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a mixture of metals, constituting a particular brochures. The same kindly welcome given group, accompanied by explanatory notes. them must be accorded this latest arrival. This order is preserved throughout the book, Each does some good, and together they which consists of sixty-one pages. We trust

will doubtless do great good. that the author and the reader will pardon

EDGAR F. SMITH. us when we declare that we think such

A Course of Elementary Practical Bacteriology, tabular schemes, so early in the course of

Including Bacteriological Analyses and Chemanalysis, are apt to make the student a mere

istry. By A. A. KANTHACK AND I. H. machine precisely what the author, in his

DRYSDALE. XXII. 181 pp. Sm.8°. Macintroductory remarks, announces that he

millan & Co., London and New York. wishes to avoid, for he writes, A mere me

1895. Price $1.10. chanical acquaintance with a working

This is a laboratory hand-book which scheme for separating ***** is at best but a questionable accomplishment,” etc.

will be interestiug to all practical workers And, for some unaccountable reason-per

in bacteriology, since it gives the details of

methods used in the Laboratory of St. haps from natural, human depravity or per

Bartholomew's Hospital in London. Some versity—the great majority of students, be

of these methods are not so useful as those ginning analysis, do wed themselves to such

now employed in American Laboratories ; a table or scheme and cling to it, despite

as, for example, that given for the collection the rough handling they may receive from

and sterilisation of blood serum, while some an earnest and intelligent quiz-master. But

are probably more rapid and convenient. we are rambling. On returning to our sub

As the authors remark, every laboratory ject we discover in it no new methods of

has its own ways and means, its short separation, no new characteristic test or

cuts' and “tips, which are not always tests for the various elements; the landmarks in these directions remain unchanged. published, and it is necessay to work for a

little while in the laboratory to become acThis is pardonable, seeing that“no pretense

The descriptions is made to originality, either in matter or in quainted with them.

given are simple and straightforward, and method."

well calculated to meet the wants of stuPart II. considers the 'acid analysis and

dents. The plan and order of the several commences with excellent advice for the

lessons will be found interesting by teachers student, who must now, more than ever,

of the subject. The lessons in Bacteriologiapply what knowledge he may have ac

cal Chemistry contain good matter not quired in regard to the metals and their

usually found in a manual of this kind. various combinations with acids.

Brief chapters on 'preliminary examinations,' the solution of solid substances, a

NOTES AND NEWS. table of solubilities, and an appendix, deal

TYPHOID INFECTION OF OYSTERS. ing with the preparation of the ordinary THE Medical News of March 23, contains a reagents, conclude the book.

paper by C. I. Foote, giving the results of The little volume is well written and experiments with oysters, and with the nicely printed. Its chief merit seems to be water in which they grow, to determine the that it presents its author's particular possibilities of their becoming infected with method of instructing students in this most the bacillus of typhoid. He found that important branch of chemistry, upon which this bacillus will live in brackish water, many others have likewise prepared similar taken from just above oyster beds, for at least eight days, even in very cold weather. years ago that nitrogen combines, under In apparently normal and healthy oysters the influence of the silent discharge, with and in their juice he found bacteria of hydrocarbons like benzene, with carbohyvarious kinds; the number of which drates, such as go to build up the tissues of that will grow in gelatin ranging from 240 plants, and even with tertiary products, to 1680 per c.c.

The number found in the such as ether. water over the oysters was 9520 per c.C.,

GENERAL. indicating that the water is purified by be

DR. WILLIAM S. W. RUSCHENBERGER, ing taken into the shell. He inoculated a

President of the Philadelphia Academy of number of oysters with typhoid bacilli by

Science from 1869 to 1881, died on March injecting a culture of these organisms between the edges of the shells. The results 24th, at the age of eighty-seven years. indicate that the bacilli can live in the

Dr. John A. RYDER, Professor of Embryoyster for from one to two weeks, but it is ology in the University of Pennsylvania,

died on March 26th. doubtful whether they multiply there. But the oysters were cleaned before inoculation, THE Library Building of Harvard Uniand, after the operation, were apparently versity will be altered during the present not placed in water, but simply kept in a summer in such manner that the space cool room. The research would have given for books will be greatly enlarged. much more definite and conclusive results The North Dakota State University must if the oysters had been placed in brackish be closed until the next session of the Legwater, and then the typhoid bacilli added islature, in January, 1897, owing to the fact to this water, so that they might have been that the appropriation has been reduced taken in and disposed of in the natural from $63,000 to $15,000. way.

THE British Association will meet at

Liverpool in 1896. The Council have reACCORDING to the London Times, M. Ber- solved to nominate Sir Joseph Lister for thelot has supplied the first information President. concerning the chemical properties of argon.

T. G. CROWELL & Co. announce · Forests In experimenting with a small quantity of and Forestry' by the Hon. B. E. Fernow, of that substance, furnished by Professor Ram

the Department of Agriculture, and Marsay, he has found that under the influence of riage and the Family,' by Professor George the silent electric discharge it combines with

E. Howard, of Stanford University. various organic compounds, and notably with benzene. It is decidedly interesting British Medical Association will be held in

THE sixty-third annual meeting of the to discover that argon, which is supposed London, July 30th to August 22, 1895. to be totally inert, and has been vainly subjected to all the most potent agencies at the

The next meeting of the American Microcommand of the chemist, is all the time scopical Society will be held at Cornell capable of forming a variety of combina- University, Ithaca, New York, on August tions under conditions which always exist 21, 22 and 23, 1895. in the atmosphere. Great interest also Dr. K. SCHMIDT has been made Professor attaches to M. Berthelot's communication in of Physics in the University of Halle. connection with the obscurity which hangs The two final volumes of the report on over the chemical nature and relationships the scientific results of the voyage of H. M. of the new substance. For he pointed out S. Challenger, prepared under the direction

ARGON.

of the voyage.

BORN.

of Dr. John Murray, have now been pub- Rev. HERBERT A. JAMES, principal of lished by Eyre & Spottiswoode, London. Cheltenham College, has been elected head The completed work fills 50 large quarto master of Rugby, succeeding the Rev. Dr. volumes containing about 29,500 pages and Percival. illustrated by over 3,000 plates. These two The Woods Holl Biological Lectures for concluding volumes are mainly occupied by 1894, in the press of Ginn & Co., include : a general summary of the scientific results

I. Life from a Physical Standpoint.-A. E.

DOLBEAR. II. A Dynamical Hypothesis of InDR. A. R. FORSYTH, of Trinity College, heritance.-John A. RYDER. III. On the has been elected to the Sadlerian Professor- Limits of Divisibility of Living Matter.ship of Mathematics in the University of JACQUES LOEB. IV. The Differentiation of Cambridge, succeeding the late Professor Species on the Galapagos Islands and the Origin Cayley.

of the Group.-G. BAUR. V. Search for the ACCORDING to the American Geologist, ef- Unknown Factors of Evolution.-H. F. Osforts are being made looking towards a geo

VI. The Embryological Criterion of logical survey of the State of Maine. Homology.-E. B. Wilson. VII. Cell-Di

DR. JOHN P. Lotsy, now Associate in vision and Development.-J. P. McMURRICH. Botany at Johns Hopkins University, has

VIII. The Problems, Methods and Scope of Deaccepted the Directorship of the Botanical velopmental Mechanics.-W. M. WHEELER Gardens on the Island of Java.

(Roux's). IX. The Organization of Botanical THE Lake Superior Mining Institute

Museums for Schools, Colleges and Universities.

J. M. MACFARLANE. X. The Centrosome. made an excursion on March 6th, 7th and 8th, from Duluth to the Mesabi iron range.

-S. WATASÉ. XI. Evolution and Epigen

esis.-C. O. WHITMAN. XII. Bonnet's The mines were visited and in the evenings meetings were held, at which papers were

Theory of Evolution.-C.O. WHITMAN. XIII. presented by Dr. L. L. Hubbard, Dr. U.S.

Bonnet on Palingenesis and Germs.-C. 0.

WHITMAN. Grant, Mr. F. W. Denton, Mr. F. F. Sharpless and Mr. E. F. Brown.

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. The tenth annual meeting of the Ameri

BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON, can Association for the Advancement of Physical Education will be held at the

MR. CHARLES T. SIMPSON read a paper on Teachers' College, New York, on April 25th, the Respective Values of the Shell and 26th and 27th.

Soft Parts in Naiad Classification.' Mr. The Journal of Mental Science gives, in Simpson deprecated the fashion of many conthe last number, a retrospect of Normal chologists of late in basing classification Psychology, prepared by Mr. Havelock wholly on the soft parts and stated that Ellis, and proposes to give regular sum

his studies of the Naiads, or fresh water maries of the progress of psychology. mussels, go to show that among them, at

The Chemical Society has conferred its least, he has found the characters of the Faraday medal upon Lord Rayleigh in re- soft parts of the animal more variable and cognition of the investigation which has led less reliable for the purposes of classification to the discovery of Argon. Dumas, Caniz- than those of the shell. That, while in zaro, Wurtz, Helmholtz, and Mendeléeff

some cases the soft parts give us the key to have been the previous recipients of the true affinities, in others they are worthless, medal.

and we must rely on the shell for a knowl

MARCH 23.

cases

some

edge of relationships. Numerous

this account. Anodonta angulata burrows were cited showing such variation. In in rapid streams and differs greatly in apUnio novi-eboraci the branchiæ are

pearance from A. dejecta, which is closely times free only a short distance on the related but lives in stagnant water. The posterior part of the abdominal sac; in two were shown to have affinities by conother cases they are united the whole necting forms. length, and the same is found to be true to Dr. Stiles spoke* 'On the Presence of a great extent in U. multiplicatus. In that Adult Cestodes in Hogs.' He called attenspecies and some others not closely related tion to the remarkable fact that no adult the embryos are found in all four leaves of tapeworms were described as regular inthe branchiæ, but in all other North Amer- habitants of Sus, and discussed the cases ican forms they only occupy the outer recently mentioned by Cholochowsky in leaves.

Russia and two cases which had recently The statement was made that the dissec- been reported to him from Iowa. One of tion of a single animal of a widely dis

the Iowa cases was certainly a case of tributed and variable species will probably chance parasitism in this host, and although not give any more knowledge of all its there are no satisfactory data upon which characters than the examination of a single to base an opinion concerning the other shell, Castalia, Castalina and Glabaris, South cases, he thought helminthologists in genAmerican Naiads, may either have no eral would not admit the forms mentioned siphons at all, or have them perfectly de- to the lists of the parasites of hogs. veloped, and this variation occurs in the Mr. Coville laid before the society a copy same species. The families Unionidæ and of the newly published list of ferns and Mutilidæ were founded on the absence or flowering plants of the northeastern United presence of this character. In a new ar- States, prepared by a committee of the rangement of the Naiads v. Ihering has Botanical Club, A. A. A. S., in accordance based the family Unionida on the fact that with the nomenclature rules adopted by the embryo is a glochidium, in which the soft the Club, and gave a brief history of the parts are enclosed in a bivalve shell, and recent nomenclature reform in botany. He , the Mutilidæ was established on the fact that pointed out the fact that in a recent criticism the embryo is a lasidium, divided into three of the List by Dr. B. L. Robinson, who repparts, the middle one only being protected resents those still favoring the old system, by a single shell.

only a single specific point of vital principle Basing a classification on these characters in the new system was really discussed, the it will be found that the genera of the unionidæ other items of criticism referring to details have invariably heterodont teeth, or vestiges of which do not involve the principles themthem, while in the mutilidæ the arrangement is

selves. Mr. Coville pointed out that in essentially taxadont.

view of the success of the new system as It is claimed that similar circumstances already tried by several of our leading botof environment may produce like characters anical institutions and as tested for many of unrelated forms; the Mycetopus of South years past in other branches of biological America and Solenaia of China are bur science, together with the prevailing disrowers, and though belonging to different satisfaction regarding the old system among families closely resemble each other in the working botanists, the new code gives every elongated shell and greatly developed foot, *Notes on Parasites, 34 ; Centralbl. f. Bakt., u. Par. and have both been placed in one genus on 1895.

promise of satisfactorily solving the nomen- On the Chloronitrides of Phosphorus: H. N. clature problem.

STOKES. Professor Joseph F. James made some On the Saponification of the Ethers of the Sulremarks on ‘Daimonelix and Allied Fossil.' phonic Acids by Alcohols : J. H. KASTLE and He gave an account of the large fossil Paul MURRILL. cork screws' described by Professor Bar- Contributions from the Chemical Laboratory of bour from the Bad-Lands of northwestern Harvard College. LXXXVI. On the CupriNebraska, calling attention to their peculiar ammonium Double Salts : THEODORE WILfeatures. He noted the fact that while they LIAM RICHARDS and GEORGE OENSLAGER. had heretofore been considered as unique Basswood-oil : F. G. WIECHMANN. and without resemblance to other fossils, Note. that in reality several other similar forms had been described. One of these was

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, APRIL. figured by Heer in 1865 in ‘Die Urwelt der Niagara and the Great Lakes : F. B. TAYLOR. Schweiz,' under the name of screw-stones,'

Disturbances in the Direction of the Plumb-line which presents all the characters of Daim- in the Hawaiian Islands : E. D. PRESTON, onelix as figured by Barbour. In 1863 Pro

Glacial Lake St. Lawrence of Professor Warren fessor James Hall described Spirophyton and

Upham: R. CHALMERS. gave a restoration of S. typum. In a view Argon, a New Constituent of the Atmosphere: of one of the whorls there is a great corre

LORD RAYLEIGH and W. RAMSAY. spondence between it and a figure of the

Velocity of Electric Waves : J. TROWBRIDGE same character given by Barbour. In 1883

and W. DUANE. Professor Newberry described Spiraxis, also Epochs and Stages of the Glacial Period: W. a genus of screw-like fossils which presents

UPHAM. features similar to Daimonelix. Heer's fossil Structure and Appendages of Trinucleus : C. occurs in the Miocene of Switzerland, while

E. BEECHER. Spirophyton and Spiraxis occur in the Che Scientific Intelligence; Chemistry and Physics ; mung of New York and Pennsylvania.

Geology and Mineralogy; Botany; Miscelwide distribution of the forms is interesting

laneous Scientific Intelligence ; Obituary. as showing that Daimonelix is not an accident'as hinted by some. Whether it is a

AMERICAN GEOLOGIST, APRIL. plant or not must be decided in the future,

The Stratigraphy of Northwestern Louisiana:

T. WAYLAND VAUGHAN. although there is a strong presumption that such is the case. FREDERIC A. LUCAS,

The Paleontologic Base of the Taconic or Lower
Secretary.

Cambrian: N. H. WINCHELL.
SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS.

The Missouri Lead and Zinc Deposits : JAMES

D. ROBERTSON.
AMERICAN CHEMICAL JOURNAL, APRIL.
Argon, A New Constituent of the Atmosphere:

On the Mud and Sand Dikes of the White River LORD RAYLEIGH and WILLIAM RAMSAY.

Miocene: E. C. CASE. On the Spectra of Argon : WILLIAM CROOKES.

Editorial Comment; Review of recent Geological The Liquefaction and Solidification of Argon :

Literature; Recent Publications; Personal K. OLSZEWSKI.

and Scientific News. On the Atomic Weight of Oxygen. Synthesis of Weighed Quantities of Water from Weighed

NEW BOOKS. Quantities of Hydrogen and of Oxygen : A travers le Caucase. ÉMILE LEVIER. Neu EDWARD W. MORLEY.

châtel, Attinger Frères. Pp. 346.

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