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he could not hesitate to support this bill now formed more than

the appropriation; and if gentlemen would point out any objects not leading to some port, and calculated to facilitate the commerce of the country, he would agree to strike it out. On the lakes he knew there were ports, and these were necessary to the great and growing commerce of those waters, and he was as ready to support legitimate objects in the West as the East. He would not condescend to inquire what part of the country the object was to benefit, so it was proper. If it came from the gentleman's (Mr Blair's) committee (the committee on internal improvement) he would support it just as soon as if it came from any other. He would leave it to that gentleman to say how he could now oppose measures which he had formerly supported, because he thought the conduct of others improper or inconsistent. For himself, Mr Barringer said, seeing nothing in this bill variant from what he had always supported, he should give it his vote.

Mr Whittlesey, believing that further debate would not change a single vote, moved the previous question.

The motion was sustained, and the question being put on the passage of the bill, it was carried by a vote of 136 yeas to 53 nays. In the Senate the bill was passed by a vote of 28 ayes to 6 nays.

The decisive votes in both Houses on this bill showed the determination of Congress to act on the subject of internal improvements, in spite of the veto of the President, and as the friends of

two thirds of the Legislature, the Executive yielded his scruples to the force of public opinion, and signed the bill. By this bill the following appropriations were made:

For removing obstructions at the mouth of Huron river, Ohio, $3,480.

For removing sand bar at or near the mouth of Black river, Ohio, $9,275.

For completing the improvement of Cleaveland harbor, Ohio, $3,670.

For completing the removal of obstructions at the mouth of Grand river, Ohio, $5,680.

For completing the obstructions at the mouth of Ashtabula creek, Ohio, $7,015.

For improving the navigation of Conneaut creek, Ohio, $6,370.

For completing the improvement of the harbor of Presque Isle, Pennsylvania, $1,700.

For improving the navigation of Gennessee river, New York, $16,670.

For removing obstructions at the mouth of Big Sodus bay, New York, $17,450.

For completing piers at Oswego, New York, $2,812 92.

For securing the works of Oswego harbor, New York, by a stone pier, head, and mole, $18,600.

For completing the pier at the mouth of Buffalo harbor, New York, $12,900.

For securing and completing the works at the harbor of Dunkirk, New York, $6,400.

For further protection and preservation of the beach of Prov

incetown, Massachusetts, $2,


For the repair and completion of the breakwater at the mouth of Merimack river, Massachusetts, $16,000.

For completing repairs to piers at the entrance of Kennebunk river, Maine, $1,175.

For completing the sea wall for the preservation of Deer Island, Boston harbor, Massachusetts, $12,390.

For repairing Plymouth beach, Massachusetts, $2,820.

For completing the breakwater at Hyannis harbor, Massachusetts, $8,400.

For removing the bar at the mouth of Nantucket harbor, Massachusetts, $8,265.

For improving the harbors of New Castle, Marcus Hook, Chester, and Port Penn, in the Delaware river, $4,000.

For improving Cape Fear river, below Wilmington, North Carolina, $25,705.

For carrying on the works for the improvements of Ocracoch inlet, North Carolina, $17,000.

For completing the removal of obstructions in the river and harbor of St Marks, Florida, $7,430. For completing the removal of obstructions in the Appalachicola river, Florida, $8000.

For carrying on the work of the Delaware breakwater, $208,000.

The difficulty of laying down any constitutional principle which would justify appropriations of this description, and reject appropriations of the character demanded by the friends of internal improvement at the last

session, was so obvious, that the President was considered as having relinquished the ground of opposition to the system, upon principle, and to aim rather to check the action of Congress, than to prevent it altogether.The constitutional objection to the power of the Federal Government was no longer adhered to, and an entire departure from that objection was evinced in his assent to the bills making appropriations for carrying on certain roads and works of internal improvement, and providing for surveys. When this bill was under consideration in committee of the whole, (February 17th) an amendment was proposed by Mr Wickliffe to appropriate $150,000 for the improvement of the navigation of the Ohio river. Mr Vinton said, that he would not at that late hour give his reasons at large upon the proposed amendment, but he would state in a few words the ground upon which he thought it ought to be adopted.

The improvement of the navigation of the Ohio river, was in truth nothing more than an extension of the canals of Ohio and Pennsylvania. These two States were incurring an expense of ten or fifteen millions of dollars-the one in opening a canal from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, and the other between Lake Erie and the Ohio river, thus opening a continued communication from Philadelphia to New Orleans, by the the Pennsylvania canal, and from New York to N. Orleans through the Erie and Ohio Canal. Owing to certain shoals in the Ohio river, its navigation was almost

wholly suspended for about two months every autumn, and that too, at the very best season of the year for business on these canals. The loss of business on this account must be very great. It is of little consequence, that the Ohio canal enters the Ohio river, unless the produce of the interior can descend to New Orleans or other places of destination.-So of the Pennsylvania canal; it is in vain for that State to think of participating to any considerable extent in the trade of the western country at that season of the year, unless the navigation of the Ohio is opened to Pittsburg; so that produce may ascend and merchandise descend the river on their way to and from Philadelphia. The making of these canals, which will now be finished in a year or two, renders it of vast importance to keep the navigation of that river always open, while business can be done upon them. We have a report lying upon the table, showing that the shoals in the river can be deepened at a very moderate expense. The improvement of its navigation properly belongs to the General Government. And he hoped, considering the vast expense the States of Pennsylvania and Ohio were incurring in opening avenues of trade to the Ohio, that the comparatively small sum of $150,000, would not be denied in their great efforts.

The amendment was adopted, ayes seventynine, nays fiftytwo, as was an amendment of Mr Verplanck of $50,000 for improving the navigation of the Ohio and Mississippi,

It was taken up in the House on the 24th of February, when an unsuccessful motion was made by Mr Pettis, to include Missouri with the Ohio and Mississippi; a motion was also made by Mr Lea, to commit the bill: Mr Lea objected to the bill, because it comprised so many heterogeneous objects, and his design in recommitting it, was to have the analagous appropriations classed in separate bills.

The motion was lost, sixtytwo ayes, one hundred and seven nays, as was a motion by Mr Polk to strike out an appropriation of $25,000 for surveys under the act of 1824, which after some debate was negatived, ayes sixtysix, nays one hundred and nine; and the bill was ordered to a third reading. The next day the bill passed, ayes one hundred and seven, nays fiftyseven.

In the Senate, the bill was amended by extending the application of the sum of $150,000 to the improvement of the Mississippi, as well as to the Ohio, and guarding against its improper expenditure. An amendment was also offered by Mr King, to modify the appropriation of $25,000 to defray the expenses incidental to making surveys, by limiting its application to defray the expenses of surveys already made; but the Senate rejected it, ayes eighteen, nays nineteen. The bill then passed, ayes twentysix, nays ten. The amendment of the Senate having been concurred in by the House, the bill was sent to the President, and having received his sanction, it became a law. By this law

the following appropriations were made:

For defraying the expenses incidental to making examinations and surveys under the act of the 30th of April, 1824, $25,000.

For improving the navigation of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, to be expended under the existing laws, $50,000.

The sum of $150,000 for the improvement of the navigation of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers from Pittsburg to New Orleans, removing the obstructions in the channels at the shoal places and ripples, and such other means as may be deemed best for the deepening of the channels of the Ohio river.

By another law, the sum of $100,000 was appropriated for the purpose of opening, grading, and making the Cumberland road westwardly of Zanesville, in the State of Ohio and the sum of $75,000 for the purpose of opening, grading, and bridging the Cumberland road, in the State of Indiana, including a bridge over White river, near Indianapolis, and progressing with the work to the eastern and western boundaries of said State. And the sum of $66,000 for the purpose of opening, grading, and bridging the Cumberland road, in the State of Illinois. And by the interna!

improvement bill the sum of $41,000 was granted for roads in the territories.

The bill for building lighthouses was next taken up, and after some opposition from Mr Yancey, it passed, ayes one hundred and twentyfive, nays fortynine. It also passed the Senate with an unimportant amendment, which was agreed to by the House, and was also sanctioned by the President.

By this bill $227,912 were appropriated for building lighthouses and light-boats, $8,420 for spindles and buoys, and $19,590 for beacons and monuments.

The President and his Cabinet thus found themselves compelled to yield to public opinion expressed in Congress, and although their determination checked the action of the Federal Government in relation to internal improvement, still they had surrendered every principle upon which their opposition to the system could be founded.

By these decisive votes in Congress, this policy was considered as firmly established, and nothing was required to carry it into effect with moderation and discretion, but the harmonious cooperation between the different branches of the Government.


Treasury Report for 1830.-Appropriations for Pensions-for Support of Government.-Debate on Survey of Public Lands. -Debate on Mission to Russia.-Debate on Turkish Treaty.Appropriations for Navy-for Fortifications for Army-for the Indian Department-for Public Buildings.

THE annual report of the Secretary of the Treasury on the State of the public finances was transmitted to Congress on the 16th of December, 1830.

The balance in the treasury on the first of January, 1830, ap peared to be $5,755,704 79% The actual receipts into the treasury during the first three quarters of the year 1830, were estimated at $19,136,019, viz.:

Public Lands

Bank Dividends


The receipts during the fourth quarter were estimated at

The expenditures for the 4th quarter, including $1,415,000 on account of the Public Debt, were estimated at $4,316,005; making the total expenditures of the year 1830, $25,096,942, and leaving in the treasury on the first of January, 1831, an estimated balance of $4,819,782.

The expenditures for this year had been estimated in the preceding report at $23,755,527, and the result showed an excess over $17,268,123 1,293,719 the estimate of $1,341,415. 490,000 The receipts for 1831, were 84,177 estimated at $23,340,000, viz.:

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Total receipts which exceeded the estimated receipts for 1830 as stated in the report dated December 15, 1829, be the sum of $321,019.

The expenditures during the first three quarters of the year 1830, were estimated at $20,780,937, viz.:

Civil, Diplomatic, and Mis


Military Services, includ ing Fortifications, Indian Affairs, and Internal Improvements

Naval Service

Public Debt


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The gross amount of duties accruing during the first three quarters of the year 1830, was estimated at $20,570,000, and the debentures for drawback during the same period, amounted to 9,939,630 $3,331,895.


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