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CORRESPONDENCE.

C-Arched or Hypsecephalic Form.
THE CLASSIFICATION OF SKULLS,

I Archecephali.
EDITOR OF SCIENCE : In 'Varieties of the

II Phoxocephali. Human Species, Principles and Method of D-Wedge-shaped or Sphenocephalic Form. Classification' (Le Varieta Umane. Prin

E-Flat or Platycephalic Form (Subglobcipi e methodo di classificazione. Di Giu

ular).

F-Globular or Sphærocephalic Form. seppe Sergi. Torino, 1893), which constitutes one of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous G-Square, Cuboidal or Cubicephalic Form. Collections, 1894, the skulls are grouped as The two classifications are sufficiently follows:

alike to suggest comparisons. Confining NORMA VERTICALIS.

my remarks to the forms in Meig's table, 1. Ellipsoid (ellipsoides).

which are best illustrated in the norma verti2. Pentagonoid (pentagonoides).

calis, I note that : 3. Rhomboid (rhomboides).

Oidocephalic = Ovoides. 4. Ovoid (ovoides).

Cymbecephali = Ellipsoides & Pentago5. Sphenoid (sphenoides).

noides. 6. Spheroid (sphæroides).

Cylindricephali = Cylindroides. 7. Byrsoid (byrsoides).

Angularly Oblong Form = Rhomboides. 8. Parallelepipedoid (parallelepipedoi- Archecephali = Trapezoides & Acmodes.)

noides. 9. Cylindroid (cylindroides).

Phoxocephalic = Lophocephalus. 10. Cuboid (cuboides).

Sphenocephalic = Sphenoides. . 11. Trapezoid (trapezoides).

Platycephalic = Platycephalic. 12. Acmonoid (acmonoides).

Sphærocephalic = Sphæroides. 13. Lophocephalic (lophocephalus).

Cubicephalic = Cuboides. 14. Chomatocephalus (chomatocepha- Thus six out of sixteen names of Sergi's lus).

classification are included in Meig's classifi15. Platycephalic (platycephalus).

cation. I conclude from comparison of 16. Skopeloid (skopeloides).

Meig's types with Sergi's figures that the In · Observations upon the Cranial Forms forms are identical. of the American Aborigines based upon Ellipsoides and Pentagonoides are inSpecimens contained in the Collection of the cluded in Cymbecephali; Rhomboides is Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- the same as the skulls included under phia,' by J. Aitken Meigs, Proceedings of * Angularly Oblong Form ;' Lophocephalus the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila

is a synonym of Phoxocephalic; Paralleldelphia, 1866, 232, occurs the following epipedoides appears to be a variety of classification of skulls:

Cylindricephali; Trapezoides and AcmoA–Pyramidal or Pyramidocephalic Form.

noides are included in Archecephali. B-Oval or Oidocephalic Form.

So long as Sergi endeavors to establish I Cymbecephalic Form.

a classification which he desires to be tested II Narrow Oval Form (Stenocephalic). by the methods of zoölogy and botany (p. III Broad Oval Form (Eurycephalic).

60), the names he proposes must be judged IV Barrel-shaped or Cylindrical Form by the law of priority of publication. (Cylindricephalic).

HARRISON ALLEN. V Angular Oblong Form.

PHILADELPHIA, March 16, 1895.

REVIEW.

NOTES ON THE BIOLOGY OF THE LOBSTER ; is based on the assumption that what we A CORRECTION,

know is a proper measure of what we do In an article entitled “Notes on the Bi

not know, as if we could have any measure ology of the Lobster' (SCIENCE N. S. Vol. of the unknown. I., No. 10, p. 263.) the following sentence

An enthusiastic admirer of Haeckel's scioccurs : “After hatching a brood in May,

entific researches may be pardoned a word the female usually molts and afterwards ex- of comment on this published statement of trudes a new batch of eggs.” This should

his creed. be corrected to read thus : After hatching a

He tells us all eminent and unprejudiced brood in May, the female usually molts, but does

men of science who have the courage of not extrude a new batch of eggs until the follow- their opinions think as he does. No one ing year.

likes to be called a bigot or a coward, or to These notes were culled from a fuller be accused of ignorance, but those who do paper, and this slip in the context crept in not agree with Haeckel must fortify their unobserved. It is, however, corrected in

souls by the thought that this argument is the latter part of the article.

no new thing in history. FRANCIS H. HERRICK.

Science is justified by works and not by faith, and when Haeckel says 'Credo' and

not "Scio' we need not discuss the value of SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE.

his belief, although its influence on the proTHE TYRANNY OF THE MONISTIC CREED, A gress of science is a more practical matter.

The struggle for intellectual freedom is Der Monismus als Band zwischen Religion und often called a conflict between religion and

Wissenschaft. Glaubensbekenntniss eines Na science, but while the men of science have turforschers. ERNST HAECKEL. Bonn, burst through those Pillars of Hercules

Emil Strauss. 1893 (Vierte Auflage). which, according to Bacon, are “fixed by Monism. The Confession of Faith of a Man of fate,' they have had no wish to demolish

Science. ERNST HAECKEL. Translated these ancient landmarks, but only to force from the German by J. GILCHRIST. Lon- a passage on to the great ocean of natural don, Adam and Charles Black. 1894. knowledge. Least of all do they desire to

The influence of a 'creed' on the pro- set up new bounds. gress of science is a proper subject for dis- So far a creed involves, or seems to its cussion by men of science, and it is to this, holders to involve, preconceptions on matand not to the value of the basis for ters which fall within the province of reHaeckel's ' faith,' that we will direct atten- search or discovery, it is an obstacle to the tion.

progress of knowledge and a proper subject As he defines it, Monism “is the convic- for scientific examination. tion that there lives one spirit in all I shall try to show that the monistic things and that the whole cognizable

whole cognizable confession of faith' has led to the disworld is constituted, and has been de- counting of the possibilities of future disveloped, in accordance with one funda- covery, and that it has thus obstructed promental law."

gress. This positive creed is very different from One of its results is intolerance of doubt a modest confession of ignorance, which on the problems of life. In this field the leaves us free to follow wherever future monist holds that those who are not with discoveries may lead, for the monistic creed him are against him, and he admits no

middle ground. More freedom is permitted world around it, and that it may thus bein other fields of thought.

come alive. We may say that, since we know noth- Everything is possible in the unknown, ing about it, we neither believe that the but why should we believe anything on the planet Mars is nor that it is not inhabited subject until we have evidence ? but no such philosophic doubt is permitted Of one thing we may be sure. The artiin biology.

ficial production of protoplasm would not If a teacher of natural science were to be a solution of the problem of life. The say he does not believe life is the outcome nature of the problem must be grasped in all of the physical and chemical properties of its length and breadth, with all its diffiprotoplasm he would most surely be re- culties, before we can hope to solve it. ported as believing it is not the result of Many biologists have sought to solve it by these properties, and he would straightway transforming Huxley's carefully guarded be branded a dangerous scientific heretic or statement that protoplasm is the physical a weak brother of the faith, and his confes- basis of life into the dogma that life is the sion of ignorance would be put on record as sum of the physical properties of protoplasm. positive belief.

Life cannot go on without food, and we This antipathy to philosophic doubt on may say with propriety that bread is the the problems of life is clearly due to the staff of life, but the agency which shapes the dogmatism of the monistic creed, which food into the specific structure of an organcannot admit the presence of any unjoined ism exquisitely adapted to the conditions of links in our knowledge of nature.

the world around it is to be sought someWe might be indifferent to this intoler- where else than in the properties of bread. ance if it did not cause the most essential One of the distinctive characteristics of characteristics of life to be ignored or pushed this organizing agency is that it may exist into the background.

in a germ without any visible organization. It is as true now as it was in Bacon's Another is that, so far as we know, it has day that: “Whoever, unable to doubt, been handed down, in an unbroken line, and eager to affirm, shall establish principles from the oldest living things, generation afproved, as he believes, . and according ter generation, to the modern forms of life, to the unmoved truth of these, shall reject and that it has leavened the whole hump or receive others, . . he shall exchange of living matter. things for words, reason for insanity, the While we know nothing of its nature or world for a fable, and shall be unable to origin, and must guard against any uninterpret."

proved assumption, there seem, from our The essential characteristic of life is fit- present standpoint, to be insuperable objecness.

tions to the view that this agency is either A living organism is a being which uses matter or energy. While we know it only the world around it for its own good. in union with protoplasm, it would seem

I, for one, am unable to find, in inorganic that, if it is matter, it must, long ago, have matter, any germ of this wonderful at- reached the minimum divisibile. If it is entribute.

ergy, or wave motion, or perigenesis of It is possible that after chemistry has plastidules, it is hard to understand why it given us artificial protoplasm this may be has not been dissipated and exhausted. We shaped, by selection or some other agency, know that it exists, and this is in itself a into persistent adjustment to the shifting fact of the utmost moment.

rance,

We are told that the belief that it has, at Basis of Life (1868), says it is necessary some time, arisen from the properties of for a wise life to be fully possessed of two inorganic matter is a logical necessity, but beliefs: “The first, that the order of nature the only logical necessity is that when our is ascertainable by our faculties to an exknowledge ends we should confess igno- tent which is practically unlimited; the

second, that our volition counts for someYoung men who have been trained in thing as a condition of the course of events. the routine of the laboratory tell us all

Each of these beliefs can be verified extheir interest in biology would be gone if perimentally as often as we like to try.” they did not believe all its problems are, in Again, twenty-five years later (1893), he the long run, to be resolved into physics says (Evolution and Ethics) that, fragile and chemistry.

reed as man may be, “there lies within The only answer we can give them is him a fund of energy, operating intellithat noble work has been done in natural gently, and so far akin to that which pervades science by men like Wallace, who believe the universe that it is competent to influence and that life is fundamentally different from modify the cosmic process." matter, and also by men like Haeckel, who Clearly this man of science has no overbelieve the opposite.

whelming dread of the charge of anthroThey also serve science who only stand pomorphism or animism, or of any charge and wait, and among them I would wish to except lack of caution. be numbered.

I think that he would also admit that While nothing is gained by giving a every living thing contains some small part name to the unknown agency which is the of this influence which counts for someessence of life, it is better to call it a 'vital thing as a condition of the course of events, principle' than to deny or ignore its exist- and that it must be reckoned with in our

It is better to be called a 'vitalist,' attempts at a philosophy of the universe. or any other hard name by zealous monists,

W. K. BROOKS. than to be convicted of teaching, as proved,

JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY. what we know is not proven.

The word vitality is as innocent as electricity The Life and Writings of Constantine Samuel or gravity; in fact, Newton's use of this Rafinesque. (Filson Club Publications word led Leibnitz to charge him with infi- No. 10.) Prepared for the Filson Club delity to the spirit of science, although no and read at its meeting, Monday, April 2, one need fear to follow where Newton leads. 1894. By RICHARD ELLSWORTH CALL,

The older vitalists may have looked on M. A., M. Sc., M. D. Louisville, Ky., a mere word as an explanation, but the John P. Morton & Co. 1895. 4to. Pp. reason the word has fallen into disrepute xiii +227. Portraits, etc. Paper. Price is the antagonism of the monists to the $2.50, net. view that the problem of life presents any This sumptuous volume is published by a peculiar difficulties.

Historical Club in Louisville, Kentucky, as Many thoughtful men of science have

a memorial to one of the pioneer naturalists held that the faith' of men like Haeckel and explorers of the Ohio valley, a man ignores many of the data which are fur- whose brilliant intellect, eccentric character nished by our scientific knowledge of the and unhappy fate will always cause his world around us.

career to be looked upon with interest, and Huxley, in his essay on the Physical whose nervous and appalling industry has

ence.

been the cause of a myriad of perplexities to From 1802 to 1805 he lived in Philadelstudents of the nomenclature of plants and phia. From 1806 to 1815 he was in Sicily, animals in Europe as well as in America. where he did some of his best work in his

Born in Constantinople in 1783, his father 'Index to Sicilian Ichthyology,' and in his a French merchant from Marseilles, his often quoted 'Caratteri.' Here he estabmother a Greek woman of Saxon parentage, lished his monthly journal, the Mirror of Constantine Rafinesque early entered upon the Sciences' (Specchio delle Scienze, etc.), the career of a wanderer. The roving which endured throughout the twelve habit of mind which soon became a part of months of 1814, but ended with its second his nature led him into a mental vagabond- volume. Rafinesque was not only the age that influenced his career even more editor, but almost the sole contributor to than the lack of a permanent place of this journal, in which he printed no less. abode. His youth was passed in Turkey, than sixty-eight articles upon a great vaLeghorn, Marseilles, Pisa and Genoa. He riety of subjects—upon animals, plants, minhad good opportunities for study and read- erals, meteorology, physics, chemistry, poing, and before he was twelve had, as he litical economy, archæology, history and himself records, read the great Universal literature, besides many critical reviews. History and one thousand volumes of books His fatal tendency to "scatter' was already on many pleasing and interesting subjects. apparent, and in the work which he did He was ravenous for facts, which he gath- for the “Specchio' all the weaknesses of ered, classified and wrote down in his note- his subsequent career were foreshadowed. books. He began to collect fishes and While in Sicily, for political reasons, he birds, shells and crabs, plants and miner- assumed the surname, Schmaltz, that of his als, found or made names for them, copied mother's family. maps from rare works, and made new ones In 1815 he returned to America, and was from his own surveys. His precocious mind, shipwrecked on the coast of Connecticut, losunguided and undisciplined, wandered at ing all his books, manuscripts and collecwill over the entire field of books and nature, tions. For the next three years he lived in and by the time he reached the age of nine- New York, and during this period he contribteen he had formed his own character and uted to the ‘American Monthly Magazine'a equipped himself for the career which lay number of really brilliant and learned artibefore him. He became a man of cata- cles. So masterly, indeed, were these that it logues, of categories, of classifications. He seemed as if he were likely to become one of possessed much native critical acumen, and the leaders in American scientific thought. it is possible, though scarcely probable, that It seems probable that he was at this time as his present biographer suggests, had he steadied and guided by his friend and paduring the formative period been firmly tron, Dr. Samuel Latham Mitchill, whom guided by some master hand, he might have he greatly respected and admired; at all become one of the world's greatest natural- events, when he left New York, signs of deists. Lacking such guidance, however, he terioration appeared in his methods. In was by no means fitted to enter upon a sci- 1818 he crossed the Alleghanies, and in the entific career in a country like the United following year became a professor in the States, so when, at the age of twenty, he Transylvania University, at Lexington, Ky. crossed the Atlantic he brought with him There he remained for seven years, sadly the germs of failure and bitter disappoint- ill at ease among the old-school college proment.

fessors who composed the faculty, yet, from

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