the isiand for an hour or two, whea 3 across it; and that there were twelve breeze rises, although faintly, from tk other ships at anchor within the harbour; north-welt: duriog wbich a ship statios. four of which were of force, and equip- ed at the entrance of the channel, tod: ped for service. As foon as it was dark vail herfe:f of this breeze, may enter tk the barges of the fix line of battle thips harbour, and ply her cannon under fail

. were sent to found, and on their return The fleet left the island the 27th a reported that a reer of rocks ran all along June, wben the Dutch ships, now joined about 20 yards from the shore, which by one of their comrades, which hat rendered it' impoflible for boats to land, parted company during the passage, quit

. except at the entrance of the rivers over: ied the Englifi, and tailed away for Ba. against which the fleet was at anchor, or at tavia; and Mr. Bofcawen steered for the the harbour itself; here they had discover- coat of Coromandel, by the nearest pai. ed, that the channel leading into it was sage, between the islands and shoals thu not more than 100 fathom wide, and that lie to the north of Mauritius; be arrived this entrance would be subject to the on the 29th of July at Fort St. Davi", greatest difficulties by the opposition of where he found the squadron under adthe south-east wind. Upon receiving this miral Gritin, who resigned the command intelligence, the admiral called a council to him, and a few days after proceeded of war, composed of the principal land with a fixiy gun hip and two frigates to and sea oficers, and it was resolved, that, Trincanomaly, from whence in the month as they were ignorant of the strength of of January he set fail with them to Enz. the enemy, three armed boats Mould be land. fent to endeavour to land in the night, The junction of the two squadron and take by furprise a man írom the thore, formed ihe greatest marine force belong; from whom intelligence might probably ing to any one European nation that had be obtained : this was attempted, but in ever been feen together in the Eafi levain. The next morning, the 25th of dies ; for it condited of more than je June, the council of war arembled again, tips, none of which were of less than and were of opinion, that although their 1500 tons burden, and 13 of them ncuci force was fufficient to reduce the island, war of the line. Every person attached yet the attack, and the mainienance of it to the English cause, who behelt this when taken, would not only retard, but formidable force, was elated with his might probably disable the armament from expectation of its success

, and n. from undertaking the fiege of Pondi- one doubted that the loss of Madrals cherry, which Mr. Bofcaien was in. would be revenged by the capture of Poddructed to consider as the principal ob- dicherry. Preparations had been made jeet of his destination : it was therefore at Fort St. David to enable Mr. Buscawen resolved to proceed to the coast of Coro. to proceed to action without delay; and mandel without delay, that the squadron on ihe 8th of August the army hegan to migit arrive there in time to act before march. the change of the monsoon in October, Twelve independent companies of ico

The island would certainly have been meu each, 800 marines belonging to the reduced, if the conquest of it had been thips, with 80 artillery-men, composed the principal object of the armament ; for the regular troops in the king's fervice

: the whole of the French force conlisted the company's troops confined of a bit only, of soo regular troops, 200 European talion of 750 men, of which 300 were inbabitants disciplined as militia, 15oo Topaffes, together with 70 artillery-men: Caffre siaves on whole service and attach- the Dutch at Negapatam fent a reinforce ment the French had little reliance, and ment of 120 Europeans : and there were 1060 failors belonging to the ships. If on board the thips, ready to be landets the wind, as it generally does, blew always againt the entrance of the northern manual exercise at sea : in all 3720 Euro

1000 seamen, who had been taught be ibarbour, it would indeed be impracticable

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peans, and 300 Topafses, to which were at this season of the year, prudently dejoined about 2000 Sepoys, paid by the termined to defend the fort as long as company, who were as yet scarcely better poflible. On the oppolite side of the ri. disciplined than common Peons. The ver which runs to the north, and cloie by nabob Anwar-adean, ftill changing fides, the fort of Ariancopang, they erected a as he found the French or English affairs battery of heavy cannon to obstruct and gaining the advantage, promised to send enfilade the approaches to the fort. The a body of 2000 horle, but only 300 came, English engineers erected a battery in the and they towardş the end of the fiege. plain on the south fide of the river, to The heavy cannon, and the cumbrous oppose and filence that of the enemy; fores, were laden on board the ships, but such was their neglect in reconnoitwhich proceeded before the army, and ring, or their want of skill in their art, anchored two miles to the south of Pon- that when at day-break they opened the dicherry.

battery, most of the guns were found to The company's agents at Fort St. Da- be intercepted from the fight of the ene. vid, had gained very little intelligence ne my's by a thick wood. The artillery ofceffary to direct Mr. Bofcawen in his ope- ficers now offered their service to erect rations ; for when the army approaching another, which they compleated with near the bounds of Pondicherry, came in sufficient skill before the next morning ; fight of the fort of Ariancopang, there and for greater security, threw up before was no person who could give a descrip- it an entrenchment, in which a large detion of the place ; however, it was de tachment, confiting of soldiers and faitermined that it should be taken before lors, was posted. At day break the bat. the army proceeded any farther. An en- tery began to play on that of the enemy, gineer of ihe company's troops was or and the fire was continued for some time dered to reconnoitre it, but was afraid to on both tides, with little execution done go ncar enough to make certain obferva on either. Belides the troops within the tions : he however reported, that the fort fòrt, a body of 60 European cavalry enitself was of litile firerigth, but that it was camped without the walls. This cavalcovered by an entrenchment. A deferter ry, supported by infantry, advanced to likewise reporter, that it was garrisoned the entienchment where the failors were only by. Loo Sepoys : on which Mr. Bof. posted, who ilruck with conternation at cawen determined to storm the place. their appearance, took flight, and comAccordingly a detachment of 700 men municated their panic to the regular marched, at day break, against the east troops. The French cavairy pursued file of the fort, to attack, what they them to the battery, by the fire of which fupposed, the entrenchment, which, on they were, however, foon repulsed. Maa nearer approach, they discovered to be jor Lawrence commanded this day in the a heap of ruins ; they likewise perceived entrenchment, and rather than partici.' that the fort itself was a triangle regular- pate of the ignominy of taking flight ly fortified with three cavilliers, a deep with the troops, remained there with two, dry ditch full of pit falls, and a covered or three officers : he was difarmed, and way. Thole works were fufficient to pro- obliged to surrender himself prisoner to a tect the place from a fudiden onfet, even Frenci trooper, who knowing, it is prohad it bren only garriioned as the deserter bable, the value of bis prize, immediatehad reported; initead of which it was die ly hurried him away by the fide of his fended by 100 Europeans and 300 Sepoys, horse to Ariancopang. under the command of capt. Law, an The same day a large quantity of gunactive officer. The English troops were powder taking fire in the enemy's battery, immediately affailed from the walls with blew it up, and near 100 men were cimutketry and grape flor; and although ther killed or disabled by the explotion. they had brought no lcaling-ladders, the This disaster ftruck such a terror amongit fear of Mame kept them in reach of the those who remained in the fort, that some enemy's fire, until 150 were either killed hours after they fet fire to the chambers or wounded. Major Goodere, the most with which they had undermined the forexperienced officer of the king's troops, tifications, and blew up the greatest part was mortally wounded in this attack. of the walls and cavaliers, and then march

This blundering difaller greatly affect. ed away with great precipitation to Poneat the fpirits of ibe men. However, it dicherry: as loon as the English faw the was determined to perfist in reducing A. explosion, they marched up and took posriancopang, and the disciplined Tailors, sesion of the ruins. Thus fortunately with eight pieces of battering cannon, delivered, the army did not immediately were landed from the ships. The French, proceed to Pondicherry, but remained knowing the advantage of gaining time five days longer at Ariancopang, emplos.

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574
A View of the Origin of the Difentions in Geneva.

Nov. ed in repairing the fort, in which it was Before the overthrow of the old, and determined to leave a garrison ; for it was previous to the introduction of the new apprehenditd, that during the fiege a de- fyftem of religion, a considerable time tachment of the enemy's troops might a was spent in diipute and altercation. The gain take pofeflion of it, and from bence crisis, however, at last came, and it was be enabled to intercept convoys, or har- finally determined in two fucceffive coui. rass the army.

cils, that the opinions and anodes of wor. (To be continued.)

Dip proposed by the reformers, ibould

be received and adopted. Upon this de A compleat View of the Origin and Pregrefs cision, the Cathol.c canton of Fribourg

of the Political Dilentions of Geneva to thought proper to drop the alliance wita the present Time. By a rial Traveller, the republic, but this want was supplied who bud exat and infallible Sources of by the canton of Zurich, which sometime Information.

af erwards, in conjunction with Berne, (Continued from p. 543.) formed a very close rod intimate treaty

for murual support and defence. This and regulations in the government and perfected by the celebrated John Cai took place. The biop yielded up to the vin, who eliablished a regular form of lyndics and council, the right which he ecclefiaftical discipline, and contributed formerly postelied of judging civil caules. likewise by the promulgation of perkral The grand council of 200 was also infti- wise laws, to fix the civil confiitution of tried, in imitation probably of similar the state. establiihments in the government of the From this period Geneva increased r** twn cantons.

pidly in fame, riches and commerce. 1: At lait the period of the reformation was confidered as the centre and a arrived, which at the same time gave ec- of French and Italian Protestants, who clefiant cal freedom and civil liberty to the came there as to a city of refuge, in or

republic. The authority of the bishop, der to avoid the rage of bigotry and of ' which had been long upon the declinc, at fuperftition, which in their own unhap?

lait gave way, and this remnant of power countries were too powerful to be overand prerogative devolved upon the people turned by the dictates of sound reakin at large. Great as this revolution was, and philofophy. At this fame time was it di sot yet produce either peace or les instituted an academy of berature, and curity to the republic. The ambition of Geneva, in consequence of this founda. its licreditary enemies kill continued una- tion, has produced several men of letters, bated, bu: the late had this advantage, whose names are juítly celebrated in the that their endeavours of defence had now annals of literature. the vigour and energy of a free and inde Notwithstanding these revolutions to pendent people.

favourable to the state, the restless and The causes that produced this great re- ambitious princes of the house of Savoy volution in Geneva, were fimilar to those continued lill to keep the republic in conthat promoted it in oher places. The tirual alarms. darkness which had for so long a time In the year 1588, Charles Emmanuel bung over the human mind, came at last declared war againid France, and this small gradually to pass away, and mankind pere fate was again involved in hoftilities. ceived that no testimony, no authority The victorious arms bowever of Henry whalever, ought to make them believe IV. constrained the duke to sue for peace, what was contrary to the first principles and a new treaty signed at Lyons in of their reason, anil the evidence of their 1600 dcclared Geneva a sovereign power, fenses. The feeds of this new fystem and an ally in the Helvetic confederati

. were fown by Farrel, known by the name on.--Unmindful of the faith of treaties, of the violent, a young Frenchman, called this same prince having bis eyes always Froment, and two Franciscan monks, apo- fixed on his prey, determined to make one states from the church of Rome. The last effort against that place. Io the dead doctrine of these reformers met with the fierce and darkness of a winter cigbt, most favourable riceprion among a people when the inhabitants, unsuspecting of warmed by the enthusiasm of liberty, and danger, bad quietly given themselves up impatient to throw off restraint of Every to repose, this insidious prince caused bis kind. Sume violences committed by the tromps secretly to march towards the walls clergy, and imprudent menaces on the of the city. The scaling ladders were in. part of the bishop, encreased the parti- ftantly applied, and several of the foldiers fins, and frengttiened the faction of those had gained the top of the ramparts, when icligious innovators.

a fortunate incident difenvered the dao.

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