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the arguments should be given, the authoritative language of the nation's highest tribunal is certainly preferable to a statement by a commentator of his understanding of the court's ruling or reasoning

The author desires to make especial acknowledgment of the very great assistance which he has received from Hon. John C. Rose, United States District Judge, and Dr. Frank J. Goodnow, Professor of Constitutional and Administrative Law at Columbia University. Both of these friends have generously spared the time to read this treatise in the proof. That they have not, however, committed themselves to all of the positions assumed herein, hardly needs to be said.

The author wishes also to express generally his debt to the various law magazines published in this country. These journals are an honor to American legal scholarship, and to the articles contained in them the author owes more than he has been able specifically to acknowledge.

In conclusion, it may be added that, where appropriate, the author has repeated language used by him in an earlier and briefer work entitled The American Constitutional System.

The work as a whole is based upon lectures delivered during recent years to the graduate students in Political Science at the Johns Hopkins University. June, 1910.

W. W. W.

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statute

11. The force of contemporaneous or long continued legislative

interpretation ...

12. Legislative and executive practice not absolutely binding.

13. Extrinsic evidence

14. Technical terms

15. The interpretative value of debates in constitutional con-

ventions ...

16. The Federalist

17. History of the times.

18. The interpretative value of legislative debates..

19. Resort to the preamble for purpose of construction....

20. “We, the People

21. “ Constitution".

22. “ Common defense and general welfare”,

23. The Constitution is to be construed as a whole.

24. So-called "natural" or "unwritten constitutional laws

have no constructive force....

25. The "spirit” of the Constitution.

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