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THE year 1874 was remarkable for the novel spectacle which it presented of the earnest and extensive conflict of principles, with the entire absence of military strife, except in certain localities where hostile factions were contending for the possession of the civil government. Thus in the northern provinces of Spain, in Cuba, in Western and Eastern Asia, the disturbances were local, and small forces were engaged. But this conflict of principles, without interference with the quiet pursuits of industry, is one of the fruits of diffused intelligence and education. The most extensive of these conflicts existed between some of the governments of Europe and the Roman Catholic Church. In Germany, in Switzerland, in Italy, and in Austria, the supremacy of the State in antagonism to the independence of the Church was asserted and maintained by the most energetic and decisive measures. In France the republic remained entirely tranquil, and the progress of popular principles was unchecked. In Spain the strongest political factions have transferred the authority to the heir of the late Queen. All these leading public subjects, and the various relations arising out of them, with the views of governments and people, are set forth in these pages with fullness and completeness.

In no year since the war have the internal affairs of the Southern States caused more earnest discussion than during 1874. From some of these States came reports of disorders as conflicting as they were exciting. The alleged marching of negroes upon Vicksburg not only spread alarm throughout Mississippi, but riveted public attention. An appeal to arms was made, to decide a question of State politics in Arkansas, and an apparent civil war, after more than a month's duration, was only ended by the interference of the Federal Government. The exciting events in Louisiana during the latter part of the year, and the beginning of 1875, mark an epoch in the constitutional history of the nation. All of these events, not alone the public acts, but the constitutional questions and political issues involved, and whatever tends to throw light upon the cause of the difficulties, and the solution of the problems presented, are recorded in these pages with official accuracy, impartiality, and with a fullness and clearness that leave nothing to be desired. In the preparation of the record, official documents alone, where such existed, were used; while in disputed matters, both sides

were accorded a full hearing, and, as far as possible, in the official acts and language of their respective representatives.

The details of the affairs of the United States embrace the finances of the Federal Government; the operation and results of its system of revenue and taxation; the banking system; the financial and industrial experience of the country; its commerce, manufactures, and general prosperity; the finances of the States; their debts and resources; the various political conventions assembled during the year, with their nominations and platforms; the results of elections; the movements to secure cheap transportation from West to East; the action of Congress on the subject, and the debates and action on civil rights and national finances, specie payments, and other important public questions; the proceedings of State Legislatures; the progress of educational, reformatory, and charitable institutions; the extension of railroads and telegraphs, and all those matters which are involved in the rapid improvement of the country. These are contained, with ample details, in these pages.

The important diplomatic correspondence of the Federal Government, derived from the most authentic sources, is presented, and the existing relations with foreign nations.

Every country in the civilized world is noticed in these pages, and whatever of public interest has transpired in them is here recorded. Under the title of Great Britain, will be found the most complete account of her colonial possessions existing in print.

The advance in the various branches of astronomical and chemical science, with new and valuable applications to various purposes, is extensively described. The narrative of the geographical discoveries in the different parts of the earth, with their results, is very full and interesting.

The record of literature and literary progress in the United States, and in each of the countries of Europe, is as important as during any previous year. The titles of the more able works of various classes are given, with remarks on the nature of their contents.

The statistics of the religious denominations of the country, with their conventions, conferences, progress of opinions and arrangements for future union and coöperation, are here fully presented.

Biographical sketches of living men noted during the year, and notices of deceased persons of distinction in every rank of society, find a place in these pages.

All important documents, messages, orders, and letters from official persons, have been inserted entire.

A General Index, in one volume, is nearly prepared, and will form an addition to this series of volumes as soon as it can be printed.



ABBOT, Rev. GORHAM DUMMER, LL. D., an eminent scholar and teacher, a son of Rev. Jacob Abbott, and younger brother of the prolific and popular writers, Messrs. Jacob and John S. C. Abbott; born in Brunswick, Me., September 3, 1808; died at South Natick, Mass., August 3, 1874. Mr. Abbot was educated, like his brothers, at Bowdoin College, from which he graduated in 1826, and pursued a partial theological course at Andover with the class which graduated there in 1831. He was next settled as a Congregationalist minister at New Rochelle, N. Y., where he remained for three years, doing at the same time some literary work for the American Tract Society. He then established a female seminary, first in Lafayette Place, then on Washington Square, then the Spingler Institute on Union Square, where he remained for thirteen years, and subsequently remodeled the Townsend Mansion on Fifth Avenue, which for a time he conducted in connection with the Spingler Institute, and finally his school was removed to the Suydam Mansion on Park Avenue. During much of the more than thirty years he was thus engaged in teaching, his seminary occupied high rank not only in New York but throughout the country. Mr. Abbot was not only a skillful and successful teacher, but he was an excellent judge of character and possessed great executive ability. He retired from his seminary in 1869 or 1870 with an ample competence, which subsequent unfortunate investments materially diminished. But Dr. Abbot (he received the honorary degree of LL. D. from Ingham University in 1860) was not a teacher only, he had also achieved a good reputation as an author. His "Family at Home," "Nathan Dickerman," "Mexico and the United States," and other works, were creditable alike to his thorough research and his rhetorical ability. He was greatly interested in Biblical study, and imported at his



own expense a set of the plates of the Annotated Paragraph Bible of the London Tract Society, and published several editions of that admirable work, at a low price, to facilitate Biblical instruction.

ADVENTISTS. I. SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTISTS.-The statistical returns of this denomination show it to have fifteen State Conferences, three hundred churches, seventy-five ordained ministers, sixty licentiates, and fifteen thousand members. Meetings of the General Conference were held at Battle Creek, Michigan, in November, 1873, and August, 1874. At the former meeting, November 14, 1873, the treasurer reported his receipts to have been, including the balance on hand at the time of making his previous report in March, 1873, $9,039.63, and his expenditures, $4,879.88; showing a balance still on hand of $4,159.75. A committee, appointed at the previous General Conference for that purpose, reported that several families holding the views of the denomination had been induced to remove to Battle Creek, where the Conference was endeavoring to establish a strong centre of influence. This committee were requested to continue their efforts for another year. Fiftytwo thousand dollars had been pledged to the fund for the establishment of a denominational school. Resolutions were adopted by this Conference declaring the denomination to be intrusted with two great truths, which it was its duty to set before men, viz.: "The doctrine of the near advent of Christ, and that of the commandments of God and the holy Sabbath;" expressing regret at the opposition of many of the Advent people "to the Sabbath and the law of God;" but disavowing the existence toward them of a spirit of contention or bitterness, and uttering the hope "that with many of them a more candid spirit toward these great truths might yet prevail." The Seventh-Day Baptists were recognized as “a

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