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reeds. The eye is deceived in a similar JAMES E. THOMPSOX; Address. manner when the bird is crouching against DAVID CERNA; The phonetic arithmetic of a tree-stump at the river side. Mr. J. E. the ancient Mexicans. Harting thinks that the curious attitudes WILLIAM KEILLER; Descriptive anatomy of adopted by the bird, on finding itself ob- the heart. served, are assumed in the exercise of the THOMAS FLAVIN; Developmental anatomy instinct of self-preservation. He mentions and pathology of the kidneys. a similar habit, observed and described by Thomas U. TAYLOR; Present need of engiMr. W. H. Hudson, in the case of South neering education in the South. American Little Heron, which frequents ROBERT A. THOMPSON; The storm-water storthe borders of the La Plata, and is occa- age system of irrigation. sionally found in the reed-beds scattered

T. H. BRYANT, Acting Secretary. over the pampas. Without the aid of dogs it was found impossible to secure any spec

NEW BOOKS. imens of this bird, even after making the Progress in Flying Machines. 0. CHANUTE. spot where one had alighted.-Nature.

New York, The American Engineer and NEW PUBLICATIONS.

Railroad Journal. 1894. Pp. iv +308.

Lectures on the Darwinian Theory. A. M. Astronomy and Astro-Physics will hereafter

MARSHALL. be called the Astrophysical Journal and will be

Edited by C. F. MARSHALL. published from the University of Chicago,

London, D. Nutt; New York, Macmil

lan & Co. under the editorship of Profs. Payne and

1894. Pp. xx+236. $2.25.

Features of Coasts and Keeler and a board of the leading men of Sea and Land. science in this department.

Oceans with Special Reference to the Life

of Man. N. S. SHALER. New York, A monthly Magazine of Travel, somewhat

Charles Scribner's Sons. 1894. $2.50. practical and popular in character, will hereafter be published from 10 Astor Place,

Text-book of Invertebrate Morphology J. F. New York.

McMURRICH. New York, Henry Holt &

Co. 1894. Pp. 294. $4.00. The Aeronautical Annual for 1895, soon to

The Planet Earth. An Astronomical Inbe published by W. B. Clarke & Co., Boston, will contain reprints of some early

troduction to Geography. RICHARD A. GREGORY.

London and New York, treatises on aeronautics, among them da Vinci's Treatise on the Flight of Birds, Sir

Macmillan & Co. 1894. Pp. viii+105.

60c. George Gayley's Aerial Navigation (1809),

M. FOSTER and A Treatise upon the Art of Flying, by Thomas Physiology for Beginners.

LEWIS E. SHORE. New York and LonWalker (1810), and Franklin's aeronautical correspondence.-Critic.

don, Macmillan & Co. 1894. Pp. ixt

241. 75c. P. Blakiston, Son & Co. announce The

The Rise and Development of Organic Chemistry. Dynamics of Life, by William R. Gowers,

CARL SCHORLEMMER. Revised edition, edM. D., of London.

ited by ARTHUR SMITHELLS. London and

New York, Macmillan & Co. 1894. Pp. SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.


Woman's Share in Primitive Culture 0. T. DECEMBER 31, 1891.

Mason. New York, D. Appleton & Co. DR. HALSTED, President, in the chair. 1894. Pp. xii+295.


tronomy ; T. C. MENDENHALL, Physics ; R. H. THURSTON, Engineering ; IRA REMSEN, Chemistry ;
JOSEPH LE CONTE, Geology; W. M. DAVIS, Physiography; 0. C. MARSA, Paleontology; W. K.
BROOKS, Invertebrate Zoology ; C. HART MERRIAM, Vertebrate Zoology ; N. L. BRITTON,
Botany ; HENRY F. OSBORN, General Biology ; H. P. BOWDITCH, Physiology ;

J. S. BILLINGS, Hygiene ; J. McKEEN CATTELL, Psychology ;

DANIEL G. BRINTON, J. W. POWELL, Anthropology.





dent Chamberlin in reply expressed the

feelings of the members in a few felicitous CONTENTS :

words. A printed report of the Council was The Baltimore Meeting of the Geological Society of distributed, reviewing the events of the America : J. F. KEMP

.57 The Baltimore Meeting of the American Morphological

year. B. K. Emerson and J. S. Diller were Society: .

.68 elected an auditing committee. The results Current Notes on Anthropology (II.): D. G. BRIN- of the ballot for officers were as follows:

.72 The Connecticut Sandstone Group: C. F. HITCH

President, N. S. SHALER.

1st Vice President, JOSEPH LE CONTE. Length of Vessels in Plants : ERWIN F. SMITH 77

2d Vice President, C. H. HITCHCOCK. Scientific Literature :

.78 Dodge's Practical Biology: H. W. Conn. Cha

Secretary, H. L. FAIRCHILD. telier's Le Grisou: CHARLES PLATT. Bolles' Treasurer, I. C. WHITE. Bearcamp Water: W. T. DAVIS.

Councillors, R. W. ELLS, C. R. VAN HISE. Notes :

.80 The Botanical Society of America ; Psychology; Messrs. Clements, Cobb, Hopkins, HubArticles on Science; Forthcoming Publications.

bard and Spurr were elected fellows. Scientific Journals


The constitution was so amended that Societies and Academies

.83 New Books.


the qualifications for fellows shall hereafter

be as follows, geographical location in North MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for review should be sent to the responsible editor, Prof. J.

America being no longer a requisite, “ FelMcKeen Cattell, Garrison on Hudson, N. Y.

lows shall be workers or teachers in geoSubscriptions (five dollars annually) and advertisements should be sent to the Publisher of SCIENCE, 41 East 49th St., New York.

logy.” An amendment allowing the Treas

urer to be elected without limit was also THE BALTIMORE MEETING OF THE GEOLOGI- passed. After some announcements by the CAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA.

local committee the Society listened to a The seventh annual meeting was held in memorial of the late Professor George H. Baltimore, December 27, 28 and 29, in the Williams, of Johns Hopkins University, and geological rooms of Johns Hopkins Univer- Second Vice President of the Society, by sity.

Professor William B. Clark. It was on Dr. The first session took place at 10 A. M., Williams' invitation that the Society met December 27, and was presided over by in Baltimore and the great loss to the President Chamberlin. The Society was science by his death was the thought upperwelcomed by President Gilman, of the Uni- most in the minds of all present. Dr. versity, who made a graceful and cordial Clark's graceful and touching memorial to address, that was warmly received. Presi- his late colleague was appreciated by all


present. Brief additional tributes were new structures, such as fan structure, cross also paid by Professor B. K. Emerson, of folds, cross zones of shear, a secondary sysAmherst, Dr. Williams' first geological tem of folding, the distribution of metateacher and life-long friend; by J. F. Kemp, morphism, and advanced a theory to acan old college-mate; by W. S. Bayley, his count for their production. According to first student in petrography, and by his the theory, the compressive strain which friends and colleagues, J. P. Iddings, I. C. deformed the strata began in the crystalline White, C. D. Walcott and N. S. Shaler. gneisses and granites, thrust the crystallines

A memorial of Amos Bowman, of the against the sediments and by the differential Canadian Survey, was then presented by H. motion along the shear zones produced butM. Ami, after which the Society listened to tresses around which the chief changes of the reading of papers, as follows:

structure were grouped. 1. On Certain Peculiar Features in the Jointing

In the discussion which followed, Mr. C.

Willard Hayes considered two of the shear and Veining of the Lower Silurian Limestones Cumberland Gap, Tenn. N. S.

zones with the conclusion that the changes SHALER, Cambridge, Mass.

in structure were due to differences of rigidThe paper described peculiar forms of ity in the sediments when they were thrust dolomitic limestone near Smiles, Tenn., in

against the crystallines. practically undisturbed strata which are

Mr. Keith replied that the changes of ribbed and seamed by minute veins of structure extended through the crystallines calcite, in the form of small gash veins.

as well as the sediments, a fact incompatible

with a merely passive resistance on the part They were regarded as due to some power

of the crystallines. ful, though local strains in the rock, but the subject was frankly admitted to be an

Mr. Bailey Willis argued that the chief obscure one.

structural changes were due to original

differences in sediment and in bases of sedi2. The Appalachian Type of Folding in the

mentation. His conclusion was that the White Mountain Range, of Inyo Co., Cal.

sediments moved against a rigid crystalline Chas. D. WALCOTT, Washington, D. C.

mass, being actuated by a force acting from The White Mountain range, which lies

the westward, which was due to the isostaeast of the Sierra Nevada, was shown to

tic flow of material from beneath the load consist of conformable quartzite and cam

of sediment. brian shales and limestone. The series had

4. The Faults of Chazy Township, Clinton been thrown into synclinal folds with inter

County, N. Y. H. P. CUSHING, Clevevening eroded anticlines and with a struc

land, o. ture which, on the whole, closely reproduces That the Lake Champlain region is, the Appalachian sections of the East.

structurally, one of faulting without foldThe paper was discussed by Messrs.

ing, is well known. The structure is well Becker, Ami, Willis and Russell, after

exhibited in Chazy township, which has not which recess was taken until the afternoon

heretofore been mapped in detail, except session.

for a small area around Chazy village. Its 3. New Structural Features in the Appala- consideration is of importance, because of chians. ARTHUR KEITH.

its bearing on the structure of the AdironThe paper reviewed the old generaliza- dack region, in which, on account of the tions of Appalachian structure, analyzed lithological similarity of the rocks, the dethe recently published knowledge, described termination of the precise structural relations is a matter of great difficulty, if not hundred feet above its present level in reimpossibility. The great number of the cent geological time, or, in other words, that faults, and the consequent small size of the the land has been depressed by that amount. various faulted blocks, are striking facts.

8. Geology of the Highwood Mountains, MonIn discussion C. D. Walcott showed how

tana. WALTER H. WEED, Washington, these faults had led Professor J. Marcou to

D. C., and Louis V. PIRSSON, New believe that he had discovered colonies of

Haven, Conn. Trenton fossils in rocks of the Potsdam.

On account of the illness of Mr. Weed this 5. The Formation of Lake-basins by Wind. paper was not read. G. K. GILBERT, Washington, D. C.

9. Genesis and Structure of the Ozark The paper described the formation of ba

Uplift. CHARLES R. KEYES, Des Moines, sins in the arid regions of the West, by the

Iowa. erosive action of wind-blown sand upon a

On account of the author's absence the shale devoid of vegetation. In time they paper was not read. became filled with water and formed small

10. The Geographical Evolution of Cuba. lakes.

J. W. SPENCER, Washington, D. C. 6. The Tepee Buttes. G. K. GILBERT and

The description of the physical geography F. P. GULLIVER.

of Cuba and of the adjacent submerged The paper was read by Mr. Gulliver and

banks was given. Exclusive of a few areas described a series of conical buttes west of locally older, the apparent basement is comPueblo, Col. They consist of Pierre shales, posed of volcanic rocks of Cretaceous or surrounding cores of limestone formed of slightly earlier date. These are succeeded shells of Lucina. It is supposed that as the by fossiliferous Cretaceous sands, etc., and shales were deposited, a colony of lucinas

limestone greatly disturbed. The Eocene established themselves and grew upward and Miocene deposits form a physical unit, pari passu, forming a conical or columnar

and are composed mostly of limestone deposit of limestone, whose greater resist

having a thickness of from 1,900 to 2,100 ance to erosion has left the buttes in relief.

feet. The Pliocene period was mostly one 7. Remarks on the Geology of Arizona and of high elevation, accompanied by a very

Sonora. WJ McGEE, of Washington. great erosion. At the close of the Pliocene

The arid region was described as consist period the Matanzas subsidence depressed ing of north and south mountain ranges the island so as to leave only a few small with wide valleys between. In Arizona the islets, and permit of the accumulation of surface is largely of volcanic rock, in Sonora about 150 fe of limestones. Then followed of Mesozoic limestone. The rivers have the great Pleistocene elevation with the definite courses and water in the moun- excavation of great valleys, the lower portains, but in the valleys they are lost by tions of which are now fjords reaching in evaporation and absorption before the ocean one case at least to 7,000 feet in depth beis reached. Their valleys were transverse fore joining the sea beyond. The elevation to the mountains and larger valleys because was followed by the Zapata subsidence, reof the general southwesterly dip of the ducing the island to smaller proportions rocks. Buttes near the Gulf of California than to-day, and permitting the accumushow slight talus, which fact gives good lation of the loams and gravels like the ground for thinking that the gulf has stood Columbia of the continent. The subsequent at an altitude, as regards the land, several minor undulations are also noted, as shown

over, N. H.

in terraces and recent small cañons now far beyond its present boundaries. Still, submerged. Also the modern coralline for- the bordering mountains were never covmations and harbors are notable.

ered with ice. On the completion of the paper the Society

12. Highland Level Gravels in Northern adjourned its business session until the

New England. C. H. HITCHCOCK, Hanfollowing morning. In the evening many members attended

Recent observations prove the existence Professor Wm. Libbey's lecture on Green

of a glacial lake in the basin of Lake Memland, and afterwards the reception which

phremagog, whose beaches exceed a thouwas hospitably tendered the visiting socie

sand feet above sea level, and others ties by the Johns Hopkins University in

1,500 feet above sea level in northern New McCoy Hall. On reassembling Friday morn

Hampshire. The author wished to present ing the council presented some minor points

a preliminary notice of what may prove to of business, and Mr. J. S. Diller, the chair

be of great service in a more exact definiman of the committee on photographs, read

tion of glacial work in New England and his annual report. It showed that some

Canada. 1,200–1,500 photographs of geological phe

The paper was discussed by Professor J. nomena and scenery had been presented to

W. Spencer, who spoke of his own studies the Society, the same being on exhibition in

in the same region. the hall. The negatives of the U. S. Geol.

During the reading of the following six Survey in many instances and also those of

papers the petrographers and mineralogists not a few geologists have been made acces

adjourned to the room above and listened sible to the fellows for prints at cost. Mr.

to the reading of papers of a petrographic Diller finally tendered his resignation, which

character, as subsequently outlined. The was accepted with regret. Mr. G. P. Mer- principal session then listened to the followrill, of the U. S. National Museum, was ap

ing: pointed to the vacancy. The committee now consists of G. P. Merrill, W. M. Davis and

13. Variations of Glaciers. HARRY FIELDJ. F. Kemp .

ING REID. The first paper on the programme was

The paper called attention to the desira11. Observations on the Glacial Phenomena bility of keeping accurate records of the of Newfoundland, Labrador and Southern

movements of glacial ice wherever possible. Greenland. G. FREDERICK WRIGHT. Ob

A committee was appointed to further this erlin, Ohio.

movement at the Geological Congress in Note was made of the direction of the

Zurich last summer, and the writer urged glacial scratches in Newfoundland and of

the importance of the work, especially as the evidences of a preglacial elevation of the regards our western glaciers. island; also of the contrast between the 14. Discrimination of Glacial Accumulation flowing outlines of the coast range of moun- and Invasion. WARREN UPHAM, Somertains in Labrador and the jagged character ville, Mass. of the coast range of Southern Greenland. The accumulation of ice-sheets by snowA description was also given of the projec- fall on their entire area was discriminated tion of the inland ice which comes down to from an advance or invasion by the front the coast near Sukkertoppen, in Lat. 65° of the ice, extending thus over new terri50', and of the phenomena which indicate tory. The former condition is shown to the former extension of the Greenland ice have been generally prevalent, on the gla

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