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number of terms is 7, and the difference 3 ; the 7th | eighth column, seven being the number of counters, term is, consequently, equal to the first with the addi- Then seek for the horizontal column of figures, whose tion of 6 times 3, or equal to 19. This property distinguishing number is one more than the number enables the scholar to obtain the amount of any term of counters to be taken at one time, which in this in the series, at any distance from the first, by a very instance is 3, the column, therefore, is numbered 4; simple proceeding. By this last property, we are en by carrying the finger along these columns, until you abled to show in what manner the sum of all the terms come to their point of intersection at A, we find the of an arithmetical progression can readily be found, number 35, the number of ways in which seven for as the first and last terms make the same sum as counters can be arranged by threes. the second and last but one, and as the third and last but two, &c., it thence follows, that the whole progres

Two persons agree to choose, alternately, any sion contains as many times the sum of the first and number less than 11, and to add these numbers last as there are pairs of such terms.

The number of together until they shall make 100; by what means pairs is, of course, equal to half the number of terms, 100

can one of them infallibly attain to that num

ber before the other? and consequently, the sum of all the terms is equal

11 to the sum of the first and last term, multiplied by

To effect this, subtract 11 from 100, the numhalf the number of terms.

89 ber to be reached, as many times as possible ;

11 Let us put the familiar instance of the man who this will give the remainders, -89, 78, 67, 56, picked up a hundred stones, one by one, placed in a 78 45, 34, 23, 12, 1. By a knowledge of these straight line at one yard distance from each other, 11 numbers, the party who writes down the first returning to a basket placed at a yard distance also number is certain of reaching 100 first, if he

67 from the first stone, one hundred times.

can count any one of these numbers. Let us

11 It is evident, that to pick up the first stone, and put suppose, for example, that the first person who

56 it into the basket, the person must walk two yards, one knows the game, takes 1 for his first number; in going, and one in returning; that for the second he it is evident that his adversary, as he must must walk four yards, and so on, increasing by two as 45

count less than ll, can, at most, reach 11, by far as the hundredth, which will oblige him to walk 11 adding 10 to it, the first will then take 1, which two hundred yards, one hundred in going, and one will make 12; if the second takes 8, which

34 hundred in returning.

will make 20, the first will take 3, which will It may easily be perceived also, that these numbers 11 make 23 ; and, proceeding in this manner, he form an arithmetical progression, in which the number

23 will reach successively 34, 45, 56, 67, 78, 89; of terms is 100, the first term 2, and the last 200;

11 when he attains the last number, it will be by the rule already noticed, the number of yards he 12 impossible for the second player to prevent the has walked is easily ascertained.


first reaching 100 before himself. Yards.

It is evident that, if both parties understand 2 distance walked for first stone.


the game, he who begins must inevitably win. 200 distance walked for one hundredth stone.

If a piece of square pasteboard is divided into 202 sum of the first and last term.

nine cells, how can the following numbers of counters half the whole number of terms, or the be placed in the outer cells of the square, as that number of pairs of terms.

they all be placed, and yet there. shall, in every 10,100 yards.

case, be nine counters, and no more, in each outer

The numbers of counters are The distance walked, therefore, is equal to 10,100 row of three cells ? yards, or nearly five miles and three quarters.

18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36. The following tables resolve

this problem, and require no explanation. Under the head of Combination and Permutation, in

4 1 4

3 3 3 our books of arithmetic, we have rules given, by which the number of different arrangements which


3 can occur in the order of placing a certain number of counters can be ascertained. By the use of the follow

4 1 4

3 3 3 ing table, these operations can be much shortened, provided the number does not exceed 9.

2 5 2

1 7 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

3 4

8 9
1 1 1111111111 1 1


9 1 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 8 2

2 5 2
1 7 1

1 3 6 10 | 15 21 28 | 36 | 3
14 10 20 A35) 5684 4

READ not to contradict and confute, but to weigh and con1 5 15 35 70 126 5

sider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, 1 6 21 56 126 6 and some few to be digested; that is, some books are to be

read only in parts, others to be read, but not curiously; and 1 7 28 84 | 7

some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and atten1 8 36 8 tion. Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready

man, and writing an exact man.- LORD Bacon. 1 9 9

He that wants good sense is unhappy in having learning,

for he has thereby only more ways of exposing himself'; Suppose it required to know how many ways 7

and he that has sense knows that learning is not knowcounters can be arranged 3 and 3. Look to the perpen- ledge, but rather the art of using it. — The Tatler. dicular band of figures in the table, the number at the

LONDON: head of which, is equal to one more than the number




1 10


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Rude as toeir ships was navigation then,

No useful compass or meridian known
Coasting they kept the land within their ken,
And knew no North but when the pole-star shone.


begun by that limited number of great minds, on which
Nature has poured down her choicer gifts.

While thus laborious crowds
Ply the tough oar, Philosophy directs

The ruling helm.
In the present and succeeding papers it is our purpose,
therefore, to trace the progress of Navigation from its earliest
principles and practice, to its present comparatively perfect
condition; and in doing so, it will be found convenient to
adopt the following arrangement, and treat-

1st. Of the Navigation of the Ancients.
2nd. Of the Navigation of the Middle Ages.

3rd. Of Modern Navigation.
The first division will comprehend, as to time, all the
period between the creation of the world and the downfall
of Rome; that is, a space of about 4500 years.




OF THE BOAT. WHEN speaking of Navigation in the earliest stages of the world, the idea of the ark, used by Noah and his family, will readily enter into the minds of our readers. But we cannot consider the formation and use of the ark, in the seventeenth century of the world, as a commencement or link in the chain of nautical invention. The entire direction and means for accomplishing this stupendous work, were afforded by God, to effect a saving purpose in the midst of the miraculou's destruction of the human race; when the power and skill of man would have been, in those times at least, impotent to withstand or elude the watery

havoc of Nature. In addition to this, we must notice the INTRODUCTION.

absence from the ark of any means, or of any necessity, for The contemplative mind is supplied with matter for moral, which is essentially necessary to make it belong to our

its occupants navigating it from one place to another; and even sublime reflection, in viewing man in his more natural state, weak, savage, and untutored ; clad in the present subject. No intention of this sort is alluded to; skins of animals constituting his food, which are captured the ark being merely a vast shelter rendered capable of

floating on the water. For these two reasons, therefore, with toil and difficulty; inhabiting a rude hut, and con

we conclude against assigning to this event in the sacred fined within the narrow range of an island girt by the ocean, which to him is interminable; knowing no other history, a place in this treatise. land than that on which he dwells, and never daring to

We come, then, to regard the ocean as a part of the lose sight of that land, in the frail bark in which be arrangement of the Almighty power for His own wise purmoves along his native coast. Then if, by a rapid transi- poses; as among the creatures, which have been committed

to the use of man; beneficial in various ways, which it is tion, we behold man civilized and highly cultivated as he

not our province to consider here, but only as it serves the now is, borne along by

purpose of a great high-way for the nations of the world ; The heaven-conducted prow Of Navigation bold, that fearless braves

pre-eminent among which, and may it ever be, is our own The burning line, or dares the wintry pole,

country. Our subject takes not in its view a supernatural

state of the floods of the ocean, but that, wherein there is we feel the force of the oft-repeated truism, that man is a

“set a bound that they may not pass over; that they turn progressive being. Thus, it will furnish instruction to the not again to cover the earth :" We contemn, therefore, reader, if we endeavour to fill up the long interval between the quailing lament of the heathen poet, Horace, who thus these two conditions, in which we find man acting his part delivers himself:as a member of the human family, by tracing the progress

Jove has the realms of earth in vaja of Navigation from the rude raft, or ill-constructed canoe,

Divided by the unhabitable main, through the various stages of addition and improvement,

If ships profane, with fearless pride, until we reach that triumphant monument of human skill,

Bound o'er the inviolable tide. a ship of the line. An improvement, so vast, is of course we see how ill-timed is this awe of the sea, when we only one of the results of the advancement of nations in remember as readers of the Inspired Volume, that it is the scale of civilization; and this advancement is accu- written, -" They that go down to the sea in ships, that do rately tested by their collateral progress in literature, art, business in great waters; These see the works of the Lord, and science. As the first ministers to the reflecting tastes and his wonders in the deep :" and, when we call to mind, of its members, so the two latter supply their actual wants that, by means of ships, this Inspired Volume was brought and increasing desires; and there have been found, at all to us, and has been carried out again to all parts of the times, persons ready to devote their energies to carry out habitable earth. those subjects, which a few fortunate and gifted individuals In the youthful condition of the world, and when all was have invented, or improved. But the great bulk of man- new and untried, the innate love of exploring that which kind does not the less further the progress of civilization, had not yet been seen, gradually extended the locality of though all do not invent nor improve: they serve as the the human race. Brooks, and such like streams, were soon power for carrying on the work, which is contrived and forded, when new pastures, the impulse of hunting, and the * See Saturday Magasine, Vol. III., p. 36.

• Psalm civ. 9.

+ Pealm cvii. 23, 24, VOL. XII


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desire of novelty, prompted a change; and a mode of and its mariner and goods disappear under the waves. crossing the deeper streams was soon suggested to the The celebrated timber-raft which floats down the Rhine to observation of the sarage, whose condition seems, by the Dort, in the Netherlands, from the forests of Germany, is testimony of Homei, to have been at its lowest pitch, when oftentimes 1000 feet long, and 80 or 90 feet wide, consistin ignorance of any means whatever, for crossing the water, ing of trees fastened together with iron spikes and crosswhich, though seeming, at first sight, bar intercourse, timber,-a floating island with a village at the top, and does, in reality, promote it. The buoyancy of wood in the requiring nearly 500 labourers to manage it. When the water is the germ of all his subsequent proeeedings. Acci- raft is broken up and sold, it sometimes fetches a sum of dent shows him that wood invariably floats; and on the £30,000. The same practice is used on the coast of fallen trunk of a tree he ventures, beyond his own depth, Norway, thereby saving the trouble and expense of landaway from the land. The trunk of a tree, hollowed out, carriage. for a more convenient position of the body, (an idea derived, On a board, or slight raft, the surf-swimmers of the we are told, from a split reed, seen Hoating on thie water,) Sandwich Islands, in the Pacific Ocean, pursue their forms the canoe, which is usually found among the most pastime. They swim out to sea on this raft through a uncivilized of the hunian species. From this rude begin violent surf, plunging under every wave, and rising beyond ning to the noble vessels of our day, how great the interval it. In returning they are carried swiftly on the top of a of time, how slow the pace of improvement, and how abso- large wave towards the shore, when they steer among the lutely necessary, for any permanent and comprehensive rocks, taking care not to lose their planks, for such a loss is effect, the application of elements, which seemed at one deemed to be very disgraceful. time out of the reach and cognizance of man.

Somewhat superior in contrivance and effect is the construction of the pottery-floats of Egypt. Jars and various earthen vessels are made in great quantities in Upper Egypt; a large number of them are fastened together with cords and twigs into a triangular shape, having the mouths of the vessels upwards; they are then covered with bulrushes, and, being empty, are rowed as need may be, and steered down the Nile to Cairo, where the raft is taken apart and the articles are sold. Some remarks on these earthenware boats may be found in Vol. IX., p. 164, of this work.

It appears that, in very ancient times, a vessel was in use on the Nile, made from the planks of acanthus wood, so laid together as to lap over in the manner of tiling, and fastened with wooden pegs, the seams being tightened with leaves. It was also covered over with flags of the papyrus, and properly cemented, to keep out the water. In process of time an acanthus mast was added, to which was appended a sail, formed of papyrus leaves. This was the case

in the infancy of Moses, and to such the prophet Isaiah ANCIENT PICTURE OF AN EGYPTIAN SHIP.

alludes in the second verse of the 18th chapter of his book.

In ascending the Nile the vessel was towed along; in its We seem to learn from contemplating the first materials descent, it was steadied against the effects of the N. E. winds of antiquity, that man derived, from the natural objects by a hurdle of wood let down from the prow. which surrounded him, a notion of the forms and fashions of By the term canoe is generally meant a single tree things which conduce to his benefit. The pitcher-flower, hollowed out boat-like, propelled onwards in the direction (Nepenthes distillatoria,) * presented to him a graceful and

of the view of the Indian, who urges its course with padconvenient form for his cups and vases; the leaf-covered dles, which are worked perpendicularly in the water. The grottoes infused into him the idea of arranging his archi- Macedonians, who saw the natives at the mouth of the tectural principles on the patterns of nature; and the move- Indus paddling in their canoes, thought they were digging ments of the finny tribe developed the secret of directing the water with spades. Canoes are of various lengths, from his path on the water with nearly the same ease as on land; | 10 to 50 feet. the trunk of the tree hollowed out, as a receptacle for the

But the make and build of all the early naval structures navigator, accords with the body of the fish; the forepart depended simply upon the use they were put to, and the of this trunk, when sharpened off to an edge, in order to means at hand for their formation. We have from Herocleave the waters the more easily, is assimilated to the head dotus the description of a vessel for conveying goods down of the animal, while the forcible motion of its tail shadows the Euphrates to Babylon. A frame-work of willow was out the rudder, which, by its lateral movements, serves the covered with skins, forming, when complete, a sort of large purpose of steering the boat, as the tail of the animal tub, which was managed by two men with long poles, withdirects the motion of the fish. This step in Navigation is out any regard to stem or stern. They were of various completed by adopting a method for propelling the vessel sizes, and carried an ass besides the merchandize; the onwards, which method is furnished by seeing the use of animal was employed in conveying the vessel home by the fins of the fish in forming a passage through the waters. land when taken to pieces, as the downward force of the When oars, sculls, or paddles came into operation at the river's current prevented them from sailing up the stream. instance of Atlas, an ancient African monarch, the boat Major Rennel describes this vessel as being still in use in was essentially complete.

the lower parts of the river, under the name of KUFAH, The foregoing illustration condenses into one view the or round vessel. Very similar to this is the coracle, various traditions, which have been handed down respecting consisting of a large basket, over which was stretched a the first decided step in Navigation; for it matters little horse's hide. This was found among the ancient Britons from what other quarter,--the swan, or any other aquatic when the Romans invaded the island, and is still seen in fowl,—the suggestion arises to the human mind, so it use on the Severn, and among the people of South Wales. agree with the beauty of nature in its physical utility. The American Indians use wooden-ribbed vessels, covered

The raft, or floor of wood, formed by the lashing together with skins, which vessels, owing to their lightness, can be of two or more planks, seems to have been an early, as it is carried overland, when it is necessary to avoid the rapids one of the readiest modes for passing and conveying rough and waterfalls, which are numerous in the country. The goods along upon the water. In time of shipwreck, or Greenlander's canoe is covered in at the top with a skin, so for any temporary purpose of transport, its facility of make as to shut up the lower part of his body when he is sitting recommends it, when other modes fail. Thus Hannibal in the vessel; the water may thus be kept out in the used rafts for transporting his horses and elephants across roughest seas. the Rhone. The Egyptians, in very early times, used the

The double canoe of the Society Islands is an ingenious raft on the Nile. An improved sort of raft was found in contrivance for affording a safe platform, whereon the use among the Peruvians, tapered at the prow, in order to warriors may wage battle. Two canoes being placed alongpass through the water more easily; the planks were

side of each other, at a certain distance apart, planks are fastened together with leather thongs, by the unnoticed firmly fixed across, which make a stage safe from capsidecay of which the bark would oftentimes fall to pieces, zing. The whole is so contrived, that the rowers may work

underneath this floor, while the soldiers engage in battle See Saturday Magazine, Vol. II., 159,




The proas of the Ladrone Islands present another form We arrive now at the general term of boat, by which we
of the eanoe, the peculiar quality of which, we are told, is understand a combination of every peculiar excellence
swiftness to the extent of 20 miles an hour; this results afforded by each sort of water-conveyance mentioned before,
from their construetion. The lee side, or that which is The method of making and finishing off a boat is to be
away from the wind, is straight, while the other is bowed sought for in the science of Naval Architecture ; but we
out as usual. This causes both ends of the vessel to be may merely mention that, from the lightest and most sub-
narrow, and thereby exceedingly sharp, so that it pierces stantial material, strongly compacted into the form which
through the water the more readily, and needs no turning will attain most speed, and admit of most room and conve-
round when the voyager wishes to come back. In a rough nience for the rowers, whether they be one, two, or more, is
sea they have a contrivance on the windward side of the produced the most finished specimen of the first and
proa called an out-rigger, (see Vol. III., p.181, of this work,) | original class of naval structures.
to preserve a steady balance, and prevent its upsetting on
the straight or lee side. The rapid motions of the sword-

fish would seem to have suggested the idea of forming
these flying proas.

ABOUT 1230 years before the Christian era, as far as we The alder and poplar were used by the ancients for ship- are able to discern actual fact through the hazy and fabubuilding, as being hard and light woods, but oak and fir lous record of profane antiquity, the adoption of sails prowere chiefly sought after. The Greeks used chestnut and moted the nautical art beyond former conception, and cedar, the latter of which they considered to be very served as an era in history by the simultaneous wonder and durable. Cypress was valued for its not leaking, and elm admiration with which the discovery, and the authors of it, was chiefly used for the parts of the vessel under water. were hailed by their fellow-men, whose knowledge and Sometimes, in these days of nautical simplicity, a fleet of comfort were, in process of time, so much promoted thereby. ships was formed within a month of the time when the The statements of the early writers of the world seem io timber spread out its leafy arms in the forest, haste, not concur in describing Dædalus of Athens, the most skilful skill, being used in their formation. When, however, time mechanician of his day, as the individual who first pressed allowed, ship-timber was not always hastily felled, nor care- the wind into the naval service of man. His genius, lessly employed. The age of the moon, and the quarter sharpened by fear, when seeking to escape the vengeance from which the wind blew, were superstitiously heeded. of Minos, king of Crete, put up in his own boat, and in

Tacitus describes the Swedish boats, seen by the navi- that of his sou, a cloth, or cloths, to catch the passing gale, gators of his time, as being like the Northern yawls of the thus using its force to hasten on their frail barks. The present day, which are peaked at both ends. These boats singers and bards of the time, whose avocation was with were, in all probability, used for piracy, which in a bar- the multitude, and whose recitations pleased in proportion barous condition of society, is the mode of gradually esta- to the quantity of the marvellous they contained, being blishing commerce. A galley, the prow of which resembled themselves, from the very nature of their pursuits, easily the weapon of the sword-fish, was used by the ancient led off from natural principles to the sublime and mysteGreeks, as also in more modern times, for cruising against rious, chanted before those, whom rumour had already prethe pirates of the Mediterranean, whose vessels were of a possessed, the flight of Dedalus and the unfortunate death similar sort.

of Icarus, his son. Dædalus, say they, had carefully fitted The materials with which the planks or other parts of to his own body, and to that of his son, wings, constructed these different vessels were put or fastened together, were with feathers and wax. Thus equipped, they took their various. Sometimes wooden pins were employed, and at flight through the air over that part of the sea which lay other times they were connected together with thongs, made between Crete and Italy. Icarus, with the rashness and from the skins and sinews of animals; iron seldom, or unsteadiness of youth, sought a higher flight than his sire, never, coming within the reach of these primitive naval

and getting, in consequence, too near the neighbourhood of architects. The Icelanders and Esquimaux Indians were the sun, the waxen cement of his wings was Icosened, found to make their boats of long poles placed crosswise, which, thus becoming powerless, he dropped into and was tied together with whale-sinews, and covered with the skins drowned, in that part of the Ægean Sea, or Archipelago, of sea-dogs, sewed with sinews instead of thread. To stop

which bore for ages after the appellation of the Icarian Sea. leakage the ancients used lime and pounded shells, which The point in this relation which we are chiefly interested being observed to waste away, pitch, resin, and wax were in clearing up, is the youth's mismanagement of his wings. employed. Sometimes the crevices were first stopped up The fact of the passage of one of these persons from with tlax, and then leather was employed for sheathing. Crete to Italy, and the drowning of the other, is undisWe find sheet-lead used for the same purpose, and copper puted; also that they went over the water and not over the nails. For their tools they used flints and shells for cut- land, As we know that it is incompatible with the human ting, while several of the bones of fishes served them to frame to be buoyed up by wings in the air, and unnatural pierce, to saw, and to plane with. From these nature sug- that greater heat should be experienced in rising above the gested implements is derived, with improvements according surface of the earth, balloons being at that time out of the to circumstances, a great portion of the tools with which question, and being aware of the stretch and license which the mechanic of modern days so skilfully performs his work. the rude and unretlective intagination can take, we see

easily that Dædalus and Icarus, by cutting their way through the waters with sails swelled out by the wind, seemed to have flown over it with wings; and this the more veritably to those who regarded only, or chiefly, the novelty of the proceeding, and received their accounts from the echo of rumour. The vessel of Icarus then, who seems not to have had his sail sufficiently under control, was capsized, and thus, as truly said in the fable," he dropped into the sea, and was drowned."

Many other voyages, under circumstances so novel for the times, have received the utmost embellishment of the poetic art. When we consider the surprise of ignorant people, at beholding floating castles with expanded wings, making their unassisted way over the sea, we discern easily whence arose the fiction of the flight of Perseus to the Gorgons, who, we are told by Aristophanes, was carried thither in a ship. The story of Triptolemus, who was feigned to ride about the world on a winged dragon, doing good to the huinan race, is easily understood, when we remember that he was employed by his countrymen to procure in a ship corn from foreign shores, for the supply of their necessities. The winged horse, Pegasus, was a ship of that name, fabled to have been the offspring of Neptune,

the god of the sea. In a word, we thus account for the ANCIENT ROWING-BOAT

stories of griffins, or of ships transformed into fishes and birds, so frequently met with in the ancient poets.

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It is probable that some natural object, such as the wing, which latter colour was intended to correspond with th. of a bird, suggested the idea of the sail. By some it has cerulean appearance of the sea, in climes where the blue been referred to the nautilus, or sailor-fish, which is seen sky overhangs the watery expanse, undimmed by clouds in the Mediterranean Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the and vapour. When we read of the black ships of Homer, Polynesian waters of the Pacific. It is oftentimes observed we must remember that they took this appearance from the in calm weather floating on the surface of the water, using pitch, with which they were externally covered to exclude its side-fins as oars, its hinder one for steering, while its the water. Sometimes other materials were used to pro dorsal-fin, which is formed from a peculiar membrane, serves duce the same effect, and hence a diversity in the colours as a sail. When wishing to go down all is drawn in, with of the ships. Such was the sort of vessels which conveyed a sufficient quantity of water to make it specifically heavier the allied army to the plains of Troy. The size and númthan its own bulk of water, it then sinks in an instant: ber of the sails increased with the magnitude of the vessels when wishing to rise again it ejects the water. (See Vol. VI., and the length of their voyages, all which depended upon p. 149.)

the importance of the nation, which, in the progress of The material of which the sail was usually composed time, by the searching spirit of commerce, or the desire of was linen, or it depended upon the particular produce of conquest, advanced the maritime arts. the country which despatched a sailing vessel from its The form and disposition of the sails in the vessel have shores. A sail was, perhaps, at first most readily formed been found to be different in different countries. We are by the mariner's suspending his clothes upon a pole, In told that, in ancient Egypt, the sail was suspended on two some countries they used leather, or skins of animals, for upright poles, so that it could be used only before the wind, sails, as Julius Cæsar observed the Gaulish Venetians to as is the case with many of the South Sea Islanders, whose do. Thus Hercules is said to have-sailed with the back of sails are made of matting. The sails of the New Zeaa lion, because he used no other sail than his garment, anders and Polynesians are found to be of a triangular which was the skin of a lion. In other countries they used form, the former having the base upwards and the latter sails made from twisted flax or hemp, as the native West downwards; and, in a general view of the case, the condiIndians are found, at the present time, to use in making a tion of the savage state in our times will be found very sail, a sort of silky grass, plaited to the length and breadth much upon a par with that of early antiquity, at least as required.

far as art and science are concerned, which consideration We do not find more than one sail used in the earliest must be kept in view, if any question should arise in the ages, or more than one mast; their vessels had not even a reader's mind, as to why we seem to treat of the naval deck. The sails were commonly white, which colour was pursuits of modern barbarians in conjunction with those of esteered more lucky, though sometimes they were of other the people who lived before the Christian era colours. The vessels were painted red and sometimes blue,

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THE RUDDER, ANCHOR, CABLES, SHIP'S NAME, &c. nected therewith by fastenings, termed rudder-bands, allu

ded to in Acts xxvii. 40; so that these were called doubleBEFORE proceeding to consider the more perfect condition stern ships, and could be propelled either way, without of ancient Navigation with reference to its effects, we shall turning. Tacitus relates that the Germans used vessels of present a brief view of some of its appendages in detail. this sort. The use of the rudder-bands was to fasten the

The rudder serves to regulate the course of the ship, as helm up out of the water, when the ship was left to drive, the tail of the fish guides the motions of its body. The or take its own course; but, if they were loosened, as St. principle is the same in both cases. When the rudder is in Luke relates, the rudder dipped into the water for use. We a right line with the central direction of the vessel, it is read of four rudders being employed, but nothing definite merely an enlargement of the keel. When drawn towards seems to be known of ships of this sort; nor of ships, either side, it has to make way against a force of water, which are mentioned as having two prows and two sterns. the resistance of which is in proportion to the angle formed It is a general feature in the maritime affairs of ancient by the rudder and the keel, and the rate of propulsion at nations, that their vessels in general could be conveniently which the vessel is urged along, or to the force of the sur- carried overland, when so doing would tend to lessen disrounding current; so that the stern or hinder part of the tance; and for this purpose they were oftentimes so convessei is forced aside out of its place by the resisting water, structed, that they could be easily taken to pieces; as was and the prow, or forepart, consequently, assumes an oppo- often done, when they wished to pass over an isthmus. site direction, according with the movement of the rudder. They were also drawn up out of the water, even for a single

It seems that the original rudder was nothing more than night. Hence, it is clear, that they were for a long time, one of the oars or paddles held sternwise by the person in at best, but sailing-boats; and that the anchor was not the boat, which natural observation and practice taught him needed. The need or convenience of this grew with the to steer the vessel by. This practice is even now far from size of the vessel. The Tuscans are said to have invented obsolete. The ancient Greeks, we are told by Homer, used the anchor, while some ascribe it to Midas, whose anchor only one rudder; but as their vessels enlarged in size, they was long preserved in one of the temples of Jupiter. But, used two, one at the prow and the other at the stern: con- i whatever means may have been originated by any party to

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