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Steam Power and Millwork : By Geo. W. SUT- The writer is apparently unaware of the

CLIFFE. Whittaker & Co., London ; Mac- work which has been done upon the same millan & Co., New York. 12mo, pp. xv. subject by Ryder, Cope and others in this 886. 1895. $4.50.

country, and his conclusions are therefore This book is one of the excellent series of all the greater interest since, while indefor specialists published recently by this pendently reached, they are in accord with firm, and is a very good example of the the American Neo-Lamarckians so far as kind of work now coming to be so common the adaptive power of individual reaction in technical departments. It is written for is concerned. He concludes as follows: those who are interested in the design, man- The forms of the joints arise by the adaptaufacture and use of steam engines, mill ma- tion of the organism to external conditions chinery and similar apparatus, and pre- of life, and are the results of mechanical insumably represents the condensed experi- fluences which are directed upon the joint ence of its author. The book gives valu- apparatus by the action of the muscularable information relative to the most mod system. These mechanical stimuli act. ern systems of production and transmission directly upon the joints, and lead not of power, and the latest forms of engine through the reproductive cells, but directly boilers and transmitting mechanisms, and through the transformation of those parts, their details, including also instructions re- of the body which are under these changing garding their proportions and for their influences. Joints, therefore, arise accordmaintenance. The 157 illustrations are ing to the principle announced by Wilhelm numerous and good, representing every es- Roux of functional adaptation,' and of the sential detail of which description is given. self formation of the useful,' of adaptation Numerous tables are distributed through of the organism to functions through the the pages of text, and afford a condensed exercise of these functions.' Since compresentation of facts and data required in parative anatomy affords the surest tests of the computation of designs. The discussion the truth of these principles, proofs which relates principally to the steam engine; have not had their inspiration in Roux's but considerable space is given to rope and declarations, but have led a long way toother transmissions, and the customary ward them and are still showing the appliforms of power-transmission by the older cation of these principles in questions of methods. References are freely given, and theoretical evolution, how useful it would the book is thus made, not only intrinsically be were these principles also extended into valuable, but a key to the extensive litera- other fields of research! At the same time ture of its subject and field. The book will these proofs indicate that comparative anprove an excellent contribution to the atomy united with pathology present two library, especially of the young engineer. of the routes by which this goal can and

R. H. T. will be reached. This number also con

tains the experimental studies in teratogeny NOTES AND NEWS.

by Mitrophanow, and a continuation of JOINTS IN THE VERTEBRATE SKELETON. Driesch's experimental work.

In the last number of the Archiv für Ent- This journal has become the medium of wickelungsmechanik der Organismen is the publication of the new school in Germany completion of Gustav Tornier's elaborate which revolts against the extreme to which investigation upon The Origin of the Forms Weismann has carried the theory of selecof the Joints in the Vertebrate Skeleton.' tion, and represents partly the thought which is independent of all theories, partly tion of the nitrogen and lithium takes place that which, as seen in the above quotation with incandescence. The manometer after from Tornier's paper, is analogous to Amer- the operation shows a pressure of about ican Neo-Lamarckism. It differs from the 10 mm. Upon introducing another volAmerican school in the cardinal point, how- ume of nitrogen and repeating the operaever, that judgment is suspended as to the tion about the same amount of argon is inheritance of acquired characters.

obtained, and this process can be continued H. F. 0. until the tube is filled with

argon. If,

however, chemical nitrogen is used there is THE PREPARATION OF ARGON.

total absorption, showing that atmospheric SINCE the announcement, by Lord Ray- nitrogen contains some constituents not leigh and Prof. Ramsay, of the isolation of present in chemical nitrogen. a new constituent of the atmosphere, any

J. E. GILPIN. information as to the nature of this substance has been received with interest by

HELION. the scientific world. Guntz has recently de- PROF. RAMSAY has kindly sent us the scribed, in the Comptes Rendus, a modification following abstract of his paper on · Helion, of the method used by Rayleigh and Ram- a Gaseous Consistent of certain Minerals.' say for its preparation. This author has Part I., received by the Royal Society on substituted lithium for magnesium, thereby April 27th : securing the absorption of the nitrogen An account is given of the extraction of more readily at a lower temperature. The a mixture of hydrogen and helion from a preparation of pure lithium in quantity has felspathic rock containing the mineral clehitherto been a difficult problem, but Guntz veite. It is shown that in all probability has devised a simple method for its prepara- the gas described in the preliminary note tion in large quantities.

of March 26 was contaminated with atmosThis consists in the electrolytic decom- pheric argon. position of a mixture of equal parts of The gas now obtained consists of hydrolithium chloride and potassium chloride, the gen, probably derived from some free metal latter being introduced to lower the temper- in the felspar, some nitrogen and helion. ature at which the decomposition takes The density of helion, nearly free from place. The decomposition is carried on nitrogen, was found to be 3.89. From the in porcelain crucibles and the molten lithium wave-length of sound in the gas, from which poured into molds. It is free from iron and the theoretical ratio of specific heats 1.66 is silica, but contains a small amount of potas- approximately obtained, the conclusion may sium chloride.

be drawn that helion, like argon, is monaThe experiment showing the presence of tomic. Evidence is produced that the gas argon in atmospheric nitrogen and its ab- evolved from clèveite is not a hydride, and sence from chemical nitrogen, the latter a comparison is made of the spectra of term being used for nitrogen obtained from argon and helion. There are four specially chemical substances by decomposition, con- characteristic lines in the helion spectrum sists in introducing the nitrogen into a which are absent from that of argon; they glass tube containing the lithium in a boat. are a brilliant red, the D2 line of a very The glass tube is connected with a manom- brilliant yellow, a peacock-green line, and eter to show the change in pressure. Upon a brilliant violet line. One curious fact is heating the metal to dull redness, combina- that the gas from clèveite, freed from all impurities removable by sparking with The fact that the six stations from Pike's oxygen in presence of caustic potash, ex- Peak to Salt Lake City, covering a distance hibits one, and only one, of the character- of 375 miles, show an average excess of istic bright red pair of argon lines. This, 1,345 rock-feet indicates greater sustaining and other evidence of the same kind, ap- power than is ordinarily ascribed to the pears to suggest that atmospheric argon lithosphere by the advocates of isostacy. and helion have some common constit- It indicates also that the district used in uent.

this discussion for estimating the height of Attention is drawn to the fact that on the mean plain is far too small ; even the subtracting 16 (the common difference be- radius of 100 miles selected by Mr. Putnam tween the atomic weights of elements of the may not be large enough." first and second series) from 20, the ap

GENERAL proximate density of argon, the remainder is 4, a number closely approximating to the

In a paper read before the Paris Academy density of helion; or, if 32 be subtracted

on April 29th MM. Hericourt and Ch. from 40, the atomic weight of argon if it be

Richet announce that they have applied a monatomic gas, the remainder is 8, or

the method of injecting serum in the treattwice the density of helion, and its atomic

ment of cancer. Two patients only have weight if it too is a monatomic gas.

undergone this treatment, one of whom is

said to have been completely cured. GRAVITY MEASUREMENTS.

Rev. J. M. SEELYE, president of Amherst At a meeting of the Philosophical Society College from 1877 to 1890, died at Amherst of Washington on March 16th Mr. G. K. on May 12th, at the age of seventy. For Gilbert discussed the gravity determinations nineteen years before his election to the reported by Mr. G. R. Putnam, an account presidency he filled the chair of mental and of which is given elsewhere in the present moral philosophy and retained this chair number of SCIENCE. Mr. Gilbert summa

until his death. His original contributions rizes his conclusions as follows:

to philosophy were not important, but he “ The measurements of gravity appear

exercised great influence as an educator far more harmonious when the method of

and teacher. reduction postulates isostacy than when it WE learn that Deputy Surgeon-General postulates high rigidity. Nearly all the John S. Billings, of the army, has requested local peculiarities of gravity admit of simple that he be placed on the retired list; and and rational explanation on the theory that that in October that distinguished officer the continent as a whole is approximately will leave the Army Medical Museum, of isostatic, and that the interior plain is al which he is curator, and the Library of the most perfectly isostatic. Most of the devia- Surgeon-General's Office, of which he is ations from the normal arise from excess of librarian, and these magnificent institutions, matter and are associated with uplift. The that have been made what they are largely Appalachian and Rocky mountains and the by his ability and zeal, will know him no Wasatch plateau all appear to be of the longer. Before the date he has selected for nature of added loads, the whole mass above his retirement he hopes to complete his the neighboring plains being rigidly upheld. work on the final volume of the Index The Colorado plateau province seems to Catalogue. In seeking official retirement have an excess of matter, and the Desert Dr. Billings does not propose to give up Range province may also be overloaded. work, as he has accepted the chair of

hygiene in the University of Pennsylvania. bilt University, Nashville, Tenn., to take -N. Y. Medical Record.

charge next fall of the departments of DR. CARL THIERSCH, professor of surgery Pathology, Biology and Bacteriology, for in the University of Leipsie, died on April which they have just completed a new 20th at the age of seventy-three. He was

building.–N. Y. Evening Post. appointed professor of surgery at Erlangen BRIGADIER GENERAL THOMAS L. CASEY, in 1854, and in 1867 proceeded to Leipsic. having reached the age requiring retirement During the Franco-Prussian war he was at- from the active list, has relinquished comtached as senior surgeon to the 12th Army mand of the corps of engineers and charge Corps. He was the author of standard of the engineer department. He is sucworks on cholera and embryology.

ceeded by Col. William P. Craighill. The number of medical journals at pres- WE learn through the N. Y. Medical ent published in Russia is 38. Of these 20 Record that the Medical Department of the are published in St. Petersburg, 5 at Mos- State University of Minnesota was granted cow, 4 at Warsaw, 2 at Odessa, 2 at Char- $40,000 by the Legislature for a laboratory koff, and 1 at Kasan, Kieff, Saratoff, Wor- building, making a total of $150,000 approonesz and Pultawa, respectively. The old- priated for buildings alone in a period of est of them all is the Medizinskoie Obozrenie, four years. The medical law was likewise which is twenty-one years old; next comes amended to require of all graduates of later the Russkaia Medizina, which is in its nine- date than 1898 "attendance upon four teenth year; the Vratch, which is in its fif- courses of medical lectures, in different teenth, being third.-N. Y. Medical Record. years, of not less than six months' duration

WE much regret to learn that the publi- each.' cation of Insect Life will cease with the next The trustees of Williams College have acnumber. Two new series of bulletins will cepted the legacy of $20,000 from Mme. be started from the Division of Entomology Souberville, in memory of her father, Horace of the Department of Agriculture to take F. Clark, D. D. The College has also reits place. The one will contain articies of ceived a gift of $3,500 from ex-Governor a general economic and biological character Pennoyer, of Oregon, to found a scholarship -practically such articles as have been in memory of his son. published most frequently in Insect Life- Dr. Ernst RITTER, of the University of and the other will contain results of the Göttingen, has been elected Assistant Propurely scientific work of the office force. fessor of Mathematics in Cornell University.

THERE has been established in Leicester, The death of Mrs. Henry C. Lewis, of England, a bacteriological institution under Coldwater, Mich., leaves the art collection the direction of a medical officer in the possessed by her late husband, valued at interests of anti-vaccination.

$300,000, at the disposal of the University EDWARD BURNETT TYLOR, M. A., Reader of Michigan. At present the university has in Anthropology in the University of Ox- not accommodation for the bequest, but ford, has been made Professor of Anthro- President Angell expects an art building to pology.

be erected by private contributions. N. Y. PROF. W. M. L. Coplin, who holds the Evening Post. Chair of Pathology at Jefferson Medical An exhibition of California food products College in Philadelphia, has accepted the will be held in Berlin from the 5th of May call tendered him by the Trustees of Vander- to the 5th of July.

The Scientific American for May 11th con- BRIGADIER GENERAL CHARLES SUTHERtains an interesting illustrated account of LAND, formerly Surgeon-General of the Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana. Army, died at Washington, on May 11th,

THEODOR JOHANN CHRISTIAN AMBDERS at the age of sixty-five years. BRORSEN, the astronomer, died on April 3d The first conversazione of the Royal Society at Norburg in Schleswig at the age of 76. for the season was held on the evening of He was director of the observatory of Seuf- May 1st in Burlington-house, and there was tenberg for twenty years.

a very large attendance of guests. The exThe death is announced, at the age of 64,

hibits were exceptionally numerous, electric of James Price, President of the Society of science and applied mathematics being well Civil Engineers of Ireland, Professor in the represented, while some interesting exhibits University of Dublin and Engineer in Chief were also shown in the department of of the Midland and Great Western Railway chemistry, astronomy and biology.- London Company.

Times. The third International Congress of Zoöl

PRINCIPAL PETERSON, of Dundee College, ogy at Leyden is divided into six sections, as has been offered the presidency of McGill follows: (1) General Zoology, Geographical University, Montreal. distribution, including fossil faunas. (2) DR. J. H. HYSLOP has been made proClassification of Vertebrates, Geographical fessor of logic and ethics in Columbia Coldistribution. (3) Comparative Anatomy lege, and Dr. Frederick S. Lee, adjunct of Vertebrates, living and fossil. Embry- professor of physiology. ology. (4) Classification of Invertebrates, LÉOPOLD TROUVELOT died on April 22d Geographical distribution. (5) Entomology, at the Observatory of Meudon at the age of (6) Comparative Anatomy and Embryology 68. After the coup d'étât he left France of the Invertebrates.

and came to America, living in Cambridge THE Craven Studentship at Cambridge until 1882. His first published work aphas been awarded to Mr. R. C. Bosanquet. peared in Boston in 1866. At this time he This is an endowment for advanced studies was a student of natural history, but later abroad in the languages, literature, history, he obtained a position as astronomer at archæology, or art of ancient Greece or Harvard College. His most important work Rome, or the comparative philology of the was on the planet Venus, published in 1892. Indo-European languages.

He was well known for his drawings, many In a demurrer filed by Mrs. Jane L.

of which still remain unpublished. He Stanford in the United States Circuit Court leaves an unfinished memoir on the planet at San Francisco it is contended that, since Mars, and at the time of his death was enno valid claim was ever presented to Leland gaged on a study of Jupiter. Stanford during his life or to his widow DR. JOHN W. BYRON, who died on May since his death, any claim the United

8th at the age of 34, was known for his reStates Government might have had on the searches in bacteriology carried out at Stanford estate is vitiated.

Havana during the yellow-fever epidemic, Hon. ECKLEY B. Coxe, a prominent min- later in the laboratories of Berlin and Paris, ing engineer and writer, at one time Presi- and during the last five years in the Loomis dent of the American Institute of Mining Laboratory, where he occupied the position Engineers, died at Hazleton, Pa., at the of bacteriologist. Dr. Byron is said to have age of fifty-four years.

contracted the disease of which he died in

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