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Geological Survey, has removed to Cleve- five other buildings previously discovered, land, Ohio, to accept the position of libra- a large and well-preserved colonnade 45 rian for the Western Reserve Historical So- metres long has now been found 25 feet beciety, and Mr. H. F. Bain has been elected low the surface south of the second temple. Assistant State Geologist of Iowa in place The discoveries include parts of metopes, of Dr. Charles R. Keyes, who recently two marble heads of the best Greek period, resigned to take charge of the Missouri a hundred objects in bronze and gold, gems, Survey.

vases and terra cottas of the Homeric period, The Provincial Legislative Assembly of

as well as numerous scarabs and several Ontario has authorized a grant of $7,500 Mycenean tombs with Argive inscriptions towards defraying the expenses of a meet

on bronze, probably of a religious character. ing of the British Association at Toronto in

The excavations, which are now in the 1897, should the Association decide to ac

fourth season, will be completed this year. cept the invitation that has already been

They rival the French excavations at received from Toronto.

Delphi in magnitude and importance, rep

resenting all the periods of Greek life from THE Society of German Naturalists and prehistoric to Roman epochs. Physicians will meet at Lubeck from September 16th to 21st.

THE residue of the estate of Mary D. THE death is announced of Dr. Tomsa,

Peabody has been left to the Catholic Uni. Professor of Physiology in the University of versity of Washington, for the foundation

of scholarships (probably three or four of Prague.

the value of $5,000 each) in the chemical It is stated that Dr. Bertillon has discov

and physical sciences. ered a new method for identifying handwriting by enlarging the letters by photog- THE Medical Record gives an account of raphy and measuring the alterations due the malarial map of Italy, recently issued to beating of the pulse.

by the Italian Bureau of Statistics. It is The celebrated Villino Ludovisi, in Rome,

based upon the death returns during the has been leased for the new American

years 1890-92. The varying intensity of School of Architecture and Archæology.

the disease in different sections is shown by

modifications of color. In the three years ACCORDING to the Medical Record 14 of the 140 Medical Schools of the United States

there were 50,000 deaths from malarial now require a four years' course.

causes, or 54 in 100,000. The worst dis

tricts, where the mortality is as high as 8 SWAN, SONNENSCHEIN & Co. announce for

in 1,000, are in southwestern Sardinia, publication next autumn a translation by southeastern Sicily, the Pontine marshes, Professor E. B. Titchener, of Cornell Uni

the district at the head of the Gulf of Taversity, of Professor 0. Külpe's Grundriss

ranto, and the southeastern slope, from the der Psychologie.

promontory of Gargano south to the Ionian ACCORDING to a note in the London Times, Sea. Districts where malaria prevails, but the excavations by the American School at not so intensely as to be fatal, are the lower the Heraion of Argos, under the direction reaches of the Po, Grosseto in Tuscany, the of Professor Waldstein, which were resumed mouth of the Tiber, and the district near this spring, have been very successful. Two Salerno and the temples of Pæstum. hundred and fifty men have been employed Rome itself malaria has sensibly declined; on the work. Besides the two temples and the deaths in 1881 were 600, in 1892 only 139. The general mortality from this cause announces the following new appointments in Italy has remained pretty constant; the at Bryn Mawr College: Dr. Florence Basaverage is 15 or 18 per 1,000.

com, the only woman who has received the PROGRAMs of the School of Applied Ethics,

Ph. D. from Johns Hopkins University, which opens at Plymouth, Mass, on July now of the Ohio State University, Reader in 8th, may be obtained from the Secretary Geology; Mr. Richard Norton, Lecturer in S.B. Weston, 1305 Arch street, Philadelphia. Archæology; Dr. M. L. Earle, Ph. D., of

Columbia, Associate Professor of Greek ; The Metropolis Law School has been

Mr. P. E. More, Associate in Sanscrit; and united with the Law School of the Uni

Dr. Alfred Hodder, Lecturer in English versity of the City of New York.

Literature. ACCORDING to the prospectus of the Cot

DR. PEAT, of Butler, Pa., has cast a lens ton States and International Exposition,

60 inches in diameter for the telescope for which opens at Atlanta, Ga., on Septem

the American University (of Washington). ber 18th, science will be well represented. There will be special buildings for machin

MR. LEONARD T. METCALF has been apery, minerals and forestry, agriculture, elec- pointed Professor of Mathematics in the tricity and transportation. The United

Amherst State College. States Fish Commission will supply an The Bakerian Lecture before the Royal aquarium with tanks occupying 10,000 Society on May 9th was based upon a resquare feet, and the National Bureau of search conducted by Messrs. A. Vernon Forestry will exhibit models showing meth- Harcourt and William Esson, on "The ods of forest cultivation and preservation. Laws of Connexion between the Conditions

WE learn from a notice by Prof. Ziwet, of a Chemical Change and its Amount.' in the April number of the Bulletin of the In a brochure of fifty pages issued in conAmerican Mathematical Society, that the first nection with an exhibit at the World's Fair, installment of the Répertoire bibliograph- Mr. Gifford Pinchot gives an account of an ique des Sciences Mathématiques has been is- attempt to introduce a proper system of sued. This consists of a set of 100 cards,

forest management upon the estate of Mr. 14x8 cm., on each of which about 10 titles George W. Vanderbilt in North Carolina, are printed. The series is published by together with the result of the first year's Gauthier-Villars in Paris and sells for two

work. Biltmore is about two miles from francs. It was decided at an international Asheville, on the table land in western North meeting held in Paris under the auspices of Carolina. The estate includes 3,891 acres the French Mathematical Society to pre- of woodland on the banks of the French pare a complete bibliography of the litera

Broad River. The forest is composed chiefly ture of mathematics since 1800 and of the

of young oaks and other deciduous trees, history of mathematics since 1600.

the best timber having been cut away. MR. CLEMENS R. MARKHAM, President of Fires and neglect have also done much inthe Royal Geographical Society, in a paper jury. This forest has been divided into read before the Royal United Service Insti- suitable blocks and compartments, and put tution, urges the importance of an Antarctic into the care of a competent forester for expedition from a scientific and naval point improvement while at the same time yieldof view, and recommends that it be under- ing money returns to the owner. The locataken by the British Government.

tion of the forest, soil, climate, kinds of The correspondent of the Evening Post trees, treatment previous to coming into the

1

hands of the present owner, improvement, WJ McGEE: The topographic devel-
cuttings and other topics are discussed. opment of Sonora.'
While it was not expected that the forest The territory described, lying between the
would be self-supporting from the start, it Gila river on the north and the Rio Sonora
has been nearly so, the expenditures for the on the south, and extending from the Sierra
year ending April 30, 1893, being $9,911.76, Madre to the Gulf of California, is about
and the income from sale of ties, cord-wood, 400 by 200 miles square. Essentially it
lumber and posts, together with the esti- consists of an undulating plain with em-
mated value of stock on hand, amounting bossed mountain ranges. The plain varies
to $9,519.36. Part of the tract will be man- from sea-level to some 4000 feet in altitude;
aged on the regular high forest system with the mountain ranges, commonly 4000 feet
a 150-year rotation; the rest, on a selection or less in height above the plain, are rug.
system. Steps have also been taken to re- ged, narrow and generally parallel, trending
forest a thousand acres of waste land, using somewhat east of south. These ranges are
many kinds of native and foreign trees. remnants of larger mountain areas, shaped
In connection with this work it is de- by erosion, and sometimes they are con-
signed to build up an arboretum second to nected by transverse ridges which, like the
none in the world. This is under the di- ranges themselves, are residua of ancient
rection of Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted. masses. The area is one of complete grada-
Already there are in the nursery more kinds tion within itself, i. e., the rainfall is so
of trees and shrubs than in the gardens at slight that the material degraded from the
Kew, and the number is being steadily in- mountain is aggregated on the intermon-
creased. This arboretum will form the tane plains, as the storm-waters sink or
borders of a drive about five mile long. evaporate--for none of the rivers between
Careful records are being kept in connection the Gila and Yaqui ever reach the sea.
with the work, and a forest botanical library, Certain peculiarities of the topography
already of considerable extent, will furnish grow out of this condition.
the necessary aid to study. Accompanying The entire plain inclines southwestward,
the report is a map of the forest and a num- having evidently been tilted in this direc-
ber of good half-tones showing original con- tion during late geologic time, though the
dition, proper and improper methods of date is not yet fixed. A consequence of
lumbering, etc. This is the first time

proper this tilting was the stimulation of the forest management has ever been under- streams flowing westward, southward and taken in the United States, and as time southwestward, and partial paralysis of the goes on the results will undoubtedly become streams flowing in the opposite direction ; an object lesson of prime importance, and and by reason of previous adjustments of one badly needed by the American public, topographic processes and products under whose delight from the earliest settlement the peculiar climatal conditions of the reof the country has been to destroy trees. gion these effects were greatly increased.

E. F. S. Accordingly the

the southwestward-flowing

streams retrogressed and pushed their headSOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

waters through the parallel ranges and GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. sometimes through the transverse ranges The following are abstracts of the com- connecting them, while the northeastwardmunications presented at the 33d meeting, flowing streams practically ceased to corApril 24, 1895 :

rade. Accordingly the area is characterized

by retrogression ; the main waterways di- ore deposits are very intimately connected verge from the main valleys, and cut with the volcanic center. through the ranges and athwart the val- This communication presented the general leys; and the primary and secondary di- geological results of a detailed study of the vides do not coincide with the mountain district made last fall. An examination of ranges, but traverse the valleys in a singu- the ore deposits was made at the same time larly erratic manner. By reason of the by Prof. R. A. F. Penrose, Jr., and the two combination of epeirogenic and meteorologic reports, with a geological map, will be issued conditions, the region affords a remarkable by the U. S. Geological Survey during the example of the retrogression of streams and coming summer. of the development of unusual topographic W. H. WEED. • The Shonkin sag, an forms thereby

abandoned channel of the Missouri river.' WHITMAN Cross. "The Geology of the The Shonkin sag is a peculiar topographic Cripple Creek Gold Mining District, Col- feature of the country south of the big bend orado. This important new gold district of the Missouri River in central Montana. lies on a granite plateau, some ten or twelve It is an abandoned river channel which was miles southwest of Pike's Peak, at an eleva- formed by the waters of the Missouri River tion of 9,000 to nearly 11,000 feet. There flowing around the margin of an extension is at this point a small volcanic vent, to be of the great Canadian ice sheet (the Laurenregarded as an outlier of an extensive vol- tide glacier). The sag consists of a windcanic region to the westward, lying between ing valley from a quarter of a mile to two South Park and the Arkansas River.

miles wide with rocky bluff walls, and holds While the area of the Cripple Creek vol- a succession of lakes, several of them withcano is small, there has been a very com- out outlet. The continuity of the channel plete cycle of events at this center. Explo- is interrupted by modern stream valleys sive eruptions in the earlier periods built cutting it transversely, but their later origin up a cone of fine tuff and breccia, through is clearly apparent, and even the settlers of which numerous eruptions in narrow fis- the region recognize the fact that the sag is sures and irregular channels took place in an old water way. It begins near the mouth later times. Erosion has now removed a of Highwood Creek, east of the Great Falls large part of the ejected material, though of the Missouri River, and extends in a not clearly disclosing the volcanic neck. general easterly direction over 100 miles to

The igneus products of the volcano are the mouth of Judith River. Throughout andesites of several kinds, phonolite, pho- its course the northern wall marks the limit nolitic trachyte, nepheline-syenite, syenite- of the glacial moraine.

of the glacial moraine. Glacial drift is porphyry, and several dense varieties of found in a few places a short distance south basalt. Phonolite is the specially charac- of the channel, but in small quantity. In teristic rock of the center, and in dike form general the sag defines the moraine front. in granite occurs for several miles about it. It is, therefore, believed that the ice sheet

Fumarole and solfataric emanations of ponding the waters of the Missouri near the chlorine, fluorine and sulphurous gasses un- mouth of Sun River deflected the stream, doubtedly characterized certain periods of which at that time flowed northward, and the volcano, followed by hot waters con- caused it to flow about the margin of the taining the same agents in solution. By ice. Upon the recession of the glacier the these processes the rocks of the district have river abandoned this temporary channel for been very extensively decomposed. The the old valley to the northward, which was but partially filled by glacial material. The February freezes in Florida upon the inpresent course of the Missouri, for some dis- sects injuring the orange. The really imtance below the cataracts, is cut in black portant insects, namely, the red scale and shales of the Fort Benton period, capped the white fly, have been seriously checked. by 100-250 feet of glacial till and silt. All specimens occurring upon foliage have

WHITMAN Cross, been killed. In discussing this paper, Mr.
Secretary.

C. L. Marlatt called attention to the fact

that the serious injury to the trees caused ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. by the cold has already resulted in the ap* The 108th regular meeting was held May pearance of a number of bark-boring beet3d. Mr. L. 0. Howard read a paper en- les, which will undoubtedly do much damtitled "Some New Scale Parasites,' in age during the next two or three years. which he discussed several species of the

L. 0. HOWARD, family Chalcididæ which are new to sci

Recording Secretary. ence, and which are important parasites of destructive scales. A paper entitled “Two

NEW BOOKS. Leaf-beetles that Breed on the Golden-rod, Proceedings of The American Association for by F. H. Chittenden, was read by title, and the Advancement of Science for the Forty-third another, Sexual Dimorphism in the Scoly- Meeting held in Brooklyn, N. Y., August, tid Genus Xyleborus,' by E. A. Schwarz, 1894. Salem, The Permanent Secretary. was also read by title and referred to the 1895. Pp. xiii + 486. committee on publications. Mr. Ashmead Der Gute Geschmack. LOTHAR ABEL. Vienna, presented a communication on Lysiognatha, A. Hartleben. Pp. vii + 368. a new and remarkable genus in the Ich- The Geological and Natural History Survey of neumonidæ. The form described was an Minnesota, Vol. III., Part I., Paleontology. extraordinary one, possessing the head and N. H. WINCHELL. Minneapolis, Minn., jaws of the Braconid sub-family Alysiinæ, Harrison and Smith. 1895. Pp. lxxv + the wings and remainder of the body re- 474. sembling those of the Ichneumonid sub- John Dalton and the Rise of Modern Chemistry. . family Ophioninæ. Mr. Ashmead con- SIR HENRY E. ROSCOE. London and New sidered it typical of a new sub-family of the York, Macmillan & Co. 1895. Pp. 212. Ichneumonidae. Dr. Theodore Gill ex- $1.25. pressed himself as of the opinion that the Missouri Botanical Garden. Sixth Annual form is really typical of what should be a Report. WILLIAM TRELEASE. St. Louis, new family. A note from Mr. H. G. Bar- Mo., The Board of Trustees.

1895. Pp. ber, of Lincoln, Neb., a corresponding mem- 134. ber of the Society, was read by the secre- The Origins of Invention. Otis T. MASON. tary. The note was entitled “Food-habits London, Walter Scott; New

York, of Hypatus bachmanni.' This butterfly, Charles Scribner's Sons. 1895. Pp. 413. which has recently been observed migra- $1.25. ting in great numbers in the Southwest, has Chemical Analysis of Oils, Fats and Waxes. been previously supposed to feed only on From the German of PROFESSOR DR. R. species of Celtis. Mr. Barber considers BENEDICT. Revised and enlarged by DR. Symphoricarpos to be probably its favorite J. LEWKOWITSCH. London and New food plant. Mr. W. T. Swingle made some York, Macmillan & Co. 1895. Pp. xvii remarks on the effects of the December and +683. $7.00.

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