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object of the Society and the hope of the members was and is that it may contribute in some degree to the establishment of international relations on the basis of law and justice. To effectuate this purpose the Society will hold annual meetings at which questions of international interest will be discussed and the proceedings will be published in a volume for distribution to members. The first annual meeting will be held in 1907, in Washington, D. C., on the nineteenth and twentieth of April — days not without a certain international as well as historical interest to students of history.
A programme is in the course of preparation and will be sent to all members of the Society.
It will be noted that the American Society of International Law differs from the Institute of International Law in that its membership is not restricted solely to specialists in international law. In one way this may seem to be a disadvantage, but when it is remembered that the "specialists” of international law will necessarily be included within the membership, these societies do not differ so much as would appear at first sight. The value of men of affairs, and the broad experience they bring to the discussion of a question of theory, cannot be or should not be overlooked or rejected.
In the matter of membership the resemblance of the Society to the International Law Association is marked, but the likeness is confined solely to the question of membership. The Association publishes its proceedings and while they circulate among the members and find an honored place in the library, the Association has not taken an active part in the formulation and propagation of the theory and practice of international law. The proceedings of the Association lack the scientific value and precision of the proceedings of the Institute and they have not influenced international thought as keenly or profoundly as the Annuaire of the body of specialists composing the Institute.
The American Society of International Law has sought to combine the excellencies of both organizations and to obviate at one and the same time the drawbacks necessarily existent in such societies. The Institute holds annual meetings of specialists and publishes the proceedings in the Annuaire. This volume appeals solely to the scientific world. The Association composed of specialists and interested persons prepares a programme, suitable and agreeable to the larger and less scientific body of members.
The American Society of International Law recognizes the value of a broad and democratic membership and prepares a programme suited to the occasion. It has, however, established as an organ of progressive and scientific thought the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW which will, it is hoped, bring home to the English reader, layman or specialist, the theory and practice of international law. The journal is the handmaid of science and its pages will be closed to the language of prejudice and bias.
SOCIETIES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
The Institut de droit international was organized in September, 1873, at Ghent. M. Rolin-Jaequemyns, a Belgian advocate and scholar, took the lead in effecting the organization, although Dr. Francis Lieber was one of the first to suggest the plan. The membership of the Institut is limited to 120; the members and associates are chosen because of some contribution of value within the field of international law. It is an organization of specialists, and its work has been of a scientific character. It works through permanent committees, which prepare reports for discussion at the annual meetings; through its efforts many unsettled questions have been carefully discussed, and the results of the discussion stated in the form of rules; such rules have in some cases formed the basis of later definite action by international conferences. One of the best known and most important works of the Institut is Les lois de guerre sur terre, agreed upon at the Oxford meeting of 1880. As a body of eminent textwriters and scholars the Institut gives a united expression to the views of the most noted living authorities upon international law. The proceedings of the Institut are published in its Annuaire, of which twenty volumes have appeared to 1904.
The International Law Association was organized in 1873 as the Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations. It admits to membership all who take an interest in the objects of the Association. From the first its membership has been largely English, although most of its meetings have been held in cities on the continent of Europe. An annual meeting is held, and its proceedings have been published regularly since the first meeting. No other publications are issued. The International Law Association is broader in its foundation than the Institut; its membership is open to others than specialists, and its work, though valuable, is less scientific and less important than that of the Institut.
The following is a list of the principal periodicals devoted wholly or in part to questions of international law:
Revue de droit international et de législation comparée. Established in 1869. 37 volumes issued to end of 1905. Published at Brussels six times a year.
Revue générale de droit international public. Established in 1894 at Paris. Has published twelve volumes to end of 1905. Issued bi-monthly.
Zeitschrift für internationales Privat und "ffentliches Recht. Leipzig, 1890–1905. 15 vols. Six numbers annually.
Rivista de derecho internacional y politica exterior. Established in 1905 at Madrid by the Marquis of Olivart.
Rivista di diritto internazionale. Begun in January, 1906, and issued bi-monthly.
Zeitschrift für Völkerrecht und Bundesstaatrecht. Begun in January, 1906. Six numbers to be issued annually.
Journal de droit international privé et de la jurisprudence comparée. Paris, 18741905. 32 vols. Bi-monthly.
The American Political Science Review, of which the first number appeared in November, 1906, devotes a section to international law.
To this list it is a pleasure to add two journals from a part of the world in which international law was considered to be an exotic until yesterday. Reference is made to the island empire of Japan which is anchored, so to speak, off the coast of Asia just as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is moored off the continent of Europe, and teaches the impressive lesson that energy, character and tradition are not without influence in the world's history.
Ingorance of the Japanese language would compel the JOURNAL to pass the Revue de Droit International and the Revue Diplomatique with a brief mention were it not for the courtesy of the learned councilor of the imperial Japanese embassy, M. T. Miyaoka, who contributes the following graceful and apt paragraphs:
As regards the language of those publications, you will observe that they appear solely in the Japanese language. The impression that one or the other of them was published in English or French, probably arose from the fact that the particular copy which was examined happened to contain an international document drafted in French or in English, or some extracts from the works of some eminent American or European jurists were reproduced therein. You may be interested to note that the accompanying copy of the Revue Diplomatique gives as the frontispiece a portrait of Mr. Andrew D. White, whom I had the pleasure of knowing intimately in Berlin when he was the United States Ambassador to Germany.. This particular issue besides giving a biographical sketch of the life of that eminent scholar and diplomatist, contains, among other things, some of the protocols of the peace conference at Portsmouth.
Speaking of the frontispiece, I might be permitted to remind you that our books begin where yours end, probably due to the antipodal position which the Orientals and the Occidentals occupy. I trust, however, that the fact that the back of our books corresponds to the front cover of yours, does not in any way alter the truth that there is a common brotherhood in learning and that there is no barrier of states in the intellectual intercourse of man.
In the case of the Revue de Droit International while the real front cover is written entirely in Japanese and there is nothing to indicate therein but that the whole of the publication is in Japanese, the back of the journal is done up like the front cover of a brochure written in French.
The exact dates on which these magazines began to be published cannot be ascertained without writing to Japan but both of them are monthly publications and the dates on which they were entered at the Japanese post office as third class mail matter are given thereon. By computation based on the respective numbers which the accompanying issues bear, we arrive at the conclusion that such dates of the entry at the post office were probably the dates of their first issue. On this assumption I think it is safe to say that the Revue Diplomatique has been published since January 10, 1898, while the Revue de Droit International began to appear from April 30, 1903.
The death of Carlos Calvo, on May 2, 1906, at Paris, removes from the select and authoritative writers on international law an honored and long familiar figure. Pradier-Fodéré died in 1904 and was like Calvo, although in a lesser degree, connected with South America. The passing of these two writers of the most voluminous and comprehensive treatises on the law of nations leaves a void not likely to be filled for many a day.
Carlos Calvo was born in Argentine in 1824 and was, therefore, at the time of his death eighty-two years of age. His career was long and honorable and for many years he represented his country in Europe, most recently as minister at Paris. By profession a diplomat, it is as a writer on international law that he will be longest remembered. Among his chief works are the following: Derecho International téorico y prático de Europa y América (2 vols., 1868) familiar to the student in the learned author's French version: Le Droit International théorique et practique précédé d'un exposé historique des progrès de la Science du droit des gens (5th ed., 6 vols., 1896); Manuel de Droit International; Recueil Complet des Traités, Conventions, etc., de tous les États de l'Amérique Latine depuis l'Année 1493 jusqu'à Nos Jours (1862-1869); Dictionnaire du Droit international public et privé (2 vols., 1885); Dictionnaire manuel de la Diplomatie et du droit international public et privé (1885).
It is not without interest to note that Calvo began his career as a publicist, in 1862, by a Spanish translation of Wheaton.
The mere enumeration of these works shows the industry and range of the distinguished author, and while it cannot be said that any or all of his works are likely to become classics of the science, they are all sound, solid and learned contributions. Industry was his great gift, and what industry could accomplish, he did. He carefully examined a doctrine in the light of its history and origin; he cited the literature on the subject and stopped. It was not his to build a permanent structure of his own from the materials amassed by his industry and perseverance. He was a master mechanic; he was neither a thinker nor an artist. He was, however, a learned writer and his works will keep his name green for many a day.
The Calvo doctrine, elsewhere described, is likely to prove his most individual contribution to the profession of his choice.
THE ALGECIRAS CONFERENCE
Mr. Lecky declared nationality to be the miracle of the nineteenth century; were he alive he might suggest that the twentieth century opens an era of expansion. But mankind has always lived in an age of expansion. Asia expanded into Europe, that is overran Europe; Europe expanded into America, and it is popularly believed that but for the Monroe doctrine and the danger of its enforcement goodly tracts of America would be under foreign dominion instead of enjoying the blessings of self-government. Be that as it may, Europe is not seeking to colonize the western world—but is expanding at present into Africa.
Great Britain is comfortably seated in Egypt in the somewhat amusing attitude of schoolmaster, and it is safe to say that the Egyptian will have taken many a post-graduate course before England evacuates the valley of the Nile and the highway to India. The European powers have parceled out the choice bits of darker Africa and are introducing civilization at the expense of the native.
France has expanded in the Far East and in various parts of Africa, but devotes herself assiduously to her immediate neighbors as it were. Algiers has long since renounced the way of the Corsair and has settled down into an orderly department of the French republic. Tunis enjoys the luxury of a French protectorate since 1881. A glance at the map will show how advantageous the possession of Morocco would be to France for it would consolidate her African domain giving geographical unity to her colonial empire as well as enabling the republic to share with Spain and Great Britain the entrance to the Mediterranean. Leaving out the question of territorial expansion, which would be in itself determinative, the annexation of Morocco would be of importance to France, for Morocco is a bad neighbor and the lawless land offers at once a basis of operation and an asylum for the disaffected in Algeria. Sedan shifted the balance of power in Europe and France is not free to pursue the conquest or indeed the slower process of absorption of Morocco as she once was before the madness of Louis Napoleon wrecked an empire