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history of a theory which not only explains this fundamental problem. Speculative the origin of life-forms, but has transformed zoology has always a greater attractiveness the methods of the historian, placed phil- to most minds than the more laborious and osophy on a higher plane, and immeasurably less entertaining work of collecting facts. widened our views of nature and of the The last twenty-five years has seen Infinite Power working in and through the abundance of publications upon evolution universe.
A. S. PACKARD. from theoretical grounds, and while variaBROWN UNIVERSITY.
tions themselves have been discussed on
both sides of the Atlantic, these discussions Materials for the Study of Variation.-WILLIAM
have been almost universally based upon a BATESON.—London and New York, Mac
few stock illustrations, and must be recogmillan & Co., 1894. xv + 597 $6.50.
nized as without any proper foundation in Over thirty years ago Mr. Darwin out- facts. Natural science is certainly indebted lined the great problems for investigation to Mr. Bateson for having taken up at last in natural history, and, one after another, this branch of research which lies at the these lines of investigation have been very foundation of the origin of species. studied by naturalists. Embryology, pale- Mr. Bateson's book has a very modest title, ontology and systematic classification early and the author simply claims to have attracted the attention of many naturalists, brought together materials out of which a and these branches of investigation have theory of the origin of species may in the been very thoroughly studied in the last future be built. But this is the only quarter of a century. Geographical distri- systematic attempt yet made to study variabution was made a special subject of re- tions themselves. The present volume is search by Mr. Wallace and others. These only the first instalment, and we are promvarious lines of study, while, of course, ised more in the future. A book of nearly they have not been exhausted, have cer- 600
filled with numerous illustrations, tainly been studied to such an extent that describing in more or less detail variations most of the valuable lessons which they of all kinds, in all types of animals, will teach have been learned. In recent years certainly find its way into the library of also another factor of the evolution problem, every naturalist who has any interest in namely, that of heredity, has been the speculative thought. subject of eager research by various natural- A review of this character is hardly a ists. It is somewhat strange that the fitting place to discuss the subjects preproblem of variation has been so universally sented in this work. In reading over its neglected except by Darwin's Animals and pages there are, however, three or four Plants. It is upon variations in animals striking conclusions of so much general that the whole of the theories of Darwin and theoretical importance that they may be all evolutionary doctrines are based, but selected as the teachings of this first volume. while the last thirty years has seen much Most prominent among them stands the speculation as to variations, both concern- deduction of the author that variations are ing their causes and distribution, while discontinuous. It is the theory of Darwin, many illustrative instances have been ac- and, in general, of his followers, that species cumulated, while nearly all the modern were produced by natural selection acting theories of evolution are based directly upon slight continuous variations. The upon certain conceptions of variation, there difficulties of this thought were plain to has been no systematic attempt to study Mr. Darwin, and have become more plain and more forcible as the years have passed. us of the belief in the long recognized law of While the followers of Darwin's views have reversion. It is somewhat surprising to be tried to shut their eyes to them and have called upon to abandon the law of reversion, tried to explain away the objections that and perhaps the author does not deny that have arisen, it has been plain to every it may be a factor in development, but he thinking naturalist that the natural selec- does claim most of the instances so extion of minute accidental variations is en- plained have nothing to do with this printirely inadequate to accomplish the great ciple. It is not possible here to dwell furend of producing species. The most import- ther upon the many suggestive facts which ant result of Mr. Bateson's study of varia- are brought out by this study. tions is that the variations that occur in In criticism one may say that the Enganimals are not minute and continuous, or, lish is extremely poor. The subject, of rather, that they are frequently discontin- course, is a difficult one, and the author is uous. By this term the author means that obliged to use a new terminology and to exvariations may be sudden and extreme in plain his principles as he progresses. This character, such as the sudden development in itself renders the book somewhat obscure, of a new tooth in a single generation, or but we must add to this the fact that in the appearance of a new leg, or some other many cases his sentences are very involved very prominent characteristic which appears and cumbersome, and altogether the work at once without the numerous intermediate is difficult reading. We may also somestages which Mr. Darwin's theory assumes. what regret that the author does not weave While Mr. Bateson does not claim that this into the work a few more suggestions as to view is demonstrated by the facts now col- the significance of some of the facts that he lected, he does insist that all of his data has treated. The great part of this work point in that direction. The extreme sig- reads like a museum catalogue, and museum nificance of this conclusion upon the ques- catalogues are much more intelligible if one tion of the origin of species is plain at once. understands the basis of classification. Mr. A second conclusion which one reaches in Bateson, however, distinctly states that he the perusal of these instances is that varia- does not consider the evidence as yet suffitions are not haphazard, but,while, of course, cient to warrant conclusions except in rethey cannot be predicted with certainty, gard to some few general subjects. One they do fall under certain definite laws. may also question if most of his material Mr. Bateson has found it possible to group does not savor too strongly of abnormal, the variations that occur in animals under and, indeed, almost pathological variations, very definite classes, so definite that, in many to fairly serve as a basis for a theory of the cases, at least, it is impossible to question origin of species. But, in spite of one or that they are regulated by some organic two such minor criticisms, the book of Mr. law. Of course, Mr. Darwin recognized that Bateson is an extremely valuable addition variations had their causes, but, neverthe- to zoological literature, and when it is comless, he was inclined to believe that they pleted by subsequent volumes upon variawere “par hazard. According to the con- tions of different nature it is hardly possiclusions of Mr. Bateson, however, they are ble to doubt that it will be one of the few of a more or less definite nature. Inci- valuable and lasting additions to the literadentally also Mr. Bateson points out that ture on the general subject of the evolution the study of variation gives us a new con- of organic nature.
Grundriss der Ethnologischen Jurisprudenz.- Post. It is considerably over a thousand
ALBERT HERMANN Post.—Two Vols.- pages in length and is an exhaustive analysis Oldenburg and Leipzig, 1895.
of the whole notion of rights, of the person, Ethnologische Studien zur Ersten Entwicklung the family, the clan and the state, as they
der Strafe.-S. R. STEINMETZ.—Two Vols. apply to both persons and things. In the -Leiden and Leipzig, 1894.
second volume he traverses in his investigaIn these two carefully prepared and thor- tion of penalties much of the ground occuoughly reasoned works we have for the first pied by Dr. Steinmetz, and a comparison of time an unbiased application of the facts their methods and results is quite interestfurnished by ethnology to an analysis of ing. The author's reading is immense, and the evolution of jurisprudence. The study the care with which he cites his authorities of them will prove of the greatest profit is most praiseworthy. While fully aware to the advocate, the anthropologist and of the distinctly philosophic nature of his the philosophic student of the growth of subject,-for a people's abstract conceptions society.
of ethics are embodied in their concrete Dr. Steinmetz, in his over 900 large oc- forms of laws, he withstands the temptatavo pages devoted to the subject, pursues tion to theorize on these points and keeps the idea of punishment through all the himself strictly within the limits of objective forms under which it appears in early con
and inductive inquiry. ditions, such as personal revenge, blood Of both these works it may be said that feuds, compounding of offences, family, they represent the purest scientific method, totemic and social punishment, the venge- and that they stand in the front rank of the ance of the gods, and religious chastise- contributions to Ethnology in its true sense ment. The foundation for this historic which have appeared of late years. analysis is laid in the earlier pages of the
D. G. B. first volume by an able excursus on the psychological motives which underlie the Flora of Nebraska.-Edited by members of thirst for vengeance and the passion for
the Botanical Seminar of the University
of Nebraska.-Introduction and Part 1., cruelty. This furnishes a philosophic basis on which the author constructs his conclu
Protophyta-Phycophyta ; Part 2, Coleochætasions by an inductive study of all the forms
cec, Characec.—Lincoln, Nebraska, Pubof punishment and penalty found in primi
lished by the Seminar, 1894. 4to, pp. tive and early peoples. With this he is
123, pl. 36. contented, and with a temperance worthy The beautiful work here noticed must of high commendation, he refrains from long hold first place in the published results committing his work to one or another of the exploration and study of a local flora. 'school' by applying it to the defence It is hard to find words in which to express of some pet doctrine of popular sociol- our gratification at its appearance, and we ogy, which would at once limit its use- have tried in vain to find any point which fulness. He rather says:
" Here are the is fairly open to adverse criticism. Beginpsychic motives; and here are the results ning with a synopsis of the larger groups, to which under various conditions they including families, and an introduction conhave given rise. Let the facts present their tributed by Professor Bessey, in the details own inferences.''
of which there is room for much difference This impartial spirit also thoroughly per- of opinion, there follow concise descriptions vades the more comprehensive study of Dr. of the classes, orders, families, genera, species and varieties of Protophyta and object of the laboratory was the preservaPhycophyta found within the State, con- tion of electrical standards, and to afford tributed by Mr. DeAlton Saunders, and of practical electricians an opportunity for the Coleochætaceæ and Characeæ by Mr. testing their various instruments. It is Albert F. Woods. The descriptions are evident that such a laboratory offers special well drawn, the typography excellent and advantages for the investigation of questions the plates accurate and well executed. We belonging to the science and industry of tender our cordial congratulations to all electricity. These facilities have been to concerned in the production of the book and some extent utilized; but, in order to into all who may have opportunity to use it. crease the usefulness of the institution, the
N. L. B. Society has added to it a School of Applied
Electricity. This school, which will be NOTES.
opened on December 3d, has been conTHE SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES.
structed on a plot of land granted by the The programs of the mid-winter meetings of the several scientific societies promise city of Paris, the funds for the building
having been raised by private subscription. large attendance and many important
Purely practical instruction will be given papers. The American Society of Natural
at the school. There will be two chief ists meets at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, and in conjunction with it the
courses, one dealing with the industrial
applications of electricity, and the other American Morphological Society and the
with electrometry. It is hoped that the American Physiological Society. At the
school will be a training ground for higher same place and time the American Society
work in the Central Laboratory, to which of Geologists meets. During the same
it is attached.-Nature. week the Anatomists meet at Columbia College, New York; the American Psycho
ANTHROPOLOGY. logical Association meets at Princeton; the Dr. CHARLES L. Dana's address on DegenAmerican Folklore Society meets at Wash
eration and its Stigmata, delivered at the ington, and the annual meeting of the Anniversary Meeting of the New York American Mathematical Society is held at Academy of Medicine, Nov. 28, 1894, has Columbia College. These meetings will be been printed in the Medical Record, of fully reported in SCIENCE.
Dec. 15th. Dr. Dana traces with much skill PHYSICS.
the historic development of the scientific ACTUAL trial trips with flying machines method that discovers mental traits and have recently been made by Mr. Maxim especially mental degenerations from their and Prof. Langley. Mr. Maxim's machine physical manifestations. was fastened to rails to prevent its rising,
The charges made against the manageand sailed 500 feet at the rate of 45 miles
ment of the Elmira Reformatory have been per hour. Prof. Langley's æroplane was
dismissed by Governor Flower. The maallowed to fly over the water at Quantico, jority of the commissioners who examined Md., on December 8th. Both Mr. Maxim
the charges report that the institution and Prof. Langley use light steam engines stands preëminent among the reformain preference to storage batteries.
tories of the world and that its success in THE Société Internationale des Électri- the reformation of criminals has been extraciens established a central laboratory at ordinary. This confirms the views of the Paris about seven years ago. The principal leading criminologists and reformers.
presents as frontispiece an etched portrait of DR. J. K. TALMAGE has been called to the Lord Kelvin by Herkomer. The book now professorship of geology recently established extends to 930 pages, an increase of 69 in the University of Utah.
pages over the preceding edition, many new AMERICA has accomplished much for the
institutions having been included. The advancement of Anthropology, but the work
American universities and colleges added has been largely done by the Government
in this edition are Bryn Mawr, Cincinnati, institutions and by individuals. Columbia Colgate, Massachusetts Institute of TechCollege offers this year courses in Anthro
nology, Nebraska, Ohio Wesleyan, Verpology (Dr. Farrand and Dr. Ripley), and
mont, Wellesley, Western Reserve, making the University of California must now be
the total number thirty-nine. In attendadded to the institutions proposing courses
ance of students the order of the great uniin this subject.
versities is Paris, Berlin, Madrid, Vienna,
Naples, Moscow, Budapest, Munich, Athens, THE Universities of Oxford and of Cam
Oxford, Harvard. But in many of these bridge have recently taken action of considerable interest to Americans proposing seems to be included.
institutions attendance on popular lectures to study abroad. The comparatively few Americans who have been in residence at
A WORK with the range of Minerva, giving Oxford or Cambridge would undoubtedly
the courses as well as the instructors in inagree in recommending this course to others stitutions of learning, would be of much as highly as studying at a German univer
use, but a difficult undertaking. The need sity. But hitherto degrees could only be has, however, been supplied for the differobtained by undergoing very irksome ex
ent institutions of Paris by Le livret de aminations. Oxford will now confer the
l'étudiant de Paris (Delalain Frère 1894– degrees Litt. B. and Sc. B. on evidence of 95), prepared under the direction of the • a good general education, and research general council of the faculties. work evincing a high standard of merit.'
FORTHCOMING BOOKS. Three years' residence is required, but this condition may be modified.
DR. DANIEL G. BRINTON, Professor of
American Archæology in the University of adopted at Cambridge is as follows: “That
Pennsylvania, has in press a Primer of a syndicate be appointed to consider: (1) the means of giving further help and encourage
Mayan Hieroglyphics, to be published by
Ginn & Co., Boston, in which he aims ment to persons who desire to pursue courses of advanced study or research within the
to explain the elements of the mysterious
writing on the monuments of Central University ; (2) what classes of students
America. should be admitted to such courses; (3) what academic recognition, whether by
GINN & Co. also announce a series of degrees or otherwise, should be given to
handbooks on the History of Religions, edited such students, and upon what conditions ; by Prof. Morris Jastrow, Jr., of the Univerthat the syndicate be empowered to consult sity of Pennsylvania. The Religions of India, and confer with such persons and bodies as
by Prof. E. W. Hopkins, of Bryn Mawr, they may think fit; and that they report
will form the first volume. to the Senate before the end of the Lent
MACMILLAN & Co. announce The Principles Term, 1895."
of Sociology, by Prof. Franklin H. Giddings, The fourth edition of Minerva (1894–1895) of Columbia College; Monism, The Confession