« PředchozíPokračovat »
10. First-born of Liberty divine!
Put on Religion's bright array;
11. Rise, kindling with the orient beam;
Unfold the garments rolled in blood!
And point the way to heaven- to God.
Exercise 2. To Illustrate Rhetorical Pause, page 63.
1. The business of training our youth in elocution | must be commenced in childhood. The first school | is the nursery. There, at least, may be formed a distinct articulation, which is the first requisite for good speaking. How rarely is it found in perfection | among our orators. Words, says one, referring to articulation, should "be delivered out from the lips, as beautiful coins, newly issued from the mint; deeply and accurately impressed, perfectly finished, neatly struck by the proper organs, distinct, in due succession, and of due weight."
2. How rarely do we hear a speaker, whose tongue, teeth | and lips | do their office so perfectly | as, in any wise, to answer | to this beautiful description! And the common faults in articulation, it should be remembered, take their rise | from the very nursery. But let us refer to other particulars.
3. Grace in eloquence | in the pulpit, at the bar, cannot be separated from grace | in the ordinary manners, in private life, in the social circle, in the family. It cannot well be superin
duced upon all the other acquisitions of youth, any more than that nameless, but invaluable quality, called good breeding. You may, therefore, begin the work of forming the orator with your child; not merely by teaching him to declaim, but what is of much more consequence, by observing and correcting his daily manners, motions and attitudes.
4. We go, next, to the schools for children. It ought to be a leading object, in these schools, to teach the art of reading. It ought to occupy three-fold more time than it does. The teachers of these schools | should labor to improve themselves. They should feel, that to them, for a time, are committed the future orators of the land. I
5. We had rather have a child, even of the other sex, return to us from school a first-rate reader, than a first-rate performer on the piano-forte. We should feel that we had a far better pledge for the intelligence and talent of our child. The accomplishment, in its perfection, would give more pleasure. The voice of song is not sweeter than the voice of eloquence; and there may be eloquent readers, as well as eloquent speakers.
6. We speak of perfection in this art; and it is something, we must say in defence of our preference, which we have never yet seen. Let the same pains be devoted to reading, as are required to form an accomplished performer on an instrument; let us have, as the ancients had, the formers of the voice, the music-masters of the reading voice; let us see years devoted to this accomplishment, and then we should be prepared to stand the comparison.
7. It is, indeed, a most intellectual accomplishment. So is music, too, in its perfection. We do, by no means, undervalue this noble and most delightful art, to which Socrates applied himself, even in his old age. But one recommendation of the art of reading is, that it requires a constant exercise of mind. It demands continual and close reflection and thought, and the finest discrimination of thought. It involves, in its perfection, the whole art of criticism on language. A man may possess a fine genius, without being a perfect reader; but he cannot be a perfect reader without genius.
The rules which have been given for reading prose are, for the most part, equally applicable to poetry. There are, however, a few principles pertaining to the latter, and resulting from its metrical structure, which it is the object of this chapter to explain.
Construction of Verse.
The most common kinds of English verse are the Iambic, the Trochaic, and Anapestic; deriving their names from the kind of feet of which they are composed.
A short or unaccented syllable, is marked thus (-), and a long, or accented one, thus,(-).
The Iambus consists of a short syllable and a long one; as, bětray.
There are seven forms of this verse, named from the number of feet which they contain. The first consists of one Iambus, or foot, and the last of seven.
With dying hānd, | ăbōve | his head,
Hě shoōk | thě frāg | měnt ōf | his blāde.
The Trochee consists of one long and one short syllable; as, hateful.
There are six forms of this verse! the first consisting of one Trochee, or foot, and the last of six.
QUESTIONS. Are the rules for reading prose applicable to poetry? What are the most common kinds of English verse? Of what does an Iambus consist? Which syllable is accented? Which unaccented? How many forms has Iambic verse? Of what does a Trochee consist? Which syllable is accented? Which unaccented? How many forms has Trochaic verse ?
Restless mortals | tōil för | naught,
The Anapest consists of two short syllables and one long one; as, contrăvēne.
There are four forms of this kind of verse; the first consisting of one Anapest, or foot, and the last of four.
Măy Î gov | ěrn mỹ pās | sions with āb | solüte sway;
Resolving poetry, in this manner, into the feet of which it is composed, is called scanning.
RULE 1. Poetry should be read with a fuller swell of the open vowels, and in a manner more melodious and flowing than prose.
Fifth Form of Iambic Verse.
Thy forests, Wind | sor, and | thy green | retreats,
Fourth and Third Form of Trochaic Verse.
Third Form of Anapestic Verse.
I would hide with the beasts of the chase,
QUESTIONS. Of what does an Anapest consist? Which syllable is accented ? Which syllables are unaccented? How many forms has Anapestic verse} scanning? What is Rule First?
HARMONIC PAUSES are commonly divided into two kinds the Casural pause (II), and the Final pause (..), each denoted by the character following its name.
The cæsural pause occurs in the middle of the line, generally after the fourth, fifth, or sixth syllable, and rarely after the second or eighth.
Warms in the sun, || refreshes in the breeze,
Glows in the stars, || and blossoms in the trees.
The final pause occurs at the end of the line, and marks the measure, both in rhyme and blank verse.
O Muse, the causes and the crimes relate;
What goddess was provoked, and whence her hate;
For what offence the queen of heaven began.
Thus with the year . .
Day, or the sweet approach of even or morn.
RULE 2. Harmonic pauses increase the beauty of verse, and should be regarded when they do not injure the sense.
In the following verse, harmony requires the casural pause after the word sad, but the sense requires a pause after sit, where it must be made, even at the sacrifice of harmony.
I sit, with sad || civility I read.
QUESTIONS. How are Harmonic Pauses divided? After what syllables does the Casural pause occur? Where does the final pause occur? What is Rule Second ? Do the Grammatical and Cæsural pauses always coincide? Which takes the preference ?