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Revenue of United States in 1830,

Operations of the Land Offices,

Statement of moneys received into the Treasury from all sources other
than Customs and Public Land during the year 1830,

Expenditures of the United States for 1830,

Commerce of each State and Territory for 1829-1830,"

Statistical view of the Commerce of the United States for the year end-
ing September 30th, 1830,

Condensed view of the Tonnage of the several Districts of the United
States on the 31st Dec. 1829,

Quantities of American and Foreign Tonnage entered into and departing

from each District, during the year ending September 30th, 1830,

Statement of the Number of Vessels, and the amount of Tonnage, which

were built, registered, enrolled and licensed, in each State and Territo-

ry of the United States during the year ending Dec. 31st, 1829,

Statement of the total Number of Vessels, and the Seamen employed in

Navigating the same, which belonged to each State or Territory of the

United States on the 31st of December, 1829,

Recapitulation of the Tonnage of the United States for the year 1829,

Summary Statement of the quantity and value of Merchandize Imported
into the United States in American and Foreign Vessels, from October
1st, 1829, to September 30th, 1830,

Summary Statement of the value of the exports, of the growth, produce

and Manufactures of Foreign Countries, from 1st October, 1829, to 30th

September, 1830,

Summary Statement of the value of the exports of the growth, produce

and Manufacture of the United States from 1st October, 1829, to 30th

September, 1830,

Disbursements from the General Treasury,

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sion of the Trafic in Slaves,



THE YEARS 1830-1831.



Policy of the Administration.-Sectional Parties.-Policy of the Southern States.-Of the Northern.-Periodical Press.-Political Machinery.-Political course of the President.-Quarrels with the Vice President.-Change of Cabinet.-Causes of Resignations.-Character of new Cabinet.-Opposition.-AntiMasonic Party.-Origin of same.-Principles of Anti-Masonic Party-Effect upon the Politics of the Union.

MORE than a year had now his first message to Congress, on elapsed since the Inauguration of the great questions dividing the Andrew Jackson as the President country. Even when a principle of the United States; and al- was advanced, it was so guarded, though this was scarcely sufficient and couched in such ambiguous to afford a fair test of the merits terms, as to commit the adminisof his administration, it was abun- tration to nothing. A modificadant time for the formation and tion of the tariff might be safely promulgation of his scheme of recommended, while all parties National Policy. The profession were dissatisfied with the adjustof certain principles of action are ment of its details; and professo much words of course among sions of favoring the cause of public men, that no intelligible internal improvement, were so criterion could be found in the limited by a reference to the very general maxims advanced in doubtful construction of the Conhis inaugural address, and as lit- stitution, as to leave it still a questle could be gained from the tion whether the Federal Govoracular expressions contained in ernment intended to continue the

exercise of that power. It seemed indeed on most subjects to be the policy of the administration to wait for the development of public opinion, and to receive rather than to give an impulse to the councils of the country.

This attitude of neutrality was not preserved on all questions. On many of those, which had so much contributed to the division of the community into sectional parties, the administration evinced a more decided character, and materially contributed by its influence to the ascendancy in the national councils, of what had been denominated the Southern Policy.

This policy, which has cccasionally triumphed in Congress, and has always exercised a strong influence in that body, results in a great degree from the peculiar structure of society in the Southern States.'

Those States from the Potomac to the province of Texas, make one large but compact territory, 900 miles in length, and 600 in breadth, having the Ohio river for a northern boundary, in which slavery forms so important a feature of society, as to give a direction to capital and in a measure to control its employment. Excluding Maryland, a State, which has been detached by various causes, (and by none more than by a conviction of the unproductive character of slave labor,) from the influence of the political motives governing this portion of the Union, and it contains a territory of 472,000 square miles, inhabited by a population of 5,083,000, of which

1,850,000, or nearly two fifths, are slaves.

Society is thus divided into two great classes-the proprietors of the soil, and the slaves who cultivate it. There are indeed some smaller classes, such as overseers, (who are dependent on the planters) and factors and merchants, who facilitate the transportation of produce to market. The most important and influential class, however, is composed of planters, and they completely control the policy of that part of the Union.

From the low intellectual condition of the slaves, it follows that their labor can be more easily employed in cultivating the soil, than mechanical pursuits. It requires but little pains to teach a negro to dig, to sow, and to reap, and so long as the cultivation of the fertile soil of the Southern States can be profitably followed, it would be idle to expect that any attempts will be made to instruct the negroes in the more intricate arts of the workshop. Agriculture or planting, therefore, is not only the chief but almost the sole employment of the south, and owing to the debased character of those employed in cultivating the earth, a large portion of society is devoted to idleness; because education and public opinion has attached a kind of degradation to all engaged in what has hitherto been the chief employment of that portion of the Union.

This exemption from labor, while it affords leisure for the acquisition of the more elegant accomplishments and the urbane

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