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to this and that? These are the questions most important contributions to Seismology that come up for answer.
anywhere published, and it is not too much Into those questions we cannot here enter. to say that the work of this Society amountLet it be sufficient for you, in this lecture, ed to a revolution in the methods of obserto have learned the names and characters vation and research. To its Transactions, of the simplest items of mental experience - Professor Milne was by far the largest conof those items which are always and in- tributor. When the rapid decrease of the variably present in our concrete, every-day number of foreign scientific men resident in experiences. Draw for yourselves an out- Japan threatened the life of the Society, line map of mind. You must make three he tactfully enlisted the support and cocountries, as it were, within that map. Ideas operation of the Japanese. The issue, by must go in in one color to the right; efforts the University, of an extensive and valuin another to the left; and feelings will lie able series of scientific memoirs, tended, in the middle between the two. And you naturally, to divert much of the active inmust suppose that each of these three terri- terest which they for a time manifested, tories has an independent government ; but and a few years ago the publication of the that their governments are very friendly, Transactions of the Seismological Society and often take joint action-indeed, that ceased. Professor Milne was not discouraged they hardly ever think of taking action of however, and at his own risk and expense themselves. Especially must you conceive at once substituted a periodical which he that both idea and effort have right of way called the 'Seismological Journal,' which through any part of the dominion of feeling; he has continued to issue at great peand that the communications are so open, cuniary loss and which contains many valand the relations so close, that scarcely any- uable and important contributions to the thing can affect idea or effort, from the out- science. side or from the inside, that does not also During all of these years, with a tireless exert an effect upon feeling. The detailed and inexhaustible industry and a rare insurvey of the three territories, and the laying genuity of design and wealth of mechanical down of roads through them for the student resource, he had invented, constructed and to follow—that is the further business of put into use a variety of earthquake detectPsychology E. B. TITCHENER. ors, recorders, measurers, wave and tremor
registers and even earthquake 'avoiders' or LOSS OF PROFESSOR MILNE'S SEISMOLOGI
nullifiers,' which, with the numerous deCAL APPARATUS, LIBRARY AND vices and inventions of other foreign stuCOLLECTION.
dents of Seismology in Japan, the value of EVERY interested in Seismology which he was quick to recognize and utilize, knows of the great work done by Professor constituted a collection the like of which John Milne, F. R. S., during a residence of never existed before. Besides these instrunearly a quarter of a century in Japan, mental appliances Professor Milne had acwhich country became, a decade ago, the cumulated an extensive and valuable library earthquake lahoratory of the world.
of Seismology, including many early and Through his interest, and that which he rare pamphlets and volumes and almost kindled in other foreign residents, the Seis- everything published on the subject during mological Society of Japan was organized the past fifteen years. about fifteen years ago. During its active His connection with the Japanese Govexistence its Annual Reports contained the ernment is shortly to terminate, and he had
prepared a complete equipment for an ob- part of it. It was a comfortable bungalow servatory to be set up in England on his re- sort of a structure, located in the Kaga turn to that country, by means of which he Yashiki, just in the rear of the row of dwel. hoped to show that earthquakes travellings where, fifteen years ago, lived, beginaround the globe, and to be able to study ning at the entrance to the Compound, them there.
Fenollosa, Mendenhall, Braun, Cooper, Those who have been aware of all these Morse, Chaplin, Ewing and Atkinson, all facts, and all who are now made aware of Professors in the University and exhibiting them for the first time, will, I am sure, ex- a mixture of American, Spanish, German, perience a feeling of great regret on learn English and Scotch blood which illustrates ing of the destruction by fire on February the disposition of the young-old nation to 17th of practically all of these valuable ac- get what it wants wherever it thinks it can cumulations of years of labor, together with find it. When it became the home of Propersonal effects of great interest and value fessor Milne it became the source of a deto Professor Milne.
lightful hospitality which many 'globe trotThe observatory in which these things ters' of all lands have enjoyed, and thouswere, and which is now gone forever, was ands besides his scientific friends will symalso an object of much interest in its relation pathize with him in his great loss. to the educational development of Japan In a recent letter from Professor Milne during the past twenty years.
It was he says : erected nearly that many years ago, a little “Just now you and Paul may be breathbefore the close of Dr. Murray's connection ing all that is left of the old observatory with the Department of Education. It con- and my belongings." tained in the beginning a good but small He sends me a characteristic and graphic Equatorial by Alvan Clark and a Transit. account of the occurrence, 'prepared,' he One end of it was used as a meteorological says, 'for maiden aunts and relatives,' from observatory under the direction of the writer which the following extract will, I am sure, during several years, being equipped with a be of interest to all readers : good collection of self-registering instru
'As nearly all the transactions of the Seismological ments obtained mostly from London, the
Society were packed up to go to Europe, a few that results of the use of which were published had middle places in the boxes may be saved, but I as Annual Scientific Memoirs by the author- doubt if even out of 2500 copies I shall get more than ities of the University. The transit wing
two or three hundred. All my old earthquake books,
some of which even dated from 1500 to 1600, but was utilized by Professor W. S. Chaplin in
which were perhaps more curious than useful, seem his courses in Civil Engineering, until the
to have gone. One function they had was to inspire Astronomical part of it was placed in the the globe trotter, or travelling clergyman, with respect hands of Professor H. M. Paul, who served for a science that was apparently so ancient. Amongst the University as Professor of Astronomy
them there was a poem called the earthquake,' A. D. 1750, but I know that by heart.
The new for several years, beginning in 1880. When
books were volumes of bound pamphlets in all sorts a few years later the Engineering College
of languages which I had slashed out of the publicabecame an integral part of the University tions of all sorts of societies. Perhaps the burning and the whole was located in the Kaga of them was a visitation for my Goth-like behaviour. Yashiki, the observatory was turned over Instruments were fused or vaporized. Sixteen
specially constructed clocks which would turn drums to Professor Milne, an addition to it was
once a day, once a week, or drive a band of paper for built and he made a Seismological 'Labora
two years, together with seismographs and horizontal tory and Bazaar' out of it, residing in a pendulums, self-recording thermometers and barometers, microscopes, and a museum of old and new con- Professor Milne asks me to make public trivances are now in the scrap heap. Until to-day, I
the loss of his address book and his desire felt I had the observatory I intended to put up in to send to all to whom it may be due, copEngland completely furnished, and I was proud of the furniture.
ies of Vol. IV. of the ‘Seismological Journal.' One very cruel cut was the picking up of an insur- This, he says, is an unusually large number, ance policy dated 1878, which fluttered out of the and he hopes an unusually valuable contriruins. One reason that I have not insured for some
bution to Seismology-his "expiring effort;' years past is because day and night I always had for
and he asks all to whom this volume should purposes of continuous photography open benzine
be sent to address him, care Japan Mail lamps burning in my house, and I should have had to tell the agent about the little tricks they played Office, Yokohama. when first I used them. It may sound odd, but I do Out of the few hundred copies, more or not think a stranger to their ways can light one so less, of the Transactions of the Seismologthat nothing shall happen during the next three days.
ical Society of Japan, he will be able to Against eccentricities like these I insured myself by having above them a bunch of fluffy paper, which, if
make up some sets; and those desiring to the lamp blazed up, was burned and burned its sus
obtain them should address him, care Geopended string. This was followed by the falling of a logical Society, Burlington House, London. lever, when an electric bell in my bedroom and one in
And finally, he earnestly desires to receive, the kitchen was set going.
in exchange or otherwise, copies of any Outside the door of the instrument room stood fireextinguishers and a heap of rugs. From time to
papers on or relating to earthquakes, voltime I had 'fire drill,' going through the operation canoes, or earth movements in general. of turning up a lamp, burning the paper, ringing the I am sure that every one who can will bells, alarming everybody, and then putting out the respond to this last appeal and cheerfully conflagration-in fact, very much like what happens
do whatever is possible to assist Professor on ship-board, only I had real fire-which was easily extinguished.
Milne to replace, as far as may be, the acBut what happened was the unexpected; the fire
cumulations of a quarter of a century, conbroke out in the midst of a pile of wood in an out- verted into sunset-reddening dust in a few house, and this, with a nice wind blowing, on a Sun- short moments.
T. C. M. day morning, when there was no one near to help.
And now I have next to nothing-decorations, medals, diplomas, clothes, manuscripts, extending
CORRESPONDENCE. over twenty-five years, and everything else has gone
THE IDEAL INDEX TO SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE. up in smoke; still it is not altogether a misfortune.
I shall not have a sale, nor the worry of selecting TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: Since you amongst my accumulations; there will be no buying have been so kind as to ask me to conboxes and packing up, neither will there be any hag
tribute to SCIENCE my views as to how the gling with custom house officials, or trouble in collecting on an insurance policy. On the other hand,
plan of cataloguing scientific literature may I shall have new clothes, and some time or other, I
best be accomplished, I venture to present hope, new clocks and new instrumeuts, whilst what the following considerations. It is probable I have got is the knowledge that I have many sincere that some of the ideas suggested are imand kind friends. Their clothes don't fit, but the
practicable, and indeed that the plan is too sympathy that they have expressed and the little things they have sent me tells me that I should never
extensive and unwieldly to be undertaken be homeless in Japan. Looked at in the right way;
as a whole at the present time. The literalike an earthquake, a fire may, after all, be a blessing ture of science is so vast and the number of in disguise, but, of course, it is sometimes pretty well workers so great, the degree of specializawrapped up.
tion in modern work so intense and the Dies iræ, dies illa,
participation in research so wide-spread Solvet sæclum in favilla."
over the world, that a really adequate and serviceable index must, of necessity, be of thors, the papers by each author to be numgreat extent, and undertaken upon a scale bered, beginning with number one. This of considerable magnificence.
would render it possible to identify any It may
be that the time has not yet come paper, either in an annual or a general when the scientific men of all the world can index, by simple reference to author, year coöperate together in such a task as this, and number. but if coöperation is possible in any field of In recommending that the catalogue intellectual activity, surely it is in that of shall be published in book form, I am by science. Such coöperation is not only es- no means unmindful of the merits of the sential to thorough work in indexing, but card-catalogue system in work of this kind. would also have a most important influence I use card-catalogues freely in my own in promoting united efforts in other branches work, and in the National Museum there of scientific activity.
are hundreds of thousands of cards by The considerations suggested are these : means of which the vast collections of
1. The catalogue should be international specimens and papers are kept under conin name and scope. This is essential in trol. The card-index has its limitations. order to secure the unreserved support of however, and these are nowhere more eviall nations engaged in the production of dent than in connection with such a scientific literature. It should, therefore, scheme as a universal scientific catalogue. not bear the imprint of any society or organ- The very bulk and unwieldiness of the ization, or derive its distinctive character card system is an objection, which may be from any one nation. Since the titles will, partly appreciated if one can imagine the of necessity, be quoted exactly, it might be contents of the ten volumes of the Royal well that all annotations and comments Society's Catalogue transformed into card should be in the same language as the title. form and arranged in drawers.* To insist that only English or French In the volumes as they now stand, the should be used would be fatal to its general eye can sweep rapidly over page after page adoption by other countries. Titles in the in search of a given title, and thirty or Scandinavian, Slavonic and Oriental Lan- forty impressions pass to the mind at a guages and dialects and others would, how- glance, instead of one, while the strain ever, need to be translated into French, upon the attention caused by turning over German or English.
the pages is much less than where each 2. It should be exhaustive within its own title card is scrutinized singly. limits, no latitude being given to the judg- For finding a book or reference when ment and taste of its editors, in the matter the name of the author or its title is of rejecting titles.
known, the card system is without rival. 3. It should be printed in annual in- It is less useful, however, when, as often stallments, each installment including every happens, one is looking up' a subject in a paper or work printed within a single year, general way. A card-catalogue, after it has and each installment should be published in attained to great bulk, requires much labor not more than six (preferably not more
* Dr. Carrington Bolton prepared the copy for his than three) months after the close of the Select Bibliography of Chemistry' on slips of
standard sizes, and it filled 7 standard trays or a year.
length of nearly 9 feet. The slips were on thin paper 4. The publication should be in the
-if they had been of card the lengths would have form of a bibliographical catalogue, with
been nearly 20 feet. When printed the 12,000 titles
were presented in a light convenient octavo volume the titles arranged alphabetically by au- of about 1,200 pages.
in consultation and a vast amount of pains- tem of arrangement desired. His project taking care to insert new cards and keep it almost succeeded fifty years ago, when in order. Then, too, one of its features there was much less demand, much less which makes it particularly advantageous money, and much more in the way of in the hands of an individual scholar, is mechanical obstacles, than at present. that the cards may be continually sorted The modern type-setting machine, which and rearranged. This would be practically casts each line of type in a single bar, impossible with a great card index intended would lend itself admirably to such cofor the use of many in a public institution. operative work. Volumes like those of the Royal Society 5. A subject-index of the most exhaustive index may be carried to the desk of the character should be issued in connection student. A card-catalogue he must consult with each annual publication, but since this in its place of deposit, probably in a crowd- index cannot so conveniently be made until ed and noisy library. Then, too, after a the catalogue itself has been set in type, it period of years the card index will represent might be well not to delay the distribution the investment of hundreds and soon of of the catalogue itself until the index is thousands of dollars, on the part of each pos- ready, but cause the latter to follow as soon sessor, and the tendency will be to place con- as practicable. stantly narrowing restrictions upon its 6. The adoption of this index as a part
of the plan would render it practicable to The needs of library workers might be issue the entire record of the year's work met in part by printing a special edition of in one single alphabetical series, if this the catalogue on one side of the page, so that were deemed desirable. It might be, howthe titles might be cut and pasted upon ever, that it would be more convenient, cards.* Indeed, if there were a sufficient and less expensive to subscribers interdemand, a special edition of the catalogue ested in special branches of science, if might be printed on cards. Whatever may the titles were arranged in more than one be said of the advantages of the card sys- series. To divide it into two—one for tem, it is certain that it would not be ac- the physical and one for the natural cepted in Europe.
sciences-would be quite practicable; perEvery one remembers the plan of Jewett, haps philology, history, economics and who, in the early days of the Smithsonian mechanical science might each have a volInstitution, proposed a universal bibliog- ume of its own. Whether further subdiraphy. His plan was to electrotype each vision would answer, is a question for title upon a separate block, and to supply careful discussion. these blocks, either for printing cards, or to 7. The catalogue should embrace within be made up into catalogues in any sys
its determined scope all publications in the
following categories : * In order to facilitate this, the name of the author
(a). Publications of scientific academies might well be printed in bold-faced type, and repeated at the beginning of each title. This increases the
and societies. cost but little, and adds much to the usefulness of (b). Scientific publications of univerthe bibliography, if it is to be cut up and rearranged, sities, colleges, and technical schools. either for a catalogue, as I have suggested, or as (c). Publications of scientific expedi'copy' for other bibliographies. The width of the
tions. title as printed should not exceed 4} inches, whether the publication is in octavo form or larger. It will
(d). Scientific publications of national, then come within the limits of the standard cards. municipal and other governments.