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to the original writer, though the geograph- 10 was noted as brown (1885), brown ical conditions must have been somewhat (1887), black ? (1889), black or brown changed in his time.
(1891), and black (1895). With these exI rejoice that a scholar like Dr. Haupt ceptions there are no material changes. has advocated a view which will almost for My remarks on the table, given in Nature, the first time bring this very ancient and do not seem to call for any
or subvery accurate geographical description be- tractions. The present note, taken with fore the notice of modern biblical scholars the others cited, seems to be of value, as it in a manner which will be intelligible from records the results of experiments made their point of view.
under exceptionally good conditions and I may add that a popular view of the now extending over a period of some thirteen geological argument on the subject will be
EDWARD S. HOLDEN. found in my work, 'Modern Science in Mount HAMILTON, May, 1895. Bible Lands,' published in 1888,* where will also be found a sketch-map of the
KANSAS STATE GEOLOGICAL region, illustrating the bearing of the geological and geographical researches of
In conformity with the law under which Loftus and others on this much vexed and the University of Kansas is now working, much misunderstood question.
the Board of Regents at a recent meeting J. WILLIAM DAWSON. formally organized the University GeologMONTREAL, May 7, 1895.
ical Survey of Kansas with Chancellor F.
H. Snow, ex-officio Director; Professor S. COLOR-ASSOCIATIONS WITH NUMERALS, ETC. W. Williston, Paleontologist; Professor (THIRD NOTE).
Erasmus Haworth, Geologist and MineraloTO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: In SCIENCE, gist, and Professor E. H. S. Bailey, Chemist. old series, Vol. vi., No. 137, p. 242, I printed In addition to these, other members of the results of some experiments upon the the University Faculty will be engaged upon association of colors with letters of the the work of the Survey, as well as the adalphabet, with numerals, etc., in the case vanced students of the departments of of one of my daughters. In Nature for Geology and Paleontology. An effort will July 9, 1891, I gave a table exhibiting the also be made to centralize and unify the results of these experiments in the years energies of different geologists in the State 1882, 1883, August, 1885, December, 1887, who have been doing valuable work along June, 1889, and June, 1891, a period of different lines of geological investigations. about nine years. The table can be readily Already a considerable start has been made consulted by anyone interested, so that it and the coöperation of different geologists of need not be reprinted here. In February, the State has been secured. 1895, I again questioned my daughter on The policy of the Survey will be conservathe subject, and I find that the colors given tive, with the expectation that it will be in her replies of June, 1891, are unchanged continued and eventually include all other except in two cases. The figure 8 was branches of the natural history of the State. visualized by her as white (August, 1885), The general stratigraphy of the State will cream color (December, 1887), white (June, first be elaborated in order that it may be 1889), cream (June, 1891), and is again used in the further study of various quesseen as white (February, 1895). The figure tions of economic and scientific importance, *Harpers, New York.
all of which will be taken up as rapidly as ther, that "
existing conditions from time to time will in summer in the higher parts of the permit.
Salmon River Mountains in Idaho, where Work in the Coal Measures of the State it was obtained by the reviewer five years has been in progress for two summers, and ago (see North American Fauna, No. 5, Volume I. of the Report is now almost ready 1891, 102). Similarly, the Gray-crowned for publication. Other volumes will appear Rosy Finch (L. tephrocotis) is said to be 'a at irregular intervals. Those already under resident of the interior of British America, preparation are : One on Coal, Oil and near or in the Rocky Mountains,' and furGas; one on the Vertebrate Paleontology
none seem to breed in our terof the State; and one on the Salt and ritory.' If Mr. Nehrling had consulted Gypsum deposits of Kansas.
the Report on the Ornithology of the F. H. Snow,
Death Valley Expedition,' by Dr. A. K. Chancellor University of Kansas. Fisher, he would have found the stateLAWRENCE, KANSAS,
ment that this species “is a common sumApril 20, 1895.
mer resident in the higher portions of the
White Mountains and the Sierra Nevada in SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE.
eastern and southern California,” where it Our Native Birds of Song and Beauty. By H. breeds abundantly and where nearly 40
NEHRLING. 4°,36 colored plates from orig- specimens were secured by the expedition inals by RIDGWAY, GOERING and MÜTZEL. (North Am. Fauna, No. 7, 1893, 82). Published by Geo. Brumder, Milwaukee. The plates are of two kinds, some showTo be completed in 16 parts, $1.00 each. a single species in appropriate surround
Part eleven of this excellent work, carry ings; others showing a number of species ing it nearly half through the second vol- grouped together on a background of landume, has been delivered to subscribers. It scape or dense vegetation. The reproducis enough praise to say that the high stand- tions, while amply sufficient for purposes of ard of the first volume is maintained. Mr. identification, are evidently inferior to the Nehrling is a field naturalist of the kind originals, the number of stones used in who deem a bird in the bush worth two in printing being too small, and the workmanthe hand. He loves everything in the woods ship not of the best. By far the most efand fields, and in telling about the birds fective picture in the second volume is one and their lives he tells also of the trees and of a group of winter birds-Evening Grosflowers.
beak, Pine Grosbeak, Redpoll, WhiteThe aim of the book is to give trust- winged Crossbill, Nuthatch and Chickadee worthy accounts, in popular style, of the on top of a spruce tree laden with snow. haunts and habits of our birds. Occasionally The combination of colors is striking and it does more and introduces a new fact of is aided by the red berries of a giant mounscientific interest, as when the breeding of tain ash, which, by the way, forgot to drop the Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola) is recorded its leaves! Among the earlier plates of for northern Wisconsin. On the other hand, high merit, both in conception and execuit is not always down to date. For instance, tion, are several by Robert Ridgway that under the Black Rosy Finch (Leucosticte give charming glimpses of birds in characatrata), the statement is quoted from Ridg- teristic attitudes and surroundings. Of way that "nothing has yet been learned as these, the Golden-crowned Kinglet, Proto its range during the breeding season.' thonotary Warbler, and Canon Wren are As a matter of fact, the species is common
among the best.
By some accident in binding, the two the book is to show how some of the older plates of part 10 (pls. 13 and 15) are re- and larger British cities have dealt with peated from the first volume,
this problem, giving details as to their The nomenclature is that of the Ameri- modern forms of government, method of can Ornithologists' Union, except that the elections and modes of securing pure water, authority given is for the combination, not cleanliness, rapid transit, prevention of for the species—an unfortunate departure, contagious diseases, etc. inasmuch as it does not tell who was the The cities selected for this purpose are original describer of the species.
Glasgow, Manchester, Birmingham and To those unfamiliar with the first volume London, and for each a vast amount of init may be said that the work is not a scien- formation is clearly and concisely given. tific treatise at all, but a popular book de- Taking Birmingham as an example, it is voted to the life histories of birds, and shown that in twenty years the death rate based mainly on the authors' extensive field of the city was lowered twenty per cent., experiences, supplemented by quotations— and, in some parts of the city, sixty per perhaps too lengthy and frequent—from cent.; that the provisions for the comfort the writings of well-known ornithologists. and recreation of the people have been It does not profess to cover all North Ameri- greatly increased, and that, while over forty can birds, omitting the water birds, birds millions of dollars have been expended in of prey and a few others, but treats prima- securing these improvements, the taxes rily, as its title indicates, of Our Native have not been increased, because the muniBirds of Song and Beauty.' It is a large, cipal gas and water works, street railways, well printed quarto, and of its kind is in- markets, etc., have been from the financial, comparably the best book yet published as well as from the utilitarian, point of in America.
C. H. M. view completely successful. Surely it is
worth while for the citizens of American Municipal Government in Great Britain : By cities to inquire how this has been ac
ALBERT SHAW. New York, The Century complished.
The description of the means used by the The modern increase of cities, and of the city of Glasgow for the isolation and treatproportion of urban population as compared ment of infectous disease is worthy of carewith that of rural districts, is, according to ful study. The Contagious Diseases HosMr. Shaw, to be accepted as a permanent pital has been given the semblance of a fact for this generation and its immediate lovely village, and Mr. Shaw truly says that successors, and, instead of lamenting over it, “the difference between popularity and unit is the duty of thinking men to devise popularity in a public hospital for infectious ways and means to do away with or dimin- diseases may well mean all the difference ish the evils which are at present connected between a terrible epidemic and its easy with city life. The author states his point prevention.” The sanitary wash houses of of view as being that a city government Glasgow are a feature of the work of the should so order the general affairs and in- Health Department which finds no parallel terests of the community as to conduce in American cities but which is of great impositively to the welfare of its people, or, at portance. One of these cost $50,000, anall events, to make it certain that for the other $75,000, and they far more than repay average family the life of the town shall not their cost. be necessarily detrimental. The object of The author promises a second volume
treating of municipal government in the on the ground of inadequate treatment of chief countries of Continental Europe, and purely chemical topics which, presumably, if we could be assured of a third volume, were introduced simply for the sake of comprepared with equal care and accuracy, pleteness. We pass, therefore, to the main "On Municipal Governments in the United subject. States, or how not to do it,' it would be, as For some time a work has been needed Artemus expressed it, 'a sweet boon.' which would give concisely the remarkable Meantime, let Mr. Shaw's first volume be results of the new Physical Chemistry, and made a subject of special study by the this want Professor Nernst's work is well fityounger professional men in this country, ted to meet. The material is well selected, for the time is near at hand when they will the sections are well proportioned, the facts be compelled to take some definite line of are accurately and concisely stated, and the action with regard to our own cities, each translation has been faithfully made, too of which presents its own peculiar problems, faithfully perhaps, by one who is evidently but problems upon which much light is well fitted, on the scientific side, for the task. thrown by the experiences of our transatlan- It may not be out of place to express the tic brothers.
J. S. B. opinion that the almost complete abandon
ment of the historical method which charTheoretical Chemistry. By PROFESSOR W. acterizes Professor Nernst's work is a mis
NERNST, Ph. D., University of Göttingen, take, even in so small a volume. This is translated by PROFESSOR C. S. PALMER, particularly plain in the account of the docPh. D., University of Colorado. Mac- trine of electrolytic dissociation. One who millan & Co. Pp. 697. Price $5.00. reads the fascinating chapter Geschichte
It has long been evident that the treat- der Electrochemie' in Ostwald's Lehrbuch ment of the physical side of chemistry, in der Allgemeinen Chemie,' Vol. I., part II., text-books avowedly devoted to chemical observes this concept vaguely adumbrated theory, is not satisfactory. In the present in the minds of Grotthus and Daniell, sees work Physical Chemistry is the main object it implicitly present in the remarkable views in hand, and, correspondingly, chemical of Clausius, and finally recognizes it freed theory proper is relegated to a subordinate from all obscurity in the papers of Arrheposition. The treatment of purely chemical nius. In Nernst, on the contrary, one is topics is clear and suggestive, but brief, and introduced to the doctrine fully formed, and, occasionally inadequate. Thus the discus- looking about him in some bewilderment sion of the stereochemistry of nitrogen is to ascertain its source, discovers an incomconfined to the mere statement of the views plete justification for its existence in the beof Hantzsch and Werner, with not even the havior of aqueous salt solutions. barest mention of the difficulties and ex- The student who desires to devote himceptions which have led many to regard the self specially to Physical Chemistry may spatial conception, so far as it applies to read the book with profit, but he would do nitrogen, as prematurely developed.
better, having acquired the necessary physBut insufficiency of this kind is to be ex- ical, mathematical and chemical preparapected whenever the attempt is made to tion, to go directly to Ostwald's' Lehrbuch'; cover the whole field of chemical and to those who wish simply to obtain a broad physico-chemical theory within the limits view of the present state of the science the of the same work, and it would be unfair to work will be decidedly acceptable, and this criticise Professor Nernst's book adversely will be its chief function.
It is not pleasant to be obliged to record thoughtful reading, can not fail to derive the complete failure of Professor Palmer's from it a large amount of valuable inforattempt to 'make the sound German speak mation. good English. The sound German’seems
ROBERT H. BRADBURY. to be unusually refractory in his hands, and frequently refuses not only to speak good Proceedings of the Society for the Promotion of English,' but also to speak any kind of Engineering Education, Vol II., Brooklyn intelligible English at all.
Meeting, 1894. Edited by Professors An unpleasant appearance is given to the Swain, Baker and Johnson.
Svo, PP. pages by the translator's unfortunate prac- viii., 292. $2.50. tice of introducing phrases from the original,
This excellent collection of interesting sometimes directly, sometimes in curiously and helpful papers is issued to the members infelicitous translation. Thus, in the sec- of the Society ; but, as we understand from tion in which the applications of the first an inserted slip, copies may be obtained law of heat to chemical reactions are dis- from the Secretary, Professor J. B. Johnson, cussed we read, to express thermal evolu- of Washington University, St. Louis, at the tion or absorption, either Wärme- regular price paid by members. The voltönung,' which is clear enough, but out of ume is well made up, and its contents justify place, or 'heat toning,' a phrase which one a good form of make-up. The book construggles vainly to comprehend. Thus he tains the usual statement of the objects of replaces the word element by the remark- the Society, the rules, and the lists of able expression 'ground-stuff. He advo- officers and members, followed by the comcates the introduction of the term 'Knall plete papers of the the meeting of 1894. gas,' and employs it faithfully himself. The Society was organized in Chicago in Rarely the translation attains to complete 1893, and its next meeting, at Brooklyn, is unintelligibility, e. g., on page 149:
that here given record. Its membership, “The choice of a suitable hypothesis to already about 160, includes probably the be advanced can be easily made, now or majority of the recognized leaders among never, in the case before us."
representatives of the department of educaIt must be admitted that Professor tion to which its belongs. The discussions Palmer's English is by no means pleasant are mainly on subjects of immediate interreading. Those with any feeling for the est to the teachers in the professional engiright use of language will be incessantly ir- neering schools, and are necessarily of great ritated by it, and even others will be not importance to them and their pupils, though infrequently annoyed by the unnecessary perhaps less attractive to the average reader difficulties which it introduces.
than are discussions of educational matThe defects of the translation are un- ters generally. The requirements for addoubtedly serious. But for this there is mission, the character and designation of the much compensation. It is plain that the degrees properly conferred, the teachers and translator has followed the wonderful de- the text-books, methods and extent of shop velopment of the new science faithfully, and and laboratory work, and forms of currihis own comprehension of the subject is cula suitable to this special work, are the evident on every page. The student who main topics, and they are well and dispaswill forgive the obvious defects, which, after sionately treated. The volume is full of all, concern rather the appearance than the useful and instructive matter. substance, and give to the book an earnest,
R. H. T.