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carrying out his experiments on tubercle Council stated that the silver medal had bacilli.

been awarded to Mr. Henry H. Johnston, The American Forestry Association pro

Commissioner for British Central Africa, posed holding its annual peripatetic meet- for his distinguished services to all branches ing in southern New Jersey from May of natural history. The total receipts of 16th to May 19th. The privileges of this the Society for 1894 amounted to £25,107, expedition are open to all members of a decrease of £1,110 being attributed to the the American Forestry Association, New

unfavorable weather of the past year. The Jersey Forestry Association and Pennsyl- expenditure amounted to £23,616, a decrease vania Forestry Association. On May 15th

of £1,661. The number of animals in the Prof. B. E. Fernow was to deliver an il- Zoological Gardens on December 31st last lustrated lecture at Camden, from which was 2,563, of which 669 were mammals, place the party would start, going down the 1,427 birds and 467 reptiles. About 30 Delaware by steamboat, visiting all places species of mammals, 12 of birds and one of of interest along the shore from Cape May reptiles had bred in the gardens during last to Atlantic City and in the pines. On the

summer. Sir William H. Flower was reevening of May 17th an illustrated lecture elected president.—London Times. was to be delivered in Atlantic City by

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. Prof. Joseph Rothrock, Forestry Commis


A JOINT meeting of the Scientific Societies At a meeting of the Fellows of the Royal of Washington was held May 10th, on the ocBotanical Society held in the Societies' gar- casion of the delivery of the annual address dens at Regent's Park, London, the question of the President of the National Geographic of the desirability of opening the gardens to Society, Hon. Gardiner G. Hubbard. Dr. the public on Bank holidays was discussed.

G. Brown Goode presided, and in the inIt was stated at the same meeting that troductory remarks briefly outlined the unless some fresh source of income could be development of the Societies and their joint obtained the gardens could not be kept up. commission.

At the spring meeting of the Iron and Mr. Hubbard's subject was · Russia.' He Steel Institute the Bessemer gold medal of considered it in the light of his own obser1895 was unanimously awarded to Henry vations while making an extensive journey Marion Howe, of Boston, in recognition of through that country in 1881. Its climate, his contributions to metallurgical literature. physiographic features, government and the Among the previous recipients of the medal customs and conditions of its people were were Peter Cooper, Abram S. Hewitt, Alex- all graphically portrayed. At the close of ander L. Holley and John Fritz. Mr. the address a series of views were shown Howe's most important work is a treatise upon the screen. on the Metallurgy of Steel,' which was In response to a motion by Prof. Simon published in 1890 and for which he received Newcomb, seconded by Postmaster General a prize of $500 from the Société d'Encour. Wilson, the large audience gave Mr. Hubagement of Paris.

bard a hearty vote of thanks for his address. The 66th anniversary meeting of the

J. S. DILLER, Secretary. Zoological Society of London was held on BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. April 29th. The chair was taken by Sir At the meeting on May 4th, Mr. Charles William H. Flower. The report of the Torrey Simpson read a paper “On the Geo

graphical Distribution of the Naiades,' an

few simple unios related to those of South abstract of a paper on classification and America. Africa south of the Desert is andistribution soon to be published.

other great region, the Ethiopian, containAfter stating that the classification ing the African Mutelidæ and small unios adopted by most authors, in which the

allied to those of India. South America is family Unionidæ is founded on forms without

all included in another province, the Neosiphons, and the Mutelide on those in which tropical, the Andes proving a barrier to the they are developed, cannot stand, since passage of all forms except unios, which these characters vary in the same genus or have crossed to the western slope. All the species, the writer showed that von Ihe- central United States drainage from West ring's new definition of the families, in Florida to the Rio Grande, including, for which the former was based on the embry- the most part, the Great Lakes and the onic state being a glochidium and the latter

Mackenzie System, constitutes a wonderby its larvæ being a lasidium agreed with fully rich region of naiad life, having the the shells. In the Unionido these are schizo- finest and most varied forms of the globe. dont, in the Mutelide they are irregularly The waters of North America draining into taxodont. The new arrangement shows the the Atlantic are peopled by simple forms, former family to be world-wide; the latter

which may have descended from those of as belonging essentially to the southern the Mississippi Valley. Mexico and Central hemisphere.

America constitute another region of naiad The Naiads are distributed in Geograph- life, having three distinct faunas, an ancient ical Provinces whose boundaries may be one derived from the United States, a more mountain chains which act as watersheds

recent one from that region, and a few imbetween river systems, deserts or oceans, migrants from South America. but these do not always divide regions, Mr. Simpson attempts to trace the dewhich sometimes have no tangible barriers. velopment and past history of the naiads, In the Old World and South America these and their evidence regarding past changes provinces essentially agree with those es- of land and sea and the Glacial Epoch. tablished by Sclater and Wallace; in North

The paper was illustrated by a sketchAmerica they do not.

map in colors, showing the different regions. The Palæarctic Region includes all Asia The second paper of the evening, The south to the Thibetan Plateau, and all the Other Side of the Nomenclature Question,' western part of the continent, all Europe was by Dr. Erwin F. Smith, who spoke, in and northern Africa, and all of North reply to a previous paper by Mr. F. V. America west of the Great Cordillera; an Coville, against the unfounded claims put area of 16,000,000 square miles, with only forth in behalf of the Botanical Club Check a few, not over 50, simple forms. The List. This list has introduced many radical Oriental Region includes all of Asia south changes into our existing botanical nomenof the Himalayas, north to the Amoor, clature without sufficient reason. west to the Indus, Japan and the Malay vival of the long disused generic names of Archipelago to the Salomon Islands. The Rafinesque et al., and the retro-active appliforms are numerous, often heavy, distorted, cation of the rule “Once a synonym always elegantly sculptured, and closely related to a synonym,” whereby many generic names those of the United States.

of long standing have been discarded, are The Australian Region includes Austra- specially objectionable, and will not bear lia, Tasmania and New Zealand, with a the light of criticism. Only a few people

The re




MAY 15.

are urging the adoption of these ultra rules. might be inferred from some statements The best systematic botanists of the world which have been made, and the organization are oprosed to them, and there is such a of the Club is so loose as to be a fatal obwidespread and determined opposition to jection to regarding its doings or recommenthem in the botanical fraternity generally, dations as in any sense binding on Ameriboth in this country and in Europe, that can botanists, when these are opposed by the movement is certain to amount only to counter-recommendations proceeding from a lamentable schism. It has been claimed the most famous botanists in the world. that nine-tenths of our American botanists

F. A. LUCAS, Secretary. are in favor of these rules, but such state

NATURAL HISTORY, ments are wide of the mark. Some of these rules are in conflict with the Paris Code, Notes on the Dissection of a Chimpanzee, with and others claim to be a strict interpretation of it; but de Candolle himself, the author of

Especial Reference to the Brain: PROF.

THOMAS DWIGHT. this code, considered such interpretations of

The Conditions of Escape of Gases from the Init as "abuses,' and urged that the Paris Code of 1867 be so amended as to prevent

terior of the Earth : PROF. N. S. SHALER.

SAMUEL HENSHAW, the swamping of our nomenclature by ultra

Secretary theorists. One fact lost sight of by the movers of

THE MINNESOTA ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIthis new American system, for it has no

ENCES, MINNEAPOLIS, MAY 7. following in Europe, is that science is an I. An Observation on Ants : O. W. OESTLUND. international affair, that the bulk of the II. Remarks on Some Birds New to Minnebotanical work of the world is done outside sota : Dr. Thos. S. ROBERTS. of the United States, and that even if we III. An Amine Compound of Gold: H. B. were all agreed on this side of the water,

HOVLAND. which is far from true, it would still be

IV. The Chemical Characters of the Minnesota necessary to gain consent of botanists else

Sandstones : CHAS. P. BERKEY. where before giving to these rules any more

V. Miscellaneous Business. weight than mere suggestions. It will be

C. W. HALL, Secretary. time enough for American botanists to put them into practice when they have received the sanction of an International Botanical

NEW BOOKS. Congress. Another very strong objection

Zur Psychologie des Schreibens. W. PREYER. to making radical changes in our botanical

Hamburg and Leipzig, Leopold Voss. nomenclature is the extent to which botan

1895. Pp. 230. M. 8. ical names are used in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, floriculture, pharmacy and

The Female Offender. CÆSAR LOMBROSO and medicine. There is nothing comparable to

WILLIAM FERRERO. New York, D. Apit in zoology. Only intolerable confusion

pleton & Co. 1895. Pp. xx + 313. $1.50. can result from calling a plant by one name

Story of the Innumerable Company. DAVID in botany and by another in horticulture or STARR JORDAN. Stanford Univ. Press. pharmacy, and it is surprising that the force 1895. Pp. 38. of this argument was not perceived long ago. Short Studies in Nature Knowledge. WILLIAM Finally, the Botanical Club rules do not GEE. London and New York, Macmillan have the sanction of the A. A. A. S., as & Co. 1895. Pp. xiv + 313. $1.10

tronony ; T. C. MENDENHALL, Physics ; R. H. THURSTON, Engineering ; IRA REMSEN, Chemistry ;
J. LE CONTE, Geology; W. M. Davis, Physiography; O. C. MARSH, Paleontology; W. K. BROOKS,
Invertebrate Zoology ; C. HART MERRIAM, Vertebrate Zoölogy ; S. H. SCUDDER, Entomology ;
N. L. BRITTON, Botany ; HENRY F. OSBORN, General Biology ; H. P. BOWDITCH,
Physiology ; J. S. BILLINGS, Hygiene ; J. MCKEEN CATTELL, Psychology ;

DANIEL G. BRINTON, J. W. POWELL, Anthropology.

FRIDAY, MAY 31, 1895.

is electrified with very far from homogene

ous distribution of electric density. ObCONTENTS:

serving, at many times from May till SepOn the Electrification of Air; On the Thermal Con- tember, 1859, with my portable electrometer

ductivity of Rock at Different Temperatures : LORD KELVIN

on a flat open sea-beach of Brodick Bay in

..589 A Dynamical Hypothesis of Inheritance : JOHN A. the Island of Arran, in ordinary fair weather RYDER ..

..597 at all hours of the day, I found the differCurrent Notes on Physiography (VII.): W. M.

ence of potentials, between the earth and an DAVIS.

..605 Annual Meeting of the Chemical Society (London):

insulated burning match at a height of 9 W. W. R..

..606 feet above it (2 feet from the uninsulated Correspondence:


metal case of the instrument, held over the Haeckel's Monism : DAVID STARR JORDAN. The Genus Zaglossus : ELLIOTT COUES.

head of the observer), to vary from 200 to Scientific Literature: -...

.610 400 Daniell's elements, or as we may now The Cambridge Natural History: W. H. DALL.

say volts, and often during light breezes Benton's Laboratory Guide of Chemistry: W. R. O.

from the east and northeast it went up to Notes and News :

3,000 or 4,000 volts. In that place, and in The Helmholtz Memorial ; The Geological Society of America ; Nominations before the Royal Society ;

fair weather, I never found the potential John A. Ryder ; General.

other than positive (never negative, never Scientific Journals :


even down to zero), if for brevity we call The Astrophysical Journal.

the earth's potential at the place zero. In New Books


perfectly clear weather under a sky someMSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended

times cloudless, more generally somewhat for review should be sent to the responsible editor, Prof. J. McKeen Cattell, Garrison on Hudson, N. Y.

clouded, I often observed the potential at Subscriptions and advertisements should be sent to SCIENCE, 41 N. Queen St., Lancaster, Pa., or 41 East 49th St., New York.

the 9 feet height to vary from about 300

volts gradually to three or four times that (1) 'ON THE ELECTRIFICATION OF AIR.': amount, and gradually back again to nearly

$ 1. CONTINUOUS observation of natural the same lower value in the course of about atmospheric electricity has given ample two minutes.* I inferred that these gradproof that cloudless air at moderate heights ual variations must have been produced by above the earth's surface, in all weathers,

Air’; ‘On the Thermal Conductivity of Rock at Dif* Two communications by Lord Kelvin, P.R.S., ferent Temperatures.' Printed from proof sheets for to the Philosophical Society of Glasgow, meeting in Nature contributed by the author. the Natural Philosophy lecture-room of the Univer- * 'Electrostatics and Magnetism,' Sir William sity of Glasgow, March 27, 'On the Electrification of Thomson. xvi. 27. 281, 282.


electrified masses of air moving past the to positively electrified masses of air, within place of observation. I did not remark a few hundred feet of the place of observathen, but I now see, that the electricity in tion, wafted along with the gentle winds of these moving masses of air must, in all 5 or 10 or 15 feet per second which were probability, have been chiefly positive to blowing at the time. If any comparably cause the variations which I observed, as I large quantities of negatively electrified air shall explain to you a little later.

had been similarly carried past, it is quite § 2. Soon after that time a recording at- certain that the minimum observed potenmospheric electrometer * which I devised, tial, instead of being in every case positive, to show by a photographic curve the con- would have been frequently large negative. tinuous variation of electric potential at a $ 4. Two fundamental questions in refixed point, was established at the Kew spect to the atmospheric electricity of fair Meteorological Observatory, and has been weather force themselves on our attention:kept in regular action from the commence- (1) What is the cause of the prevalent posiment of the year 1861 till the present time. tive potential in the air near the earth, the It showed incessant variations quite of the earth's potential being called zero ? (2) same character, though not often as large, How comes the lower air to be electrified as those which I had observed on the sea- to different electric densities whether posibeach of Arran.

tive or negative in different parts? ObserThrough the kindness of the Astronomer vations and laboratory experiments made Royal, I am able to place before you this within the last six or eight years, and parevening the photographic curves for the ticularly two remarkable discoveries made year 1893, produced by a similar recording by Lenard, which I am going to describe to electrometer which has been in action for you, have contributed largely to answering many years at the Royal Observatory, the second of these questions. Geeenwich. They show, as you see, not $5. In an article 'On the Electrification infrequently, during several hours of the of Air by a Water-jet,' by Magnus Macday or night, negative potential and rapid lean and Makita Goto,* experiments were transitions from large positive to large described showing air to be negatively elecnegative. Those were certainly times of trified by a jet of water shot vertically broken weather, with at least showers of down through it from a fine nozzle into a rain, or snow, or hail. But throughout a basin of water about 60 centimeters below it. very large proportion of the whole time the It seemed natural to suppose that the obcurve quite answers to the description of served electrification was produced by the what I observed on the Arran sea-beach rush of the fine drops through the air; but thirty-six years ago, except that the varia- Lenard conclusively proved, by elaborate tions which it shows are not often of so and searching experiments, that it was in large amount in proportion to the mean or reality due chiefly, if not wholly, to the to the minimums.

violent commotions of the drops impinging $3. Thinking over the subject now, we on the water surface of the receiving basin, see that the gradual variations, minute af- and he found that the negative electrificater minute through so wide a range as the tion of the air was greater when they were 3 or 4 to 1, which I frequently observed, allowed to fall on a hard slab of any material and not infrequently rising to twenty times thoroughly wetted by water than when they the ordinary minimum, must have been due fell on a yielding surface of water several * ' Electrostatics and Magnetism.'

* Philosophical Magazine, 1890, second half-year.

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