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Signature of the Bank Bill Jefferson's Reports to Congress The President's Southern Tour--Jefferson's Letter to J. B. Smith, and the Resulting Controversy with Mr. Adams—Jefferson's Letter to Washington on the Subject-To Colonel Monroe-TO Mr. Adams—Mr. Adams's Reply-C. F. Adams's Allegations of Inconsistency considered (Note)—Jefferson's and Madison's Excursion North-Instructions to Mr. Short-Political Correspondence-Yazoo Claims-Effects of United States Bank Specalations-Jefferson visits Hoine-Eighteen Letters to his Daughters-His return, and the Meeting of Congress-Reports to Congress—Report to the President on English and French Commerce-His Views on Constitution of Virginia--Practice of keeping his “ Ana" commenced–The Charges against this Production considered-Reasons for writing it-Did it involve a Breach of Confidence ?--Fairness of Posthumous Publications of this kind-Reasons for revising and leaving it for publication-Judge Marshall and his Life of Washington-Its bearing on the Republican Party, and on Jeffer80n—The Ana intended as a Defence against it-The Right to employ the Testimony adduced— Avoidance of irrelevant Personalities—Compared with similar Productions in this particular--The Duty of Mr. Jefferson's Biographer.
PresidENT WASHINGTON's signing of the Bank Bill, did not abate Mr. Jefferson's confidence in him, or change their relations in the least degree towards each other. The latter wrote to Colonel Innes, of Virginia, March 13th, 1791:
"I wish you would come forward to the federal Legislature and give your assistance on a larger scale than that on which you are acting at present. I am satistied you could render essential service; and I have such confidence in the purity of your republicanism, that I know your efforts would go in a right direction. Zeal and talents added to the republican scale will do no harm in Congress. It is Fortunate that our first executive inagistrate is purely and zealously republicau
We cannot expect all his successors to be so, and therefore should avail ourselves of the present day to establish principles and examples which may fence us against future heresies preached now, to be practised hereafter."
During the winter session of Congress (1790-91), the Secretary of State made important reports to the House of Representatives relative to the American Mediterranean trade, to our prisoners in Algiers, to the cod and whale fisheries, and to other topics, for which we must refer the reader to his published Works. Congress adjourned on the 3d of March, 1791.
In April, the President set out on a tour through the Southern States. Informing the Cabinet of the points where their communications would find him, at specified dates, le directed them, if serious questions should arise-of which he thought “ the probability wis but too strony”—to consult together, and if necessary, notity him to retun. But if the heads of departments thonght they could legally and properly proceed without the immediate agency of the President, they were authorized to
In a “supposed emergency” (which the President's letters do not specifically name), the Vice-President's opinion was to be taken.'
In May, an event took place which led to some unpleasant consequences; and it was thus described, at the moment, by Mr. Jefferson, one of the principal actors in it, in a letter to the President:
PHILADELPHIA, May 8, 1791. SIR,
The last week does not furnish one single public event worthy communicating to you; so that I have only to say “all is well." Paine's answer' to Burke's pamphlet begins to produce some squibs in our public papers. In Fenno's paper they are Burkites, in the others, Painites. One of Fenno's was evidently from the author of the discourses on Davila. I am afraid the indiscretion of a printer has committeni me with my friend, Mr. Adams, for whom, as one of the most honest and disinterested men alive, I have a cordial esteem, increased by long habits of concurrence in opinion in the days of his republicanism; and even since his apostasy to hereditary monarchy and nobility, though we differ, we differ as friends should do. Beckley had the only copy of Paine's pamphlet, and lent it to me, desiring when I should have read it, that I would send it to a Jr. J. B. Smith, wbo had asked it for his brother to repriut it. Being an utter stranger to J. B. Smith,
· He was consulted during the President's absence; and Mr. Jefferson erroneously mentions it as the only occasion" on which the Vict-President “was ever requested to take part in a Cabinet question." This shows that the President's consultation of Mr. Adams, in regard to permitting Lord Dorchester's passage across our territories, was not made known to his Cabinet.
? That is, his “Rights of Man."
both by sight and character, I wrote a note to explain to him why I (a stranger to him) sent him a pamphlet, to wit, that Mr. Beckley had desired it; and to take off a little of the dryness of the note, I added that I was glad to find it was to be reprinted, that something would, at length, be publicly said against the political heresies which had lately sprung up among us, and that I did not doubt our citizens would rally again round the standard of Common Sense. That I had in my view the discourses on Davila, which have filled Fenno's papers for a twelvemonth, without contradiction, is certain, but nothing was ever further from my thoughts than to become myself the contradicter before the public. To my great asto::i-):ment, however, when the pamphlet came out, the printer bad prefixed my note to it, without having given me the most distant bint of it.
Mr. Adams will unquessonably take to himself the charge of political heresy, as conscious of his own views of drawing the present government to the form of the English Constitution, and, I fear, will consider me as meaning to injure him in the public eye. I learv that some Anglo-men have censured it in another point of view, as a sanction of Paine's principles tends to give offence to the British Government. Their real fear, however, is that this popular and republican pamphlet, taking wonderfully. is likely at a single stroke to wipe out all the unconstitutional doctrines which their bell-wether Davila has been preaching for a twelvemonth. I certainly never made a secret of my being anti-monarchical, and anti-aristocratical; but I am sincerely mortified to be thus brought forward on the public stage, where to remain, to advance, or to retire, will be equally against my love of silence and quiet, and my abhorrence of dispute.
In a letter to Colonel Monroe (July 10th), Mr. Jefferson thus traced the further history of this affair :
** The papers which I send Mr. Randolph weekly, and which I presume you see, will have shown you what a dust Paine's pamphlet has kicked up bere. My last to Mr. Randolph will have given an explanation as to myself, which I had not time to give when I sent yon the pamphlet. A writer under the name of Publicola, in attacking all Paine's principles, is very desirous of involving me in the same censure with the author. I certainly merit the same, for I profess the same principles; but it is equally certain I never meant to have entered as a volunteer into the cause. My occupations do not permit it. Some persons here are insinunting that I am Brutus, that I am Agricola, that I am Philodemus, etc., etc. I am none of them, being decided not to write a word on the subject, unless any printed imputation should call for a printed disavowal, to which I should put my name. A Boston paper has declared that Mr. Adams 'has no more concern in the publication of the writings of Publicola, than the author of the Rights of Man himself.' If the equivoque here were not intended, the disavowal is not entirely credited, because nob from Mr. Adams bimself, and because the style and sentiments raise so strong a presumptior.' Besides, to produce any effect he must disavow Davila and the Defence of the American Constitutions. A host of writers have risen in favor of Paine, and prove that in this quarter, at least, the spirit of republicanism is sound. The contrary spirit of the high officers of government is more understood than I expected. Colonel Hamilton avowing that he never made a secret of his principles,
1. Mr. Adams's son, John Qnincy Adams, was the anthor of the articles signed Pablicola.