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Buchan, of Edinburgh, to illustrate the in 1893. The sea consists of a number of density and temperature of ocean water at separate basins, of which the deepest (2250 different depths; all available material met.) lies north of the east end of Candia. being employed in this elaborate discussion, Much greater depths occur in the Mediterwhose ultimate object is the determination ranean east and west of this island. Charts of the oceanic circulation. The charts ex- of temperature and salinity at the surface hibit the mean annual specific gravity of and at successive depths to the bottom exthe surface and the bottom waters, the mean hibit the distribution of these features with annual surface temperatures, and the tem- much detail. The surface temperatures are peratures at every hundred fathoms of maintained to a depth of about thirty meters; depth to 1000, then at 1500, 2000 and at then follows a rapid cooling for seventy or a the bottom. At 400 and 500 fathoms the hundred meters, below which there is a South Atlantic and the North Pacific are gradual cooling to the bottom, where temthe colder oceans; the North Atlantic and peratures a little lower than 13° C. prevail. the Indian are exceptionally warm. At 600 and 700 fathoms the most remarkable fea- AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL JOURNALS. ture is the relation of North Atlantic tem- It is regrettable, but for the present perperature to the warm over-saline water that haps not surprising, that no American issues from the Mediterranean; a similar geographical society issues a journal from but less marked effect being noticeable in which a student, teacher or general reader the Indian ocean near the Red Sea. The can gather a thorough acquaintance with average at 700 fathoms being 38.°1, the geographical activity over the world. A northwestern Indian ocean is 44°, the journal of thorough and scientific character eastern North Atlantic is 51°, with the needs a background of accumulated exmaximum centering precisely towards Gib- perience, a large library and exchange list, raltar. At 900 and 1000 fathoms the tem- a good number of active contributors and peratures in low latitudes are symmetrically correspondents, and a large subscription warmer than in high latitudes; but the list; and we have not yet been fortunate difference is less than two degrees.
enough to develop all these conditions under Dr. Buchan's text summarizes the facts a single control. The best association for and deals little with theories ; but he ac- such a journal in this country would be cepts the winds as the chief cause of the with the American Geographical Society of surface currents, and he ascribes deep New York, its membership being large, its movements to differences of density, thus funds comparatively munificent and its indicating the truth of both sides of the library of long-continued growth and cerCroll-Carpenter controversy of a quarter tainly much superior to that of any other century ago.
similar society in the United States ; but,
although this society counts explorers, THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN,
travellers, government officials, professors The third series of the 'Berichte der and a large representation of the general Commission für Erforschung des östlichen public among its members, the number of Mittelmeeres, recently issued in the me- its producing geographers is small, and its moirs of the Imperial Academy of Sciences quarterly Bulletin, now in its twenty-sixth of Vienna, contains further physical investi- volume, can hardly at present be included gations by Luksch and Wolf on the basis of among the important geographical periodisoundings on the Pola' in the Ægæan sea cals of the world. We understand that plans for greater activity and enlarged form publishing house of Justus Perthes of Gotha of publication are in consideration. The and now conducted by Professor Alex. National Geographic Society of Washington Supan. The Geographical Journal has for is but a few years old. Its activity at pres- the great body of our students of geography ent is greatest in its home city in the matter the advantage of being in our own lanof geographical lectures, which are very suc- guage, and it will therefore long continue cessful. A list of this winter's lectures was to reach the larger circle of readers. Begiven in SCIENCE No. 11. Its Magazine is sides general articles and current news, of irregular publication, presumably on ac- ten or twelve pages are given in each numcount of lack of funds. While it contains ber to notes on geographical literature by a larger proportion of physiographic matter Dr. H. R. Mill, the entries being conventhan any other publication in this country, iently summarized by brief headings in it gives practically nothing of general news bold type, arranged under countries. Exor literature. Appalachia, the organ of the
tended reviews are made of important Appalachian Mountain Club of Boston, the works. But those who can consult GerBulletin of the Geographical Club of Phila- man sources—and this ability is now gendelphia, the Bulletin of the Geographical erally demanded of students in higher colSociety of the Pacific, and the papers of the legiate and university work—will find in Sierra Club, both of San Francisco, com- Petermann's Mittheilungen an unrivaled plete the list of geographical publications in bibliography of the whole range of geothis country as far as known to the writer. graphical literature, from the geology of Geographical notes are given in the Amer- the earth beneath to the meteorology of the ican Naturalist and in the Popular Science air above. Reviews of the more important Monthly. All these geographical journals publications are given in so extended a deserve warm support, especially in their form that reference to original sources is own communities, but none of them pre- unnecessary, except for the specialist in sents the subject of geography nearly as fully some particular division of the subject. as it is presented by several journals abroad. Anyone who follows these reviews and the
items of monthly news will acquaint himFOREIGN GEOGRAPHICAL JOURNALS. self very fully with the general progress of The small amount of space that can be current geographical work. Other foreign allowed in SCIENCE to geography makes it journals will be referred to in subsequent impossible to report on the progress of ex- numbers of SCIENCE. ploration, save when results of especial importance or of immediate physiographic
WAGNER'S GEOGRAPHISCHES JAHRBUCH. interest are announced. Exploration is, This indispensable annual, founded in however, fully presented in various foreign 1866 by Behm and now in its seventeenth geographical journals; and, in the hope of volume, is a fitting supplement to the other extending their circulation in the libraries geographical publications of the house of of our country, occasional notes of their Perthes in Gotha. The most important recharacter and contents will be here intro- views and summaries in the Jahrbuch for duced. Preëminent among all such publi- 1894 are : on terrestrial magnetism by cations stand the Geographical Journal of Schering, map projections by Hammer, eththe Royal Geographical Society of London, nology by Gerland, geographical meteorand Petermann's Geographische Mitthei- ology by Brückner, and on the geographical lungen, issued by the great geographical literature of the European countries by various contributors. Several of the latter are in the Alps. An older and a younger glaof great thoroughness and may serve as ciation are separated by a considerable inguides in ordering the best recent publica- terval, during which normal valley making tions for public and college libraries. The was in progress. The author dissents from most thorough are by Fischer on Southern Berendt's views concerning a more general Europe, Neumann on Germany and Sieger glaciation of the Riesengebirge. Follman's on Austria-Hungary. That by Schlichter account of the Eifel is chiefly geological on Great Britain and Ireland unwarrant- and descriptive, little attention being given ably omits mention of the recent editions to the development of the existing topogof Geikie's Scotland and Ramsay's England. raphy or to the explanation of the present The volume closes with a series of small courses of the streams. The volcanoes and scale index-maps, giving the state of ad- the maare, of course, receive special attenvance of topographical surveys in Europe, tion. India and the United States up to the autumn of 1894. One may thus determine at PENCK'S MORPHOLOGIE DER ERDOBERa glance whether the sheet for a certain lo
FLÄCHE. cality in any country is yet published or This is the most important work on physinot. The practical use of these indexes ography that has appeared during the past would have been increased if the name and year; indeed, in many respects it is a address of the official bookseller from whom unique work, one that will stand long at the the maps may be purchased had been given. head of works of its class. It is a worthy
successor of earlier volumes in the series FORSCHUNGEN ZUR DEUTCHEN LANDES- UND
of geographical handbooks (published by VOLKSKUNDE.
Engelhorn, Stuttgart) to which it belongsThe eighth and latest volume of these val- Ratzel's Anthropogeographie, Hann's Kliuable essays, edited by Kirchhoff of Halle, matologie, Heim's Gletscherkunde, Bogusand published at Stuttgart by Engelhorn, lawski and Krümmel's Oceanographie and contains studies by Schreiber on the climate
and in the matter of citations of of Saxony, Partsch on the glaciation of the authorities it is much superior to any of its Riesengebirge, and Follman on the Eiffel, predecessors. Penck's acquaintance with besides three others on historical and eth- the literature of his subject is truly remarknological subjects. Schreiber's essay gives able. Each topic is outlined historically, a full account of the periodic values of vari- as well as in its present status. A subject ous climatic factors, but it is deficient in relatively so subordinate as the effect of the omitting all account of the unperiodic or earth’s rotation on rivers has thirty-five citacyclonic changes, which in winter are tions ; sand dunes have fifty-one. Prodominant, and fully deserve recognition as cesses of deformation, deposition and denuclimatic elements. Partsch presents a care
dation are all considered elaborately, with ful study of the moraines and associated special reference to the forms that they proterraces of the Riesengebirge, which rise a duce, and this part of the book might propfew miles south of the extreme limit as- erly be called Morphogenie. The forms themcribed to the northern ice sheet in that re- selves are considered afterwards at length. gion. The height of the snow line during The more general headings in the table of glacial times is placed at about 1200 meters, contents are: Form and size of the earth; by means of ratios between length of gla- area of land and water, mean altitude of ciers and area of snow fields, as determined lands and depth of seas, volume of lands and seas ; continents and oceans and their per- fallen herbage. Professor Forbes is of the manence. Land surfaces ; weathering and opinion that the disease may be developed denudation by wind, rivers and ice; defor- without infection by artificially producing mations of the surface. The forms of the the above conditions by trampling down the land; plains, hills of accumulation, valleys, grain in spots or cutting and stocking small basins, mountains, depressions, caverns. portions as starting points for the infection. The sea; its movements, coasts and bot- It was observed that mites feed upon the tom; islands.
Muscardine and in some of the artificial The chief deficiency of the book is the cultures eat up the last vestige of the scarcity of illustrations and the rough quale fungus.' The Sporotrichium lives upon many ity of nearly all the few cuts that are intro- kinds of insects, and a plate is given of the duced. Many are merely diagrams, often appearance of it upon a leaf skeletonizer with excessive vertical exaggeration. This (Carnarsia), June Beetle (Lachnosterna), is to be regretted in a subject where graphic Walnut caterpillar (Datana). aid of the highest quality is necessary for
BACTERIOSIS OF RUTABAGA. the adequate presentation of the facts. But
The number of diseases of plants of bacas the work is in two volumes of 471 and
terial origin is rapidly on the increase, or, 696 pages, the omission of illustrations has
more strictly writing, the nature of these evidently been a matter of necessity.
troubles is in these later days being better
W. M. DAVIS. HARVARD UNIVERSITY.
understood. A portion of Bulletin 27 of
the Iowa Experiment Station is devoted to NOTES UPON AGRICULTURE (II.).
a disease of rutabagas that Professor PamMUSCARDINE DISEASE OF CHINCH-BUGS.
mel finds, through a long course of bacteriOne of the most serious of insect depre- ological study, to be caused by a microör
ganism which he names Bacillus campestris dations to wheat and corn is that caused by the chinch-bug, and for years methods of
n. sp., and figures in details in a plate.
This disease is distinguished by its strong checking it by employing a parasitic fungus odor, the decay usually beginning at the have been the subject of research. In Kansas special appropriations have been
crown of the root, the fibro-vascular zone
becomes black, while the softer portions of made by the Legislature to determine the
the root become soft and finally watery. best means of propagating and applying the
Healthy roots were caused to decay by invirus. The latest information
this subject comes in the shape of a sixty-page by cultural methods, into their tissue.
troducing the Bacilli, previously isolated bulletin with eight plates (No. 38, March, '95) from the Illinois Experiment Station prepared by Dr. Forbes. The fungus experi- It is well known that winds play an immented with is Sporotrichum globuliferum, portant rôle in the distribution of seeds. Speg., which was cultivated successfully Professor Bolley, in the North Dakota Exupon a mixture of corn meal and beef broth periment Station Bulletin (No. 17, March, and afterwards distributed to farmers in the 1895), records that in two square feet of a chinch-bug infested portions of the State. three-weeks old and three-inch deep snow
The White Muscardine (Sporotrichium) drift upon an ice pond ten yards from any spreads most rapidly in the field when the weeds he found nineteen weed seeds, and weather is moist and the catch’ is quickest and in another drift quite similarly situated in the low spots in the field and among thirty-two seeds representing nine kinds
WEED SEEDS IN WINTER WINDS.
of weeds. While the wind was blowing author as his concise summary, are: “till, twenty miles per hour a peck of mixed feed, prune, spray.” seeds was poured upon the snow crust, and
DETASSELING CORN. ten minutes after 191 wheat grains, 53 flax seeds, 43 buckwheat and 91 rag weed seeds The removal of the male flowers from a were found in a trench thirty rods from large or small per cent. of the corn plants in where they had been poured upon the crust.
a fleld has been experimented upon at va
rious stations. Thus in Maryland where BLACK KNOT OF PLUMS AND CHERRIES.
two-thirds of the tassels were removed the The Black Knot fungus (Plowrightia mor
detasseled rows gave a decrease of nearly bosa Schw.) is an old orchard enemy. Pro
10 per cent. At the Kansas Station by fessor Lodeman, in Bulletin 81 (December, detasseling alternate rows of six varieties in '94) Cornell Experiment Station, has given every case there was a reduced yield averthe long bibliography of the subject and aging 22 per cent. Delaware obtained shows, by means of cuts, how the spores of
under similar circumstances an increase of the fungus may find their way between the
cent. adjoining layers of bark in the forks of the
Before us is the bulletin (No. 37 Feb., small limbs. At these places the bark is
1895) upon 'Corn Experiments of the Illithin and the growing layer (cambium) nois Experiment Station in which detasselcomes near to the surface, thus facilitating
ing receives its share of consideration. “In the inoculation. Lodgement is also pro- eighteen out of twenty-three comparisons duced at these angles between stems, and
the yield of corn was greater for the rows besides it is here that knots are most apt
(alternate) having the tassels removed. to form. Experiments in spraying knotty
For tassels pulled we have an increase of trees with Bordeaux mixture gave results
twenty-seven per cent., and for those cut that were decidedly encouraging.
only six per cent. Removed before expandRECENT APPLE FAILURES.
ing gives an increase of eleven per cent. In another bulletin (No. 84) from the
The average increase is thirteen per cent." Cornell Experiment Station and there are
At the Cornell Station one report (1890) many and fineones—The Recent Apple Fail- gave an increase of fifty per cent. for detasures of Western New York' are considered seling, but the next year there was no differby Professor Bailey. A glance at the cuts
The results thus far obtained teach shows that failures may be due to imperfect
that the end of experimentation in this pollination, injudicious application of fun- direction is not yet reached. gicides, but more particularly to the ravages
BYRON D. HALSTED. of the Apple Scab (Fusicladium dendriticum
RUTGERS COLLEGE. Fl.), of which Professor Bailey gives a full page colored plate showing the scab enemy
LAGOA SANTA. in detail from the appearance of the young
Such is the title of a memoir published distorted fruit to the microscopic structure in 1892 by Professor Eugene Warming, of of the fungus shown in leaf sections. That the University of Copenhagen. It is also the scab fungus is the leading cause of styled Et Bidrag til den biologiske Plantegeoapple failures is demonstrated by the fact grafi, and this sub-title sufficiently explains that thorough spraying to check it produc- the aim of the work. Lagoa Santa is a tiveness has been obtained. The essentials small village about 835 meters above the for success in apple culture, as given by the sea and 200 miles north of Rio de Janeiro,