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USE AND MANUFACTURE OF BELLS weighs 127,836 lbs. “ This was the largest bell The employment of sonorous metal in the form of known until Bovis Godenuf gave the cathedral of bells, for the purpose of producing musical sounds, that city a bell weighing 288,000 lbs. This was again is of very great antiquity." We read of it in the Holy surpassed by the bell cast at the expense of the emScriptures, where bells are mentioned as being em
press Anne, which weighs at the lowest computation ployed in religious ceremonies, and it was ordered by 432,000 lbs., or between twenty-one and twenty-two Moses that the lower part of the blue robe of the tons *." high priest should be hung with pomegranates and
The largest bells in England are at Christchurch small bells. The same custom is noticed with refer
College, Oxford, weighing 17,000 lbs.; St. Paul's, ence to the kings of Persia ; and in many parts of London, 11,474 lbs.; and the great Tom of Lincoln, the East, at the present day, the mistress of the house
10,854 lbs., the heaviest of these being only onehas the lower part of her dress furnished with hollow twentieth the weight of the Russian bell. pieces of metal, containing small stones, and these Although the English have nothing to boast of as producing a sound as she moves, warn the domestics to the size of their church bells, when compared with of her approach. Bells were used to decorate the those of other nations, they have practised almost heads of the war-horses of the Jews, in order to ac
exclusively the art of bell-ringing. From a series of custom them to noise. The Greeks and the Romans bells of different sizes, properly tuned, so as to also used bells on many occasions, religious, civil, produce when struck, the different notes of the gamut, and military; in funeral processions, at sacrifices, and many harmonious effects are obtained. to announce the hour of bathing, and of rising in the
The practice of ringing bells in changes or in regular peals morning; they were also rung at executions.
is said to be peculiar to England ; the custom seems to have
commenced with our Saxon ancestors, and to have been But although bells were known thus early, the
common before the Conquest. The tolling of a bell is nothing manufacture of them appears to have been confined
more than producing a sound by a stroke of the clapper to those of a small size. The first church bells are
against the side of the bell, the bell itself being in a pendant supposed to have been cast at Nola, in Campania, in position, and at rest; but in ringing, the bell is elevated to the year 400; but it is not until the beginning of the
a horizontal position, so that, by means of a wheel and rope, sixth century that their enıployment is known to a
the clapper strikes forcibly on one side as it ascends, and on certainty. From this time, their use in churches the other side on its return downwards, producing at each
stroke a sound. rapidly spread in all directions; and at the end of the vinth century, scarcely a church or monastery, of any, this country, has caused great attention to be paid to
Bell-ringing having been reduced to a science in note, was unprovided with these lively barbingers of the process of casting bells, and preparing the metal. religious duties. Among the Roman Catholics, many superstitious proportions vary according to the size of the bell, or
Bell-metal is composed of tin and copper ; but the ,
, notions were attached to the employment and properties of bells. A church bell is noticed by anti- 23 lbs. of tin to 100 lbs. of copper. In large bells
the judgment of the founder: the usual quantities are quaries, inscribed with the following Latin verses, in which its valuable properties are summed up :
more copper is added, and sometimes in very small
ones a portion of silver is used, which is said to imFunera plango, fulgura frango, sabbata pango, Excito lentos, dissipo ventos, paco cruentos ;
prove the sweetness of the tone materially.
The method of casting a large bell is in the first which may be thus translated,
instance to form a core which is to fill the inside of I strike at a funeral, I disperse the thunder, I announce the the bell while casting. For this purpose a hole is dug
sabbath, I excite the lukewarm, I dissipate tempests, I soften the large enough to contain the bell, and to allow a free hearts of cruel men.
passage to the workman, during the operation of
moulding. In the spot to be occupied by the centre In allusion to another superstition regarding bells, of the mould, a stake is firmly driven into the earth;
a we find in the Golden Legend of Wynken de Worde, on the top of this stake is an iron peg, on which the one of our early English printers, that, “ It is said, guage or compasses of the moulder revolves ; the the evil spirytes, that ben in the regyon of thayre, stake is surrounded, at the lower end, with solid doubte moche when they here the belles rongen: and brickwork. This is called the millstone. A great this is the cause why the belles ben rongen when it portion of the space to be occupied by the core is thondreth, and when grete tempeste and outrages of filled up with bricks and earth, a hollow chamber wether happen, to the end that the feinds and wycked being left in the centre, into which in a subsequent
a spirytes shold be abashed and flee, and cease of the part of the process, hot coals are introduced for the movynge of tempeste."
purpose of drying the mould. This rough foundation The custom of naming bells and blessing them is afterwards covered with successive layers of fine with certain religious ceremonies exists in the Roman
cohesive earth and sand, mixed with horse or hog's church. Before bells are hung they are washed, dung, the compasses being frequently applied for the
, crossed, blessed, and named, by the bishop. The Chinese, have been from early times famous purpose of ascertaining the progress of the work, and
a moulding-board used to preserve the correct curve. for the magnitude of their bells. The city of At intervals, as the work proceeds, the mould is freNankin formerly possessed some of a very large quently dried, and any imperfections which may
, size, but their weight was so enormous, that they
arise from shrinking are corrected by the moulder, brought down the tower in which they were hung. by the addition of fresh compost ;
and the core is One of these bells is twelve feet in height, and
again dried and carefully smoothed over. seven in diameter: it is computed to weigh as much
The core being complete, the model of the bell as two tons and a half. These bells were cast about three hundred years ago : they are four in
itself is next formed, by a composition of moulding
loam and hair, which is applied to the core by layers, number, and are named, the hanger, tchoui; the eater,
the last being very thin; the last layer is a mixture che ; the sleeper, choui ; the will, si. A French
of wax and grease. The model being thus comauthor mentions seven other bells at Pekin, each of plete, the shell of the mould is formed; the first which weighs the enormous weight of six tons. But layer of this last coating is composed of earth, sifted some of the bells in Russia exceed even these in
* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 7, for a description of weight; one in the church of St. Ivan's at Moscow this monstrous bell.
very fine, and mixed with cow-hair, to make it adhere,
Like flattery's voice, from yonder tower and tempered with water to a state of semi-fluidity,
Shall speak the genius of the hour,
Shall bid the sons of mirth be glad, when it is poured upon the waxen mould, and readily
Shall tell of sorrow to the sad, adapts itself to all its parts, filling in the ornaments,
Reflection to the wise ; or writing, with which it is marked.
Shall add to superstitious fear, Two or three of these coatings having been applied, a fire
And peal on rapt devotion's ear is again lighted in the core, by which the shell is dried, and
The sounds of Paradise. the wax, leaving its impression in the sand, melted off.
And all his changeful fate brings down After this other layers of the moulding loam are laid on, a
On suffering man below, quantity of hemp being spread intermediately, to bind the
Shall murmur from its metal crown, mass more securely together; the compasses are still em
Or be it joy or woe. ployed, in order to secure a degree of equality in the thickness of the shell.
Browner see the mass appearing;
Now the rod I dip withinWhen the moulding is completed, and all the parts
Should it glaze it, close adhering, sufficiently dry, the hollow of the core is filled with
We may then our work begin. sand, through an opening left at the head of the shell.
. Come pour the tide, Five or six pieces of wood, two or three feet long, are
And be it tried, placed about the mill-stone, and under the lower part
To know if yet with favouring sign,
The ruder and the weak combine. of the shell ; between these and the mould, wooden wedges are driven to loosen the model and the shell,
Lift the liberating latch, the latter being lifted off, and the former broken and
Free the metals on their way,removed from the core: the shell, after being black.
First a hasty moment snatch, ened inside by the burning of straw, to give smooth
Heaven's protecting aid to pray! ness to the casting, is lowered exactly over the core ;
Strike the stopper! out it goes,
Heaven protect us !- now it flows. the cap containing the perforations for the rings or
Shooting, sparkling through the mould, ears is affixed, and cuts are made for the escape of
Now the fuid mass has rolled. air, and admission of the metal, after which the whole is carefully surrounded in the pit with sand, well
Through the moulded chambers gliding, rammed about the shell. A gutter being made from
Now the metal fills the soil; the furnace, along which the metal, when in a state
May the fashioned mass, subsiding, of fusion, is allowed to flow into the mould in the
Prove deserving of our toil. pit, until it has filled every part.
Short repose, an instant courting,
Till the bell has cooled, we rest-
Each may play as likes him best.
It has reached its master's aim,
The created child of flame.
Lo from the clay asunder parting,
Untarnished by the lapse of years,
All freshly bright the bell appears.
MOULDING A LARGE BELL
Come, close your ranks, your counsel tell,
In Germany, and other parts of the Continent, the casting of a large bell is celebrated as a holiday by all the neighbourhood of the foundry, and is attended with much ceremony. The following extracts are from Lord Leveson Gower's translation of the celebrated " Song of the Bell,” of Schiller. We have already alluded to this poem in the Saturday Magazine, and now add a more lengthened extract, embracing the whole of the descriptive part of the subject.
Through yonder clay at close of day
The molten mass shall run,
Our weary task is done.
Choose them clean and dry
Up the tube on high.
And man's creative hand,
Shall murmur o'er the land,
And now, with many a rope suspending,
Come, swing the monarch's weight on high,
To rule the azure canopy.
The most necessary talent of a man of conversation, is a
Although a brief account of the Castle of Heidelberg | resided at this fortress, which we will distinguish as has already appeared in this work*, yet the great the old Castle, and possessing large estates on the beauty, both picturesque and architectural, of this Rhine, was created by his brother Pfalzgraf of the far-famed ruin, and its long period of historical im- Rhine. He added largely to the Castle, built the portance, authorize the insertion of a further descrip- Benedictine monastery at Schönau, and converted a tion; which, being chiefly drawn from the ancient cloister of the same order, situated at Neuburg, about archives of the place, will embrace a summary of its a mile up the Neckar, into a convent for ladies of entire history.
rank. (This building still exists under its original In order to commence from the earliest known name of the Stift Neuburg, and is occupied as a date, we must relate that the appellation Heidelberg Summer residence by a gentleman of large fortune.) Castle was originally borne by a fortress situated Conrad died at Heidelberg, 1195, leaving an only about half a mile above the present magnificent daughter Agnes, who married Henry of Brunswick, structure, which, both according to tradition, and the to whom devolved the government. By her he had nature of the foundations still visible, was built by two children, Henry and Agnes, and residing chiefly the Romans as a defence against the native hordes on his patrimonial lands, in no way contributed to infesting the valley of the Neckar. They were fur- | the prosperity of Heidelberg. His son and successor ther protected by a wall leading from this fortress survived him but three years, dying childless at the down to the river, which, terminating in a tower, age of twenty. Upon this event the Emperor, Frederic controlled any attack by water. This tower, with a the Second, (the Emperors of Germany having, in portion of the wall, are still discernible in an old those times, the arbitration of such matters, and building called the Marstall, now used as a lying-in appointing and deposing the lesser powers as they hospital. After the retreat of the Romans, from pleased,) nominated Louis the First of Bavaria, Germany, this upper fortress was maintained as of the house of Wittelsbach, successor to the Palastronghold, and subsequently became the residence tinate lands. The people, however, resisted this of the earlier Pfalzgrafen, or Palatinate Counts. The choice, took their appointed sovereign prisoner, and first historical notice of these potentates, which can only released him at a high ransom. By a marriage be safely quoted, relates that Conrad von Hohen- of policy between Otho, son of Louis, and Agnes, staufen, (born 1127,) Duke of Suabia, and half- daughter of the late count, matters were seemingly brother of Frederic Barbarossa, Emperor of Germany, adjusted, and Louis permitted to reside in comparative * See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 139.
peace at the old Castle, but his bloody murder, which VOL. XII.
took place six years later, in 1231, proves that there | 1401. He built that part of the Castle called to this were still powerful malcontents around him. His day the Rupert building, and which forms one of the son Otho succeeding, the hereditary line was con- most ancient and picturesque portions still remaining. tinued. This prince is the first whom we find styled In his regal capacity he resided chiefly at Oppenheim, Pfalzgraf and Churfürst—a title derived from the old but was buried at Heidelberg, having equally divided German word kuren, to choose, and fürst, a prince, the Palatinate lands among his four sons. and borne as a distinction by those reigning sove. Louis the Third, the Bearded, or Pious, received, reigns who possessed the privilege of electing the as eldest son, Heidelberg for his portion, and may be emperors of Germany; we render it fitly by the term considered as the founder of the Heidelberg line. Elector. Otho united the Palatinate and Bavarian He married in 1402, Blanche, daughter of Henry the estates, purchased additional lands, and is supposed Fourth of England; the first connexion of this state to have laid the foundation of the lower Castle, of with our country, to which it has subsequently been which this account especially treats.
so vitally allied. In 1414 and 1417, Louis attended This splendid structure stands upon a platform of the church convocations at Constance, where John the rock about three hundred feet above the river, ori- Twenty-second, the deposed Pope, was committed to ginally called the Jeltenbühl; from a tradition of one his charge, and confined for some time at Heidelberg, Jetta, a heathen prophetess who dwelt in a chapel and ultimately at Manheim. This Prince conupon this site, and to whom, being in high repute for tributed much to the progress of the university and her miracles and oracles, the people flocked from all improvement of the Castle and town. He completed countries, This personage was seldom visible, but the fine church of the Holy Ghost in the marketthe prophetic words emanated from a window of the place, which had been commenced under Rupert chapel, and were caught by the crowd ausembled the First, and dying in his sixtieth year, was inbeneath. One of her prophecies which have been terred within its walls. To him succeeded his son handed down to the present generation, testifies that Louis the Fourth, who becoming entangled in some palaces in which kings should reside, should cover petty wars, died, it is said, of chagrin, in his thirtieth her lowly hill, and that numerous buildings should year, leaving an only son, Philip, in the cradle, His occupy the valley beneath, And truly, if all her brother, Frederic the First, surnamed the Conqueror, , peeps into futurity proved as clear-sighted, she duly was appointed regent to the infant prince, and subearned her reputation. Further, the tale goes, that sequently reigned conjointly with him. In those having wandered one day through the woods till she times the law of primogeniture was but partially reached a certain fountain, and a cloud, we conclude, enforced, and in several instances we find brothers being drawn over her prophetic vision, she was sur-wielding the Palatinate sceptre together, Frederic prised by a savage she-wolf, who quickly put an end was an excellent Regent; he strengthened and ento the prophetess of the Jettenbühl. The scene of this larged the Castle, and although engaged in a succes- . tragic event still bears the name of the Wolfsbrunnen, sion of wars, contrived that they should all conduce or Wolf's Fountain. It lies in a picturesque hollow to the prosperity and aggrandizement of bis states. about a mile from the town, and is to this day re- He was connected in left-handed marriage with sorted to, without any apprehension of a similar fate, the beautiful Clara Dettin, of Augsburg, and dying by the youth and beauty of Heidelberg,
in 1476, was buried by his own desire in the dress of But to return to the Pfulzgrafen. To Otho succeeded a monk, in a Carmelite Cloister be had founded at Louis the Severe, who, in his connubial transactions, Heidelberg; leaving Philip the First, or the Sincere, somewhat resembled our Henry the Eighth, having to govern alone. This prince united to a chivalrous married three wives, one of whom he beheaded.
nature, a great taste for the politer arts. By his This count dying in 1295, was succeeded by his son summons, many of the literati of that period resorted Rudolph the First, whose administration is marked to his court, and were detained in the service of the as a period of much suffering to the Castle and university. surrounding dominions. He was driven from his
In the year 1484, a high tournament was held in possessions by the Emperor Albert, and is supposed the great court of the Castle, to which all the titled to have died in Austria. The succession, nevertheless, and gentle blood, far and near, were bidden. This was bestowed upon his son, Adolphus the Simple, who, period calls forth all our liveliest conceptions of chipreferring a life of indolence to the government of valrous magnificence, and never, perhaps, was this broad lands, surrendered the sceptre to his brother lordly Castle worthier tenanted than in good Count Rudolph the Second, not, however, till he had restored Philip's time. Tradition still tells of the valour of the Castle to a habitable condition. Tenth on the the knights, the beauty of the dames, and the wine line of succession now appears Rupert the First, and wassail which flowed around; and, although the brother of Rudolph, born 1309, whose name is con- great tun* was not then in being, there was, doubtless, spicuous as the author of numerous benefits to the as little lack of mouths to drain, as of vessels to country, and especially as the founder of the Heidel- | contain the produce of the Neckar vineyards. A berg university, whose flourishing schools still remain few years later, the Emperor Maximilian honoured a monument of his enlightened liberality. He it was this Pfalzgraf with a visit, and was received with all who first resided regularly at Heidelberg, and added the pomp of the times. About this period, also, as largely to both town and Castle. lie died without the story goes, a pike was caught in the royal ponds issue at the advanced age of eighty-one, and the at Kaiserslautern, weighing 350 lbs. From an inscripgovernment devolved upon Rupert the Second, son tion upon a ring round its neck, it appeared that it of Adolphus the Simple, who, however, seems to had been placed there in 1230, by the Emperor have inherited less of his father's than of his uncle's Frederic the Second; having thus enjoyed the good nature, for we find him seeking the advancement of things of this life during an interval of 267 years his people, driving the Jews out of the town, an act and upwards. This is, fortunately, the only instance considered meritorious in those times, and presenting on record of a fresh-water fish of these majestic thirteen of the deserted houses to the university. dimensions, otherwise a race of sharks weighing This Pfalzgraf was succeeded, after a reign of eight twenty-five stone, might have been rather an awkyears, by his son Rupert the Third, elected, in 1400, ward addition to our annals of natural history. King of Rome, and crowned as such at Cologne, in
* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 140.
In spite of the hospitality which had been shown his taste for architecture; and being furnished with to the Emperor, Count Philip was not secured from designs from Raphael and Julio Romano, applied hostilities; for a year later, on his claiming the Bava- them in the erection of that splendid portion, called rian succession for his son, Maximilian declared him to this day, Otho Henry's building. This forms the under the ban, and sent a numerous army against the west side of the Tournament Court, and contains the Palatinate. Both the town and Castle, however, Ritter Saal, or Knight's Hall, and a princely suite of were so well manned and fortified, and the inhabit- apartments, the façade of which, adorned with colos. ants so devoted to their count, that the enemy only sal figures from Scripture and Pagan history, offers a caused a temporary annoyance, and soon evacuated unique specimen of the florid and gorgeous architecthe land. Philip died 1508, and was buried in the ture of those times. All these improvements were church of the Holy Ghost.
effected in the marvellously short space of three Louis the Fifth succeeded to the government, and years, for we find the death of this spirited sovereign pursued his father's plans of improvement. He en- recorded in 1559, who dying without issue, the couraged learning, protected the university, and states devolved to Frederic the Third, of the house of greatly added to the size and strength of the Castle. Simmern, also connected by no consanguinity that He it was who commenced that formidable bulwark we can discover, either with his immediate or more round the entire building, part of which, towards the remote predecessors. west, is still standing, a monument of strength. This Prince introduced the Calvinistic doctrines in Besides this, the so called Thick-tower, overlooking opposition to those of Luther, which is the first menthe town, of which only a section now remains ; the tion we have obtained of religious disputes in the square-tower, still in good preservation, the bridge, history of the Palatinate. - His controversial occupathe bridge-house, the Stückgarten, &c., &c., were all tions, probably left him no time for more secular purerections of his reign. In 1524, this Elector pro- suits,--at any rate we perceive no additions or alteclaimed a trial of cross-bow shooting, at which many rations to the Castle recorded in this reign. He died German potentates attended. This, however, appears in 1576, and was buried in the church of the Holy the pretext rather than the object of their meeting ; Ghost, succeeded by his son Louis the Sixth, who which was, in reality, to concert some means of differing on doctrinal points from his father, revived arresting the progress of those intestine or peasant the religion of Luther, and dismissed the entire Calwars, which at that time ravaged Germany. In 1537, vinistic court. This Elector also appears to have we read of a tremendous thunderstorm which broke left the Castle as he found it, and dying in 1583, was over Heidelberg, when the lightning striking the gathered to his forefathers. He left a young son, older Castle above, which had been maintained but was succeeded by his brother, John Casimir, merely as a fortress and magazine for powder, the styled Pfalzgraf and Administrator, who officiated as whole structure was rent into the air, with an explo- Regent to the young prince. This former is celebrated sion audible for miles around. Nor did the damage as the founder of the first great tun, and of the end here, for the huge masses of masonry falling on building containing it. A small chapel in the upper the town and Castle beneath, crushed whole buildings, part communicated with the cellar below, a circumand occasioned much loss of life and property. stance which savours somewhat of the monkish habits
Louis the Fifth, dying 1544, was buried in the of his predecessors. In this reign, the doctrines church of the Holy Ghost, and succeeded by his of these two reformers again changed places, John brother, Frederic the Second. This prince, although Casimir being a zealous disciple of Calvin, and again he had blamed his predecessor for his expensive love the court and state were cleared of all obnoxious of building, continued, nevertheless, the improve- dependants. ments on a large scale; and among other additions, raised the octagon-tower, which still forms one of the most beautiful features of the ruin. He rendered ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BIBLE FROM THE great services to the Emperor, and was permitted in
MONUMENTS OF ANTIQUITY. requital, to bear the Reich's Apfel or imperial crown
No. VI. in his arms, which, after this date, repeatedly occurs in the escutcheons about the Castle. Frederic ap
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE ISRAELITES IN
THE LAND OF GOSHEN. pears to have been a gay bachelor ; he always purposed marrying into some royal family, and for this The Egyptians had long been exposed to the ravages end entered into successive negotiations with different of the wandering tribes, who possessed the Arabian courts, but did not finally take upon himself the yoke of peninsula, and who were sometimes robbers and matrimony till he had completed his 50th year, when sometimes merchants. Though commercial interhis choice fell on Dorothea, daughter of the deposed course was maintained with these tribes, as king of Sweden, by whom he had no children. He found exemplified in the history of Joseph, who was died in 1556, and was buried with his forefathers. brought into Egypt by one of their mercantile caraWith him expired the Heidelberg line, and we can vans, yet they were always viewed with jealousy and discover no connexion either immediate or collateral, suspicion. When the brethren of Joseph, therefore, with Otho Henry, of the house of Neuburg, who came down to Egypt for the purchase of corn, it was succeeded to the Palatinate states.
by no means an improbable charge to accuse them This prince, although bound by no hereditary ties, of being spies, come “ to see the nakedness of the proved an excellent parent to his newly acquired land.” Nakedness here does not allude to the barrendominions, and by the height of architectural splen-ness produced by the seven years of famine, but to dour to which he raised the Castle, has established a the want of natural or artificial defences on the claim on the reverence of all artists and antiquarians. eastern frontier of Egypt, through which most inHaving, during his youth, visited the Holy Land, and vaders have entered that land from the days of the collected a number of Greek and Arabian manu- Hycsos down to those of the Ayubite sultans. Though scripts, he presented them to the university, and the sons of Israel denied the charge, we find that thereby founded the famous library which was sub- they did not deem it improbable or unnatural, for sequently nearly destroyed during the thirty years they refute it by showing that they did not belong to war. During his travels in Italy he also cultivated a wandering tribe, but to a stationary family. “Thy