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cleared of the joint septums, through which Equador east and from British Guiana emlight darts feathered with a tuft of down, ploy the blow-gun. WALTER Hough. or pieces of pith, are propelled by the breath. The blow-gun is used for killing birds
PSYCHOLOGY.* and small mammals. Frequently the ar- PSYCHOLOGY, as we all know, is the rows are poisoned, rendering the light dart science of mind.' But such a definition effective on larger game. The chief merit does little more than raise the question, of the blow-gun is its accuracy and the What is mind ? We cannot take mind for silence with which it may be employed. granted, for it is the very thing that psy
The penetration of the blow-gun dart is chology has to investigate. And yet, algreater than would be imagined. At the thoughómind' is one of those words distance of 50 feet I have driven a blunt which it is impossible to define, everyone dart one-quarter of an inch into a pine plank. is able to attach some sort of meaning to it. It is stated that the range of the blow-gun What do you yourselves mean when you among some tribes is from 80 to 100 yards. talk of your mind? You mean, probably,
A propos to Professor Mason's paper con- some particular group or set of your internal necting the Eastern Asiatics with the Amer- experiences; some tangle or other of feelicans along a great natural migration line, ings, thoughts, desires, resolutions, ideas, the distribution of the blow-gun may be in- wishes, hopes, actions, emotions, impulses, teresting.
expectations, memories. There are plenty The blow-gun is a tropical or sub-tropical of words, expressing different sides of device, and may be looked for in regions mind, as they are called. Mind, then, is where bamboo or cane grows. Neverthe- the sum total of all these experiences—of all less these tubes are often made of hard wood, these processes. There is no mind beyond single, or of two excavated pieces joined to them; the term is simply the collective gether, and frequently one tube is thrust name of all such processes as those which I inside of another to secure rigidity. The have enumerated. examination of many of these blow-guns in- I said, however, that when you talk, in spires a great respect for the ingenuity and an everyday way, of your mind,' you mechanical skill of the workers.
probably refer to some special set or group The curious fact of distribution, however, of these experiences. When you say, “I is that the Malays and American aborigines cannot make up my mind whether to do it alone use the blow-gun. The Malay speci- or not,” you mean that you cannot make up mens of the blow-gun existing in the Na- your present mind. Now here the psycholtional Museum are from the Dyaks of ogist makes a distinction. We use the term Borneo, the Javanese, the Kyans of Burma consciousness' to express the mind of the and the Johore people from the Malay present moment. Thus if I were to ask peninsula. The literature also supplies you to tell me something of your experiences other Malay localities.
just now, I should say to you: "Look into The North American specimens are from your consciousness, and see whether so-andthe Chetimachas of Louisiana, who fre- so is taking place or not.” Or, again, if I quently combine the tubes in series, forming were to analyze for you your present state a compound blow-gun and the Cherokees of of mind—to try and imagine what is going the Carolinas. From Central Amercia, the
* A lecture delivered to the Class in General PhilIndians of Honduras and Costa Rica ; from
osophy (Introductory) in Cornell University, DecemSouth America, several Amazon tribes from
on inside of you as you listen to me-I Those are sensations. And perceptions should speak technically of analyzing your only differ from sensations in being more consciousness. Consciousness is the mind complicated. Thus in the sphere of sight, at any moment. Mind, therefore, is the you perceive a house or a tree ; in the sphere sum-total of consciousnesses experienced in of hearing you perceive a musical harmony the lifetime of the individual. You have or a musical discord; in the sphere of touch one mind, extending (I hope) over seventy you perceive that a complex of impressions full years; but the mind upon which you is a piece of wood, or a piece of wire, or experiment at any given moment for psy- what not. The tree and the house are comchological purposes—or the mind which you pound impressions, containing many colors make up at a given moment–is called your and many shapes; the musical chord is a consciousness. So that psychology, while compound of three or four or more simple 'it is the science of mind, in the sense that tones, and so on. All this, very obviously, it deals with all the mental experiences of comes from the outside world. So, too, a man, from the time of his birth to the does (2) memory. You cannot remember time of his death, deals in any special hour, what has not happened. If you try to reduring any special enquiry, with the phe- member a name, you try to recover a lost nomena of consciousness.
perception—the perception of the spoken But consciousness—as the number of word. If you try to remember a picture, words in my catalogue of a moment ago you are attempting to recover a lost visual sufficiently indicated—is a very intricate, perception. It is for this reason that the complex and tangled matter. If we are to psychologist distinguishes kinds or types of examine it at all carefully, we must try, first memory--the visual, the auditory and the of all, to get some sort of order into its phe- motor. People who can play chess blindnomena. Let us begin the attempt at once
fold have the visual memory very highly of describing our internal experiences, as developed. They do not, perhaps, see every accurately as possible.
piece in their mind's eye, but they see the We notice, at the outset, that we are to a board as a whole, and know where each large extent at the mercy of our surround- piece upon it is. Most extempore' speakings, of things outside of us. We are not ers, too, rely upon their visual memory. free to see what we like, to hear what we There is comparatively little true extempore like, to touch what we like; what we see speaking done. Of course, if a man is and hear and touch is all determined for us, thoroughly familiar with his subject, or is by the physical nature of the bodies from speaking under the influence of strong emwhich impressions come. You can under- otion, he may be able to address an audistand, of course, that this is true in the ence without preparation. But most of us simple instances that I have given ; but I who speak without notes' do so by the want to prove to you that it is true of a aid of our visual memory; we see what we very large part, indeed, of our mental ex- have written, mentally, paragraph by paraperience. Put down in the first place (1) graph, and when our eyes are on our hearsensations and perceptions. Every time ers, are really reading from a memory that one of our sense-organs is excited, is manuscript. Instances of good auditory put in action, that is done by means of memory, again, are furnished by those fortusomething in the external world. An nate persons who can recall accurately the ether-vibration makes us see; an air-vibra- airs of an opera that they have only once tion makes us hear or smell, and so on. heard. And people who play the piano by ear' play by finger-memory; their of mental experience. Now, in the second memories are muscular or motor. All place, we are in some respects not at the these memories, then, depend upon the ex- mercy of the world outside, but the world ternal world. So (3) does imagination. is at our mercy. What is the great differ. Imagination can put perceptions together ence between the animal and the plant? in new or unusual ways; but it can never Surely this, that the animal can move at: make a new perception. Try to imagine a will, while the plant is stationary. That color which is different from all the colors seems to be a very simple matter; but just that are known. You cannot do it. You consider how much it means. If the plant may imagine mixtures of colors, hues and is going to lead a stationary life, it can tints obtained from combinations of the take advantage of the fact—I speak metaknown colors, which you have never ac- phorically, of course—to be careless of its tually seen ; but you cannot imagine a new shape and size; or rather, it must make color. The same fact comes out in works itself as big and as complicated as it can, of fiction. When Baron Munchausen takes in order to secure all the nourishment you to the moon or the dog-star, and shows possible from one settled spot. The result you their inhabitants ; and when Peter is that the plant carries its lungs and its Wilkins describes to you the population of digestive apparatus all over it, on the outthe South Pole—these people are simply side. You know the functions of leaves human beings, with their characters chang- and roots. With the animal the reverse ed and modified in various ways. They is the case. It is going to move about. It can take their eyes out of their heads and can seek food in different places. The best pass them round to their neighbors, or they thing for it, therefore, is to have its lungs have wings which fold around them and and digestive organs packed away inside serve as clothing ; but there is nothing new of it; so that it can get about with as light in all this. It is only the putting of the a weight to carry, and as convenient a perceptions together that is new, not the balance of that weight, as possible. There perceptions themselves. And the same is must be no loose ends left on the outside, true of all the constructions of the imagina- injury to which would mean inefficiency tion, as they are called, devils, centaurs, or death. Well! You see that, by moving sea-serpents, dragons, hippogriffs, ghosts among things at its own will and pleasure and the rest of them.
the animal has a certain power over the The world outside of us, then, is respon
external world. How is this power represible for a good deal of our mental furni- sented in consciousness? In two principal ture. We can simplify matters, here, for ways: (1) Whenever we move; or, to put purposes of classification, by grouping to- the matter more technically, and more defigether sensation, perception, memory-image nitely with reference to ourselves as disand imaginary representation, as ideas.' tinct from the lower animals, whenever we Sensation is the raw material from which act, we have in consciousness the experiideas are built up. As for the other usages: ence of effort, of endeavor. This is an if you cannot remember, you say “I haven't experience quite different from the experiany idea of what that man's name was;' ence that comes to us as ideas. We can and if you are endeavoring to imagine a have, naturally, an idea of effort; that circumstance, you say “I haven't any idea would be the idea of some person making of how that could have happened.'
the effort, or the idea of some obstacle to So much for the first principal category be overcome by effort, or what not. But
besides the idea of effort, we experience of choosing which shall be let in at the effort itself. That is one of the hardest door of consciousness. Only those facts points in psychology to have made clear to cross the threshold to which you desire to you, or to make clear to yourselves. This attend. instance may help you: You know that we But,” you may say, “suppose that this speak of one man as having more 'go' in is true, what has attention to do with movehim than his neighbor, without implying ment? You told us that it was movement by the phrase that he has more ideas. that distinguished the animal from the There are many names for the effort- plant, and that along with movement went experience. Some psychologists speak of power over the external world. Now what it as the experience of spontaneity, of one's has movement to do with attention ?” That own initiative; others of an activity in is a perfectly fair question, but one which I cousciousness. “Effort' is at once the most cannot here answer for you in detail. To concrete and, I think, the most intelligible understand the fact of the connection word. (2) Our power over the world out- thoroughly—and the connection is a fact side, again, is manifested in another way you must have studied psychology. But I -by the phenomena of attention. Not can give you a pair of statements which every process among our physical surround- will be better than nothing. The first is ings has us at its mercy in the same degree. this : Whenever we attend, we move. I do We are exposed to all manner of impres- not mean that the whole body moves, that sions; but they are not all alike powerful there is locomotion: but that there is moveto affect our consciousness. Think of your ment,-movement in the eye, movement in own state of mind now.
You have pre
the ear, movement in the scalp, movement sented to you a certain number of visual somewhere. And the second is this: It is impressions—the room, its furniture, the the moving thing that attracts the attention. people about you. You are subject to cer- You cannot attend to one single thing, one tain temperature sensations; to certain pres- really single thing, for more than a few sures, from your clothing; to certain or- seconds together. Either you go to sleep, ganic sensations, hunger or satiety. Each or you go into hysterics. On the other of you has a large stock of memories, ready hand, one is almost constrained to attend to crowd into consciousness if they are to anything that moves. You can hear the allowed to. Each of you, again, has the single voice that carries the melody, when day's programme in his mind; he can there is an orchestra of half-a-hundred inimagine what will be done between now struments thundering on at the same time, and bed-time; and this train of ideas of because the melody changes, the tones the imagination is ready to sweep across move; while the accompaniment is relahis mind, if free play is given to it. But tively stationary. So that attention to the all this medley of conflicting influences you melody is easy. If any of you have been are able, if you like, to neglect. You can out shooting after dark, you will know that just brush them aside, by attending to the one tells the game by its movement. So single series of auditory impressions that is long as it is still, it is safe. But let it move, affecting you, to the succession of words and though the eyes have been looking in which I am speaking. When the whole of a quite wrong direction, the attention is your surroundings is pressing in upon you drawn upon it by force, as it were ; one through the avenues of the sense-organs, cannot help seeing it. clamoring for notice, you have the power Those, then, are two categories of mental experience. There is one more to mention. You attend, in reality, to the tooth. That This self of ours, this ‘I,' which is ex- means that you perceive the tooth more posed to the physical changes in the world clearly than anything else for the time in part, and in part helps to bring about being ; your idea of the tooth is the very physical changes in the world by moving to strongest in consciousness. But by attendand fro in it, is not indifferent to what goes ing to the idea and so making it clearer, on in either case. It does not just have the feeling that goes along with the idea ideas, on the one hand; and attend to them is made clearer, too. So the pain 'gets or move in consequence of them, on the worse,' not because you attended to it, other. It does more ; it feels. It feels but because you attended to the group when impressions come in ; it feels when of perceptions with which it was conefforts go out. So that alongside of ideas nected. and efforts must come a third category of Now, then, we have got our raw material mental experience-feelings. Feeling is of into something like order. Consciousness, two kinds, pleasurable and painful. It is instead of being a shapeless tangle and maze quite distinct in consciousness from idea- of various intertwined and interwoven protion, and from effort and attention. That cesses—as it appeared to us to be when we is another of the points which arise at the started out on our enquiry-has proved to very beginnings of a study of psychology be capable of arrangement and simplificathat it is extremely difficult to get clear tion. You may, it is true, raise the objecabout—that pleasure and pain, as such, be- tion that our table of contents is, perhaps, long to an entirely different order of pro- not inclusive of every known mental state. cesses from the processes which we call col- Where, you may ask, is emotion ; where is lectively ideas. But it is a fact, despite expectation ; where are all the rest of the the intimate interconnection of the two in familiar terms for mental experiences ? our concrete experience. Let me try to Well, you must take my word for it, that drive it home for you by two illustrations. all these other states of mind or mental exYou cannot remember a pleasure or pain. periences can be derived from the three When you try to recall the pain of a flog- simple processes which I have named to ging that you had at school, what you re- you. If you were to work through a psycall is really only the complex of percep- chology, you would find that there was tions, not the pain itself. You remember nothing treated of, in any chapter of it, all the circumstances—your being sen- which was not a compound of these three tenced, the people standing round you, the sets of elements-ideas, feelings and efforts room in which the fatal event took place, -mixed in different proportions. And that the master who did the deed. All these being the case, it is these three elements are ideas. But so far are you from being with which psychology begins. She first able to remember the actual pain of the of all describes them, as minutely and accuflogging that the memory of the circum- rately as possible; and then furnishes a thestances to-day may be actually pleasant; ory or an explanation of them, in the sense you smile as
look back on them. That that she gives the conditions, bodily and is the first illustration ; the second is this: mental, of their appearance in consciousness. You cannot attend to a pleasure or pain as Under what conditions do we have this and such. It is a common saying that if you this perception? Under what conditions attend to a toothache, for instance, you do we remember and imagine? Under make it worse. That is bad psychology.
That is bad psychology. what conditions do we feel so and so, attend