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and Merced counties northward. Through parasite, or where late infections in the fall lack of material for properly working out have not run their course before cold weather the problem I have provisionally adopted comes on, the blight keeps alive in the tree. the latter course.'
When root pressure increases in the spring, Since he has 175 specimens that he re- such cases start into activity and serve as. garded as typical longicauda, and 157 that sources of infection for the new growth.. he referred to subspecies pallidus, or 332 in The removal of these sources of infection is all, and since these 332 specimens came the preventive remedy for pear blight. The from no less than 70 localities scattered work is best performed in autumn after all over the single State of California, it is a late growth has ceased, but while the foliage little difficult to understand what he meant is still on the trees. At this season the dead by lack of material for properly working leaves which persist on the blighted branches out the problem. Furthermore, an exam- serve admirably to attract attention to the ination of the localities assigned to the two points of danger. The work can be done at alleged forms shows them to be hopelessly any time during the winter up to the time mixed—both being recorded from the San of the beginning of growth in spring. CutJoaquin Valley, and both from the coast ting out the blight in summer is unsatisregion north of Monterey !
factory on account of the continued appearOne of the largest and most highly colored ance of new infections. The matter will be members of the group is a new form from published in full in a bulletin from the Louisiana, collected by the field naturalists Division of Vegetable Pathology. of the Department of Agriculture. It is a
M. B. WAITE, northern representative of R. mexicanus and DEPARTMENT OE AGRICULTURE. is named, from its color, R. mexicanus aurantius.
THE NEW YORK BOTANIC GARDEN. The paper as a whole is a critical and The sum of $250,000 for the New York painstaking study of an obscure group. It Botanic Garden has now been subscribed is based in the main on ample material and as follows: is particularly welcome as adding another J. P. Morgan....
.$25,000 genus to those recently revised by American Columbia College
C. H. M.
25,000 C. Vanderbilt ...
25,000 NOTES AND NEWS.
J. D. Rockefeller
25,000 THE REMEDY FOR PEAR BLIGHT.
D. O. Mills........
25,000 THE writer desires to announce that a Judge A. Brown....
25,000 satisfactory method of preventing pear blight Wm. E. Dodge ....
10,000 has been discovered. After prolonged in- Jas. A. Scrymser
10,000 vestigation the complete life history of the Wm. C. Schermerhorn
10,000 microbe (Bacillus Amylovorous) has been Ex-Judge C. P. Daly...... 5,000 worked out. Most of the cases of blight 0. Ottendorfer...
5,000 either come to a definite termination in Samuel Sloan ...
5,000 summer or else kill the tree. When this is George J. Gould...
5,000 the case the blight dies out completely, there Miss H, M.Gould...
5,000 being no source of supply for the germs the John S. Kennedy
5,000 following spring. In certain cases where it Wm. Rockefeller
5,000 is a sort of even battle between the host and Jas. M. Constable..
Morris K. Jesup.
$2,500 orado, July 9th to 12th, 1895. The meetMrs. M. P. Dodge.....
1,000 ing promises to be the most important in Tiffany and Co......
1,000 the history of the Association. Among the Hugh N. Camp......
500 large number of attractive addresses anThe act of incorporation required that
nounced on the program are the address of this amount be collected for an endowment. the president, Professor Nicholas Murray The city must now raise $500,000 by bonds Butler, on What Knowledge is of Most for building purposes, and provide 250
Worth,' and an address by Professor Joseph acres of land in Bronx Park.
Le Conte on 'Effect of the Doctrine of
Evolution upon Educational Theory and THE HELMHOLTZ MEMORIAL.
Practice.' In addition to the subscriptions to the
MR. ARCHIBALD, president of the trustees Helmholtz Memorial acknowledged in the
of Syracuse University, has offered to be issue of SCIENCE of May 31, the sum of $97
one of six men to build a hall of science has been collected by Prof. Rood from
costing about $150,000. The University officers of Columbia College and forwarded
has also been offered $10,000 and $100,000 to the committee.
towards a new medical college. Ogden N. Rood,......
$10 William Hallock,
THE University of Chicago announces H. Cushman,..
that an American Journal of Sociology will be R. Gordon,
be issued bi-monthly from its press.
3 H. C. Parker,
5 THERE are eleven candidates for the deH. S. Curtis,...
2 gree of Ph. D. at the University of Chicago Asa S. Iglehart,
3 -in Sociology and Geology each two, and C.C. Trowbridge,....
1 in Philosophy, Greek, Latin, English HisH. T. Wade,......
1 tory, Semetic and Chemistry each one. J. H. Van Amringe,
MRS. L. P. BABBOTT, of Brooklyn, bas enF. R. Hutton,..
dowed a fellowship for post-graduate study F. B. Crocker,....
at Vassar College. J. K. Rees,....
2 C. F. Chandler,...
DURING the coming year lectures on exH. C. Bowen,
perimental psychology will be given by Dr. J. W. Burgess,
Scripture to the entire Junior Class, 300 R. Mayo-Smith,
members, of Yale College. Fifty underWm. R. Ware,...
graduates have elected special courses in Thomas Price,..
2 H. T. Peck,...
2 COLORADO COLLEGE will hold the fourth Livingston Farrand,
1 annual session of its summer school of N. M. Butler ,......
1 science, philosophy and languages from James H. Hyslop,
1 July 15th to August 16th. Among the lec
turers from other universities are Prof. $97
Bessey; of Kansas; Prof. Lounsbury, of GENERAL.
Yale, and Prof. James, of Harvard. The thirty-fourth annual meeting of the Part of the collection of birds given to the National Educational Association of the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard United States will be held at Denver, Col. University by Mr. W. E. D. Scott was er
hibited on June 18th. About 350 of the in 1852 became professor of mathematics in
Rev. B. L. Whitman, President of Colby
presented the Volta Bureau Library of
has been appointed instructor in anthroThe Ethical Seminary for graduates in pology, Mr. V. A. Wright instructor in Harvard University will be conducted by descriptive geometry and stereotomy, and Professor G. T. Ladd, of Yale University, in Dr. Alfred Schafer demonstrator of histology the absence of Professor Palmer during the and embryology. coming year.
PROF. VALENTINE BALL, Director of the ADDITIONAL courses of lectures will be Museum of Science and Art of Dublin, died given at Johns Hopkins University during on June 17th, at the age of 52 years. He the next academic year by Mr. G. K. Gil- was elected a fellow of the Geological Sobert and Mr. Bailey Willis on geology, and ciety of London in 1874, fellow of the Royal by Dr. Frederick M. Warren, of Adelbert Society in 1882, president of the Royal College on botany. The following appoint- Geological Society of Ireland in 1882, and ments have also been made: Abraham was professor of geology and mineralogy in Cohen, instructor in mathematics; Dr. Ja- the University of Dublin from 1881 to 1883. cob H. Hollander, instructor in economics; He was the author of works on the geology Dr. Harry C. Jones, instructor in physical of India, and accounts of explorations in chemistry ; Charles P. Singerfoos, an assist- Afghanistan, Beloochistan, the Himalayas, ant in zoology and embryology.
etc. DR. JOHN P. Lorzy has presented his JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY has received herbarium of five thousand sheets to the two gifts in memory of Prof. George H. Women's College of Baltimore.
Williams. His friends have given an oil THE death is announced of Heinrich Geis portrait of Mr. Williams, and Mrs. Williams burg, an authority on Westphalian history a sum of money sufficient to establish a and archæology, in his seventy-seventh lectureship in geology. Sir Archibald year.
Geikie, Director of the Geological Survey DR. THEOPHILUS A. WYLIE, Professor
of Ireland, has been invited to be first lecEmeritus in Indiana University, died re
turer. cently at the age of eighty-five. He ac- J. J. HOGAN, mechanic and electrician in cepted the chair of natural philosophy and the Yale Psychological Laboratory, has inchemistry in Indiana University in 1837, vented a practicable device whereby the
high voltage city current is rendered readily SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE has been elected available for low voltage instruments such a corresponding member of the Vienna as telegraph instruments, telephones, elec- Academy of Sciences. tric forks, bells, induction coils, etc. The
PROFESSOR SIMON NEWCOMB was elected General Electric Company has acquired pat
on June 16th an associate academician of ent rights. The details of the instrument
the Académie des Sciences to fill the vawill be made public as soon as the foreign
cancy caused by the death of von Helmpatents are issued.
holtz. DR. H. W. WILLIAMS, a distinguished MRS. CORNELIA PHILLIPS SPENCER has reopthalmological surgeon of Boston and ceived the degree of LL. D. from North author of several works on diseases of the Carolina State University. eye, died at Boston on June 13th at the age of seventy-three years.
Ar the summer meeting of the Univer
sity Extension Society of Philadelphia, July Prof. MICHAEL FOSTER has now prepared 1-26, Courses in literature and history, an abridgement of his classical text-book
psychology, music, biology, mathematics, of physiology, which in the sixth edition of
civics and politics will be offered. The five volumes had reached a size too large courses in science are as follows: for the needs of the medical student. The
Psychology of the Normal Mind, by Wilabridged edition is published by Macmillan
liam Romaine Newbold, Ph. D., Penna.; & Co. in an octave volume of about 1000
Physiological Psychology of Adult and pages.
Child, by Lightner Witmer, Ph. D., Penna.; Mr. Erwin F. Smith, of the Agricultural Hypnotic and Kindred Abnormal States of Department, has become one of the associate Mind, by Willian Romaine Newbold, Ph. editors of The American Naturalist, taking D.; Anatomy and Physiology of the Vercharge of the department of vegetable phys- vous System, by Lightner Witmer, Ph, D.; iology.
Experimental Methods of Child Study, by MACMILLAN & Co. announce the third Lightner Witmer, Ph.D.; Botany, by W. edition of Graduate Courses, edited by C. A. P. Wilson, Sc. D., Penna.; Systematic BotDuniway, Harvard Graduate Club, assisted any, by J. M. Macfarlane, Sc. D., Penna.; by graduate students representing twenty Vertebrate Zoology, by Edward D. Cope, leading American universities. The work Ph. D., Penna.; Invertebrate Zoology, by gives the advanced courses of instruction to J. S. Kingsley, S. D., Tufts; The Lower be offered for 1895–6 in Barnard, Brown, Plants, by Byron D. Halsted, Sc. D., RutBryn Mawr, California, Chicago, Clark, gers; Biology in Elementary Schools, by L. Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, Johns Hop- L. W. Wilson, Philadelphia Normal School; kins, Michigan, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, How Garden Varieties Originate, by L. H. Princeton, Radcliffe, Stanford, Vander- Bailey, M. S., Cornell; Relation of Certain bilt, Western Reserve, Wisconsin and Yale. Plants to Political Economy, by George L. Much valuable information is included re- Goodale, LL.D., Harvard; The New Evogarding the conditions of advanced work at lution, by Charles O. Whitman, Ph. D., these universities.
Chicago; Higher Mathematics, Algebra, Ar the commencement of the University Modern Geometry, Etc., by Isaac J. of Pennsylvania a bronze bust of the late Schwatt, Ph. D., Penna. Professor Joseph Leidy was presented by The first number of a series of Princeton Dr. Harrison Allen.
Contributions to Psychology has been issued
from the University Press, edited by J. The statement has been frequently made Mark Baldwin and containing two articles that Ceratodus is the oldest living generic reprinted from the Psychological Review: type of fishes, and the identity of the living I. General Introduction—Psychology, past fishes so-called with the mesozoic species and present, by the editor; and II. Freedom has been especially insisted on. The speakand Psycho-genesis, by A. T. Ormond. er, however, had denied such generic iden
THE Programme of the Department of Geology tity as early as 1878 on account of the difof the University of Chicago for 1895–96 ference in the form and plication of the bears witness to the great strength of the dental plates, and had revived for the recent department. Thirty-one courses are offered genus the name Neoceratodus given in misby the following officers of the department: take by Castelnau to a specimen of the Thomas C. Chamberlin, Head Professor of genus. A new name, Epiceratodus, has reGeology; Rollin D. Salisbury, Professor of cently been given by Teller to the same Geographic Geology; Joseph P. Iddings, genus and must be abandoned. But Teller Professor of Petrology; Richard A. F. Pen- has given us useful data respecting the rose, Jr., Professor of Economic Geology; cranial characters of the mesozoic species, William H. Holmes, Professor of Archæo- and we now have information sufficient at logic and Graphic Geology; Charles R. Van least to offer hints as to the relations of the Hise, Non-resident Professor of Pre-Cam- ancient and modern forms. We can affirm brian Geology; Oliver Cummings Farring positively that the recent Ceratodontids are ton, Instructor in Determinative Mineral- very different from the mesozoic species ; ogy; Edmund C. Quereau, Tutor in Palæon- that consequently they should bear the tologic Geology.
name Neoceratodus, unless a still earlier one
is applicable, and further that the differSOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
ences between the living and long extinct BIOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON.
species are enough to ever differentiate the At the meeting of June 1st Dr. C. Hart two as distinct sub-families, the Ceratodontinæ Merriam presented a paper on the Short- including only extinct species and the Neotailed Shrews of North America, stating ceratodontinæ being a recent type. The disthat an examination of many specimens tinguishing characters of the two were given showed that the described species were only at length and derived from the dermal four, Blarina brevicauda, B. carolinensis, B. bones, the modification of the posterior reparva and B. Berlandieri.
He discussed gion of the head, and the protrusion of the these and their distribution at some length, jaws. The ancient forms themselves belong saying that each species was characteristic to at least two genera: Ceratodus, typified by of one of the zoological divisions of North C. Kaupii, and Anticeratodus, typified by C. America.
Sturii, of Teller. The latter is distinguished Dr. G. Brown Goode made some remarks by the contiguity of the two palatine plates on the Location and Record of Natural and their extended inner walls. Phenomena by a Method of Reference to Professor Lester F. Ward exhibited specGeographical Coördinates.
imens of the rhizomes of the Gama Grass, Dr. Gill presented a communication on Tripsacum dactyloides, obtained at Great The Relations of the Ancient and Modern Falls, Md., on April 27th, which bore a Ceratodontidae.
striking resemblance to fossil forms deHe commented on the unusual degree of scribed under the name of Caulinites, interest connected with the Ceratodontids. Brongn., and especially to C. parisiensis,