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Thomas Dwight, in a few introductory re
He also stated that Professor Stowell marks.
had resigned from the Committee. The report of the Secretary and Treasurer The report of the Committee on Anawas read and accepted.'
tomical Material was called for. In the The Executive Committee recommended absence of the Chairman, Dr. Mears, Dr. for election to membership the following Dwight reported progress. names, and, on motion, the gentleman were The Committee on the Anatomical Pecul. elected :
iarities of the Negro also reported prog1. Dr. F. J. Brockway, Assistant Demonstrator of Anatomy, Columbia College, New Dr. Huntington was elected to the vaYork City.
cancy on the Executive Committee, caused 2. Dr. W. A. Brooks, Jr., Assistant in by the retirement of Dr. Spitzka. Anatomy, Harvard Medical School.
The following papers were then read : 3. Dr. Franklin Dexter, Demonstrator of 1. The best arrangement of topics in a Anatomy, Harvard Medical School.
two years' course of Anatomy in a medical 4. Dr. B. B. Gallaudet, Demonstrator of school.' Dr. Gerrish. Discussed by Drs. Anatomy, Medical Department of Columbia Huntington, Baker, Wilder, Bevan, Allen, College, New York City.
Shepherd, Lamb and Dwight. 5. Dr. R. H. Gregory, Jr., Demonstrator 2. · History of the Development of Denof Anatomy, St. Louis Medical College. tine.' Dr. Heitzmann.
6. Dr. C. J. Herrick, Acting Professor of 3. On the Value of the Nasal and OrBiology, Denison University, Granville, bital Indices in Anthropology.' Dr. Allen, Ohio.
Discussed by Drs. Wilder, Huntington and 7. Dr. P. C. Hunt, Assistant Demonstra- Dwight. tor of Anatomy, Columbian Medical College, 4. “Loose characterizations of vertebrate Washington, D. C.
groups in standard works.' Dr. Wilder. 8. Dr. Woods Hutchinson, Professor of Discussed by Drs. Baker, Dwight and Allen. Anatomy, Medical Department, University 5. "The comparative anatomy of the cereof Iowa.
bral circulation, with an exhibition of a 9. Dr. W. P. Mathews, Demonstrator of series of anomalies of the circle of Willis.' Anatomy, Medical College of Virginia,
College of Virginia, Dr. Leidy. Read by title in the absence of Richmond.
the author. 10. Dr. Eugene A. Smith, Professor of 6. “Convolutions of the hemispheres of Anatomy, Niagara University, Buffalo, Elephas Indicus.' Dr. Huntington. DisN. Y.
cussed by Drs. Wilder and Baker. 11. Dr. P. Y. Tupper, Professor of An- An inspection of the Medical Department atomy, St. Louis Medical College.
of Columbia College was made in the evenThe Executive Committee, while not ing, under the conduct of Dr. Huntington. recommending affiliation with the Society On Saturday, the 29th, the President apof Naturalists, suggested that, as a rule, the pointed Dr. Gerrish to fill the vacancy upon Association should meet at the same time the Committee on Anatomical Nomenclaand place. This suggestion was discussed ture, caused by the resignation of Professor by Drs. Wilder, Spitzka, Dwight and Lamb, Stowell. and was then adopted.
The reading of papers was resumed: Dr. Wilderfrom the Committee
· Classification of the tissues Anatomical Nomenclature, reported prog- of the animal body.' Dr. Baker. Dis
cussed by Drs. Heitzmann, Wilder, Dwight few of your readers are aware, I printed and Lamb.
privately, last summer, a brief circular 8. “Anomalies—Their significance.' Dr. advocating a similar enterprise. At the Dwight.
time of doing so I was at an out-of-the-way 9. "Some muscular variations of the spot in the country, where it was impossible shoulder girdle and upper extremity, with to exchange inspirations, except by post, especial reference to reversions in this re- with friends whose interest in the scheme gion. Dr. Huntington.
might have been counted upon; but upon 10. Some anomalies of the brain.' Dr. canvassing the subject in my own mind I Wilder.
became so convinced that the learned world 11. The correlation between specific di- was in sore straits in this matter, and that versity and individual variability, as illus- the way out was clear, that I felt sure I trated by the eye muscle nerves of the Am- should presently discover that other restive phibia.' Professor C. Judson Herrick. spirits were beginning to agitate in the
The discussion on papers 8 to 11, inclu- same direction. Little did I expect, howsive, was then opened by Dr. Baker, and ever, to meet with so conspicuous and continued by Dr. Shepherd (who illustrated agreeable a confirmation of my premonition his remarks with specimens), Dr: Wilder, as came to me several weeks after the isDr. Lamb (who also showed a specimen),Dr. suance of my circular (though dated before Huntington, and concluded by Dr. Dwight. it), in the printed report of the Harvard
Dr. Wilder exhibited a brainless frog and committee, which has now appeared in made remarks thereon.
SCIENCE. (The original communication of On motion, the thanks of the Association the Royal Society I have seen for the first were tendered to the College, and particu- time, through your editorial courtesy, in the larly to Dr. Huntington, for their hospital- proof sheets of SCIENCE.) ity.
Although several of the suggestions conThe following members were present at tained in my own little circular were some time during the session : Allen, Ba- promptly outgrown by me, it may appear ker, Bevan, Bosher, Dwight, Ferris, Ger- not inappropriate, on the principle of comrish, Hamann, Heitzmann, C. J. Herrick, paring small things with great, to reproduce Huntington, Lamb, Moody, Shepherd, here the contents of this highly aspiring Spitzka, Weisse, Wilder. Total, 17. but wholly unpretentious little document:
UNIFORM CARD MEMORANDUM INDEX.
The accompanying slip (size 2'4x3y, inches, 5.7 x 8.9 centimetres), designed to be cut out and tiled alphabetically in the manner of a card catalogue, is printed as a tentative specimen of a projected uniforın Cara Memorandum Index, and is herewith privately submitted to representatives of a few of the leading universities, learned societies and publication agencies, with a view to securing influential approval of the general plan, together with useful suggestions and criticisms as to its practical application. It is proposed that all the universities, learned societies and high-class periodicals of the world should cooperate (from January, 1895) in the production of such a uniform memorandum inder, by publishing, as a supplement (or appendix, or both) to every number of their original publications, a brief slipdigest of the contents of each article --or even of important portions of each article, as may appear to be warranted. These supplements could be easily prepared (the digests being furnished in all or in most cases by the authors themselves), would be inexpensive both in their original form of publication and as separate slips, and would incalculably facilitate both the distribution and the classification for instant reference of all the newest results of discovery and research. Those interested in such a project are earnestly requested to communicate on the subject, before September 15, with the undersigned.
The specimen slip read as follows: libraries in their relations to broad classes
of readers, rather than to serve the immeKINETO - PHONOGRAPH. PHONO-KINETOGRAPH. PHONO-KINETOSCOPE. Edison, Thomas A., Invention of the Kineto-phonograph. diate needs of the individual scholar en
Century Magazine, June, '94, p. 206. "In the year 1887 the idea occurred to me that it was gaged upon a learned specialty. possible to devise an instrument which should do for the eye what the phonograph does for the ear, and that, by a All productive scholars, it would seem, combination of the two, all motion and sound could be recorded and reproduced simultaneously. This idea, the must have devised or adopted for their pergerm of which came from the little toy called the Zoetrope, and the work of Muybridge, Marié and others, sonal use some form of index rerum, some has now been accomplished, so that every change of facial expression can be recorded and reproduced life mode—systematic or unsystematic-of note size. The Kinetoscope is only a small model illustrating the present stage of progress, but with each succeeding making. It is safe to say that very many month new possibilities are brought into view, etc., etc."
such scholars have adopted for this purpose The above circular, though sent to but the general idea of the alphabetical card comparatively few persons, called forth a index, the merits of which are at present gratifying number of adherences' and almost universally recognized. The scholar of valuable suggestions. In particular, the of Anglo-Saxon race is fast becoming as president of one of the American universi- wedded to, and as dependent upon, his ties famous for activity in research and in reference slips as the German scholar has the promulgation of knowledge undertook long been silently devoted to his Zettel or to have furnished, with the official impri- the French savant to his fiches. It now rematur, summaries of the contents of all the mains for the Anglo-Saxon, with his openpublications of his university.
ness to new applications of old ideas and The necessity of entrusting the organiza- the proverbial genius of his race for practition of the enterprise to a great central cal devices, to bring the power of the bureau that would command universal con- printing-press, as well as of scholarly cofidence early became manifest, and an in- operation, to bear upon the problem of formal communication on the subject was multiplying indefinitely the benefits of the addressed to one of the officers of the Smith- private card index. sonian Institution at Washington, who Just here I should like to emphasize a wrote in response : “I heartily favor the consideration that is unexpressed, though idea. When you have the matter in shape latent, in the masterly report of the Harvard to make a formal proposition I shall have committee. This is, that such a card catamuch pleasure in recommending it to the logue as is there projected, if based upon a Secretary.”
wise choice in the size of card adopted, would Meanwhile, from correspondence and con- render it possible for every member of the ference with numerous scholars, various rapidly recruiting army of those employing points involved in the success of the enter- the card system for private notes to incorprise have grown in distinctness. The porate his own manuscript or type-written problem of utilizing more effectively the cards and the printed cards (pertaining to ever-increasing mass of accumulated, scat- his own specialty) of the coöperative index tered and current contributions to knowl- into one homogeneous whole, ever-growing, edge can no longer be shirked. The time ever abreast of the latest research. This is ripe for instituting widely concerted ac- consideration it was, with all the possibilition for recovering mastery of the situation. ties and problems of administration it opens The various efforts hitherto directed to this up, that held the mind of the writer under end have done great service; but they have a spell of fascination for almost a week of been devised almost exclusively to meet the vacation leisure. For be it noted that the requirements of reference and circulating blessings of the proposed coöperative card index are to flow directly into the lap of lishers have heartily favored the idea of the individual scholar, seated at his own these card announcements and have promdesk in his private sanctum, enabling ised to introduce them into use. him to discard (not inappropriate word) to Columbia College has within a few days the limbo of the great libraries everything appointed, through its University Council, that does not directly concern him, while a committee to further the interests of the filing within reach of his finger-tips abso- proposed International Coöperative Catalutely everything (pardon the optimism of logue of Scientific Literature. an enthusiast) that he may intimately de
Yours very truly, sire.
HENRY ALFRED TODD. How can so Utopian a consummation be COLUMBIA COLLEGE, March 2, 1895. most speedily attained ? Let universities and colleges, and all
PITHECANTHROPUS ERECTUS. manner of learned institutions and societies,
EDITOR OF SCIENCE—Sir : at once appoint committees similar to the In my letter of February 14th occur two Harvard committee (though of course not
expressions which need amendment. For limited to the natural and physical sciences,
the phrase divergent roots,' p. 240, 1st since the project of the Royal Society will
col., first line, read ' divergent root stems ;' form only a portion of the great undertak- and for the phrase 'is wider than long,' p. ing), to accomplish three preliminary ob- 240, 2d col., fifth line, read is much wider jects :
Yours truly, 1. To arouse an intelligent and earnest
HARRISON ALLEN. interest in the subject.
PHILADELPHIA, March 4th, 1895. 2. To induce the Smithsonian Institution to assume the American leadership of the
SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. movement.
Electrical Engineering, for Electric Light Ar3. To convince publishers-primarily the tisans and Students. By W. Slingo and A. publishers to the respective institutions con- BROOKER. New and revised edition, cerned—of the importance of printing, on London, 1895. Longmans. Price, $3.50. slips of the standard size, No. 33, of the The object of this work is to cover genAmerican Library Bureau (74x12 cm., eral electrical engineering, and, taken as a 3x5 in. approximately), summaries of their whole, it is probably the most successful atcurrent publications for distribution as tempt yet made in this direction. The depublishers' announcements. This size of mand for a satisfactory general treatment slip is already widely in use, both publicly of the applications of electricity is a very and privately, and may well prove to be of large and important one, and anything the dimensions ultimately adopted by the which supplies this demand is more than authorities of the projected international welcome. It is very doubtful whether any index. A beginning of these publishers' single work is ever likely to be published announcements has already been made by which will completely set forth the numerMessrs. D. C. Heath & Co., at the personal ous and rapidly developing branches of request of the present writer, and has been electrical science and industry. Nothing favorably submitted to the attention of the short of an encyclopaedia of many volumes Secretaries of the Royal Society by Profes- could be expected to accomplish this result. sor Bowditch, chairman of the Harvard A general discussion of the most important committee. Other leading American pub- principles and uses of electricity, particularly if it is not attempted to cover all ter, on Installation equipment, fittings, branches, is a far more practicable problem, etc.,' is very meagre and the least satisfacas the success of this volume demonstrates. tory portion of the book. In fact, the prin
A work of this kind, however, is some- cipal criticisms would be that each element what limited in its scope, since it is not in- or device is explained as a separate thing, telligible to the ordinary untechnical reader, and no methods for combining these into and is not of much use to the professional systems are given. Nevertheless, it is a fact electrical engineer, who requires a more that the general design and arrangement of thorough and detailed study of each sub- electrical apparatus is fully as important as ject than is possible in a general treatise. the merits of each particular element. For This work would therefore be suited to one example, the laying-out of a central station, who had a certain amount of technical or even a small isolated plant, determines knowledge but who was not a specialist in its success or failure fully as much as the electricity, for example, a mining or me- quality of the individual dynamos, lamps, chanical engineer, or a young man who had or other particular parts of the plant. received a certain amount of electrical edu- The various systems for transmitting and cation at a technical or trade school and distributing electric power, which is probwho wanted to learn more by his own ef- ably the most important branch of electrical forts. It would also be useful as a text- engineering, are barely touched upon. In book wherever a general course in electric- short, we may say that electrical engineeral engineering is given. But in the opin- ing in its broadest sense is not covered, and ion of the reviewer, a general treatment probably was not intended to be covered, running from one subject to another is not by this work.
by this work. The subjects of electro-chemthe best way to educate electrical engineers istry and electro-metallurgy, which now of the highest type. This requires a care- appear to be on the eve of important deful and special study of each branch, aided velopment, are not discussed. Telegraph by lectures and laboratory work, and the and telephone apparatus and methods are text-books should be entirely devoted to not even mentioned. one subject, or, in fact, several books, each These omissions, which are doubtless devoted to a small part of any one branch, intentional and probably necessary, indicate is often preferable.
that a complete treatise on electricity and The authors of this book have had con- its applications is almost an impossibility. siderable experience as teachers and also A few mistakes are noted ; for example, the advantage of correcting and extending on page 17, the International Ohm, adopted the contents of the first edition, which ap- at the Chicago Electric Congress of 1893, is peared in 1890, with the result that the new defined in terms of a column of mercury edition is well arranged and expressed and 106.3 centimetres in length and one square in most cases is brought reasonably well up millimetre in cross section, whereas, the to date. The first six chapters are devoted statement actually adopted was 'a column to general principles, units and methods of of mercury at the temperature of melting measurement. The next six chapters con- ice, 14.4521 grammes in mass, of a contain a treatment of dynamos and motors stant cross-sectional area and of the length which is very satisfactory, considering the of 106.3 centimetres. This was intended limitation of space. Transformers, second- to be exactly equivalent to a cross-section ary batteries, arc and incandescent lamps, of one square mm., but it was put in this are also well explained; but the last chap- form because mass is more easily and ac