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to take his place. He had previously been employed EDUCATION OF ELIZABETH-HER LITERARY

in teaching Elizabeth, her brother Edward, and many ATTAINMENTS—HER PORTRAIT.

other illustrious personages, the art " of writing a The Princess Elizabeth, in common with her brother excellence, and in which, excellence was then highly

fair hand," an art in which he had attained great Edward and her sister Mary, received an excellent. valued on account of its rarity. education ; for this she was much indebted to her

We have, from the pen of Ascham, a very interstep-mother Catherine Parr, the last queen of Henry esting account of the course of study through which the Eighth. Her instruction was not confined even to what may be called the ordinary learning of the which she attained in learning; together with some

he led his illustrious pupil, and of the proficiency age ; for it embraced the Greek language, which, remarks upon her manners and character at that though rapidly rising into cultivation, had not then early period of her life. It is contained in a letter become an object of general study. Her first master which he wrote to a learned friend in the year 1550: ' of the learned languages was William Grindal, a pupil of the eminent Roger Ascham; and in 1548, upon Never (he says), was the nobility of England more Grindal's death, Ascham himself was called to court | ļettered than at present. Qur illustrious King Edward, in VOL. XII


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talent, industry, perseverance, and erudition, surpasses both lost her Ascham,"—an opinion which, considering
his own years and the belief of men. Numberless her economical disposition, must be taken to express
honourable ladies of the present time, surpass the daughters
of Sir Thomas More in every kind of learning.

a very high estimate of his merits. Of the extent to

But amongst them all, my illustrious mistress, the lady Elizabeth, which she profited by his instructions, and of the shines like a star, excelling them more by the splendour of proficiency which she long retained in the Latin her virtues and her learning than by the glory of her royal tongue, a memorable illustration was afforded when birth. In the variety of her commendable qualities I am the Polish Envoy, whom she received in great state, less perplexed to find matter for the highest panegyric than addressed her in a Latin speech, and poured forth, in to circumscribe that panegyric within just bounds. Yet I his master's name, a string of complaints instead of shall mention nothing respecting her but what has come under my own observation. For two years she pursued the compliments—which caused the Queen, in her own study of Greek and Latin under my tuition ; but the foun- phrase, to "scour up her old Latin which had so long dations of her knowledge in both languages were laid by lain rusting,” to rebuke the “malapert orator," an the dilgent instruction of William Grindal, my late beloved operation which she performed, according to the testifriend, and seven years my pupil at Cambridge.

mony of persons present, with great effect. The lady Elizabeth has completed her sixteenth year; Elizabeth's studious turn of mind, probably conand so much solidity of understanding, such courtesy united with dignity, have never been observed at so early an age tributed much to that peculiar regard which her She has the most ardent love of true religion, and of the brother Edward felt for her, and which she reciprobest kind of literature. The constitution of her mind is cated. “In tastes, feelings, pursuits, and religion," exempt from female weakness, and she is endued with a to use the words of Mr. Sharon Turner, " there was masculine power of application. No apprehension can be that congeniality of mind which most strongly attracts quicker than hers, no memory more retentive. French and and perpetuates reciprocal affection.” Latin she speaks like English ; Latin with fluency, and judgment; she also spoke Greek with me frequently, and Under Edward the Sixth, (says Sir Robert Naunton,) moderately well. Nothing can be more elegant than her she was his, and one of the darlings of fortune, for besides handwriting, whether in the Greek or Roman character. In , the consideration of blood, there was between these two music she is very skilful, but does not greatly delight.

princes, a concurrence and sympathy of their natures and

affections, together with the coelestial bond (confirmative He then gives an account of the different writings religion) which made them one ; for the king never called which were the object of her study under his tuition, her by any other appellation but his sweetest and dearest

She read with me almost the whole of Cicero, and a great sister, and was scarce his own man she being absent; which
part of Livy: from these two authors, indeed, her knowledge was not so betweene him and the Lady Mary.
of the Latin language has been almost exclusively derived. Camden tells us that she was in great grace and
The beginning of the day was always devoted by her to the favour with her brother King Edward, “who called
New Testament in Greek, after which she read select her by no other name than his Sweet Sister Tem-
orations of Isocrates and the tragedies of Sophocles, which

judged best adapted to supply her tongue with the purest perance,"—as likewise in singular esteem with the
diction, her mind with the most excellent precepts, and nobility and people. "For she was of admirable
her exalted station with a defence against the utmost power beauty and well deserving a crown, of a modest
of fortune. For her religious instruction she drew' first gravity, excellent wit, royal soul, happy memory, and
from the fountains of Scripture, and afterwards from St. indefatigably given to the study of learning.”
Cyprian, the Common Places of Melancthon, and similar

She wrote frequently to Edward; and though not
works which convey pure doctrine in elegant language. In
every kind of writing she easily detected any ill-adapted or many years older than himself, “strove to exhibit in
far-fetched expression. She could not bear those feeble her style some of the elaborate but least natural em-
imitators of Erasmus who bind the Latin language in the bellishments of literary composition,” His affection
fetters of miserable proverbs; on the other hand, she for her led him to desire her portrait, though with
approved a style chaste in its propriety and beautiful by the delicacy of inquiring if he might make the re-
perspicuity, and she greatly admired metaphors when not
too violent, and antitheses when just and happily opposed. quest; and she took some trouble to accompany it
By a diligent attention to these particulars, her ears became with the " artificial flowers of rhetorical diction."
so practised and so nice, that there was nothing in Greek, Her letter is an interesting specimen of her style:-
Latin, or English, prose or verse, which, according to its Like as the richeman that dayly gathereth riches to riches,
merits or defects, she did not either reject with disgust or and to one bag of money layeth a greate sort til it come to
receive with the highest delight.

infinit, so methinks your Majestie, not beinge suffised withe Ascham's employment as tutor to the Princess many benefits and gentilnes shewed to me afore this time, Elizabeth lasted only two years, at the expiration of dotbe now increase them in askinge and desiring wher you which he left her a little abruptly, in consequence of desiringe for it selfe, but made worthy for your Higthnes

may bid and commande, requiring a thinge not worthy the a distaste which he had taken to some persons in her request. My pictur 1 mene, in wiche if the inward good household. “Of this precipitation,” says Dr. Johnson, mynde towarde your grace migth as wel be declared as the “ he long repented; and as those who are not accus

outwarde face and countenaunce shal be seen, I wold nor tomed to disrespect cannot easily forgive it, he pro

have taried the commandement, but preuent [prevented] it, bably felt the effects of his imprudence to his death.”

nor have bine the last to graunt, but the first to offer it. He was restored, however, before long, to the favour mynde I shal never be ashamed to present. For thogth

For the face I graunt I might wel blusche to offer, but the , of Elizabeth ; and when she ascended the throne, from the grace of the pictur the coulers may fade by time, he was appointed to the offices of secretary for the may give by weather, may be spotted by chance; yet the Latin tongue, and likewise tutor to her Majesty in other nor time with her swift winges shal ouertake, nor the the learned languages. In this latter capacity he was mistie cloudes with ther loweringes may darken, nor chance in the habit of constantly reading with her. In his with her slipery fote may overthrow. Of this althogth yet Scholemaster, he says,

the profe coulde not be greate because the occasions hath

bine but smal, notwithstandinge as a dog hathe a day, so After dinner (at Windsor Castle, on the 10th of December, may I perchaunce have time to declare it in dides wher 1568), I went up to read with the Queen's Majesty; we read now I do write them but in wordes. And further I shal there together in the Greek tongue, as I well remember most humbly beseche your Maiestie that when you shal that noble oration of Demosthenes against Æschines, for loke on my pictur you wil witsafe (vouchsafe] to thinke that his false dealing in his embassage to Philip of Macedon. as you have but the outwarde shadow of the body afore Elizabeth retained a great regard for her tutor to

you, so my inward minde wischeth that the body it selfe the last; and when she heard of his death she is said

wer oftner in your presence; howbeit bicause bothe my

so beinge I thinke coulde do your Maiestie litel pleasur to have exclaimed, that " she would rather have thogth my selfe great good; and againe bicause I se as yet thrown ten thousand pounds into the sea than have not the time agreing therunto, I shal lerne to folow this

of age.


sainge of Orace (Horace) “ Feras non culpes quod vitairi Paid to Edmunde Allin for a Bible xxs.
non potest,” [Bear not blame what cannot be avoided.] Paid the xiiijth of December to Blaunche Parry for her
And thus I wil (troblinge your Maiestie I fere) ende with half yeres annuitie, cọ., and to Blaunche Qurtnaye for the
my most humble thankes, besechinge God longe to preserve like, lxvis. viijd.
you to his honour, to your comfort, to the realme's profit and Paid the xijth of December at the Cristening of Mres.
to my joy. From Hatfilde this 15 day of May,

Pendred's childe as by warraunte doth appeare, Lø.
Your Maiesties most humbly sistar,

Paid in reward unto sondrie persons at St. James, her

ELIZABETH. Grace then being there, viz. :— The king's fotemen xls, This letter very well illustrates the remark of her | The under kepar of St. James xs. The Gardener vs. To tutor Ascham, that she was a great admirer of meta

one Russel, grome of the Kinge's great chamber xs. John

Forman xs. To the Warderobe xls. The Violans xls. A phor and antithesis. Of the few letters which exist, Frenchman that gave a boke to her Grace xs. The kepar from Elizabeth to her brother, there is another which of the Parke Gate of St. James xs. Mr. Staunfords sercommences in precisely the same elaborate manner. vants xxs. The Lorde Russell's minstralls x$. In th' ole,

Like as a shipman in stormy wether plukes downe the as by warrant appereth, ixli. xvs. sailes tarijnge for bettar winde, so did I most noble kinge,

Paid in reward to sondrie persons the xth of August, in my unfortunate chanche a thurday pluk downe the hie viz., to Farmer that plaied on the lute, xxxs. To Mr. sailes of my ioy and comfort, and do trust one day, that as Ashfelde servant, with ij_prise oxen & x muttons, xxs. troblesome waves have repulsed me bakwarde, so a gentil More, the harper, XXXs. To him that made her Grace a winde wil bringe me forwarde to my haven.

table of walnut-tree, xliiijs. ind. And to M. Cocke's

servaunte which brought her Grace sturgeon, vjs. viijd. After her father's death, Elizabeth resided for some time with her step-mother, the Queen Dowager, originally taken from a picture by Holbein, executed

Our engraving contains a portrait of Elizabeth, who married the Lord Seymour of Sudley, the am

in the year 1551, when she was about eighteen years bitious and unfortunate brother of the Protector

A Venetian ambassador, who was in EngSomerset. The palace of Hatfield was afterwards

land her residence ; and in 1551, Edward granted to her

a few years afterwards, in the report which, in the old abbey of Ashridge, which, at the dissolution conformity with the practice of his state, he pre

sented to the Doge and Senate, thus describes her of the monasteries, became a royal house. She occa

personal appearance : sionally visited her brother's court; and Strype records an instance of her riding through London in

She is a lady of great elegance, both of body and mind,

although her face may rather be called pleasing than great state, to the palace of St. James :

beautiful. She is tall and well made; her complexion, fine March 17, 1551. The lady Elizabeth, the king's sister, though rather sallow; her eyes, but above all her hands, rode through London unto St. James's, the king's palace, which she takes care not to conceal, are of superior beauty. with a great company of lords, knights, and gentlemen;

Camden, as has been seen, describes her in her and after her a great company of ladies and gentlemen on horseback, about two hundred. On the 19th, she came

youth as being of "admirable beauty." from St. James's through the park to the court; the way

The simplicity of Elizabeth's costume in this porfrom the park-gate unto the court spread with fine sand. trait, offers a remarkable contrast to that fantastic She was attended with a very honourable confluence of noble style of decoration in which she afterwards delighted and worshipful persons of both sexes, and received with to display her person. Holbein was remarkably caremuch ceremony at the court-gate."

ful in preserving the features of costume, and we A very curious memorial of the domestic affairs of have other testimony to his correctness in this inthe Princess Elizabeth, about this time, has been pre- stance, “ With respect to personal decoration,” says served—namely, the Household Book for a year, from her tutor Ascham, in the letter before quoted, “she the 1st of October, 1551, to the last day of Septem- greatly prefers a simple elegance to show and splenber, 1552. It is entitled “ Th’ Accumpte of Thomas dour, so despising the outward adorning of plaiting Parry Esquyer, Couferor [Cofferer,] to the righte the hair and wearing of gold, that, in the whole excellent Princesse the Ladie Elizabeth, her Grace manner of her life, she rather resembles Hippolyta the King's Majestie's most honorable Sister.” Every than Phædra." Dr. John Elmer, or Aylmer, who page is signed at the bottom by the Princess herself. was tutor to Lady Jane Grey and her sisters, and

The sum total of receipts, including the “ remayne became Bishop of London in Elizabeth's reign, thus of the preceding year," amounts to 57911. 1s. 3 d., speaks of the taste of the princess in this respect with the third part of a farthing. The total amount when young, in a work entitled, -A Harbour for of the payments within the time of the accompt, is faithful Subjects. 36291. 18s. 8fd.; and there was left for the wants of The king left her rich clothes and jewels; and I know it the next year, a remayne” of 15071. Os. O d., a half to be true, that, in seven years after her father's death, she farthing and the third part of a farthing, which sum never in all that time looked upon that rich attire and is stated to have been delivered into her Grace's own

precious jewels but once, and that against her will. And hands the determination of this accompt. The

ihat there never came gold or stone upon her head till her upon

sister forced her to lay off her former soberness, and bear expenses of the house amounted to 39381. 188. 7d. ; her company in her glittering gayness; and then she so wore but deductions for “ hides, felles, and intrails of the it as every man might see that her body carried that which cattle," supplied 2071. 38. 8£d. Under the Buttry her heart misliked. I am sure that her maidenly apparel, and Cellar, great quantities of Beer are entered with which she used in King Edward's time, made the noble“ swete wine," Raynishe wine,” and “ Gascoigne men's daughters and wives to be ashamed to be dressed wine." Board wages for servants are continually men

and painted like peacocks, being more moved with her

most virtuous example than with all that ever Peter or tioned. Lamprey pies are once entered as a present. Paul wrote touching that matter. Yea, this I know, that The wages of household servants for a quarter of

a great man's daughter, (Lady Jane Grey,) receiving from a year, amounted to 821. 178. 8d. The “ lyveries" of Lady Mary, before she was queen, good apparel of tinsel, velvet coats for xiij gentlemen, at xls. The lyveries cloth of gold, and velvet, laid on with parchment-lace of of the yeomen to 781. 18s. There is also a sum of gold, when she saw it said, “ what shall I do with it?" 71. 158. 8d., mentioned as “ given in almes at sundrieshe, that were a shame to follow my Lady Mary against

“ Marry," said a gentlewoman,

Nay," quoth times to poor men and women.” Among the entries God's word, and leave my Lady Elizabeth, which followeth of the Chamber and Robes are the following :- God's word." And when all the ladies at the coming of

Paid to John Spithonius the xvijth of Maye, for bokes, the Scots' Queen Dowager, Mary of Guise, (she who visited and to Mr. Allin for a Bible, xxvijs. iiijd.

England in Edward's time,) went with their hair frownsed, Paid the thurde of November to the kepar of Herforde curled, and double curled, she altered nothing, but kept gayle for fees of John Wingfelde lying in warde, xiijs.iiija. her old maidenly shamefacedness.

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ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BIBLE FROM THE than brick-making, and was not attended with such MONUMENTS OF ANTIQUITY.

fatigue and injury to the constitution. The Egyptian No. VIII.

potters were eminent for their artistic skill; their

are fully equal to the most beautiful specimens POTTERY AND GLASS MAKING.

of Greece and Etruria ; indeed, there is every reaThe art of pottery is closely connected with that of son to believe, that both these nations originally brick-making last described, and many allusions are derived the art of pottery from Egypt. made to the process by the sacred writers. Most of One of the most remarkable inventions of a remote our readers have probably witnessed this interesting era, was the manufacture of glass, with which the operation. A formless lump of clay is placed on a Egyptians were acquainted more than three thousand revolving stone; as the wheel turns, a mere touch of years ago. Of this we have the clearest possible the finger suffices to give it shape, the same process evidence, not only from numerous specimens of the

hollows the inside and articles themselves, found in the tombs, and among forms the exterior. the ruins of the temples, but also from the painted The simplicity of this representations of the processes of manufacture, plastic process com- preserved in the same situations, and from which pared with the beauty the illustrations of the whole of this series of papers of the result, suggests are copied. They were not only skilled in the art of a very vivid illustra- fusing the materials, but also in the use of the blowtion of the Power pipe, an invention so ingenious that its presence alone which formed man out indicates a very high degree of civilization. The of the clay; thus Isaiah fusion of glass was closely connected with the art of says, “ But now, O pottery, for many of the vases and fictile ornaments Lord, thou art our fa- are glazed over with a vitrefied substance containing ther; we are the clay, the proper proportions of the ingredients for making and thou our potter ; glass. It was generally believed by the ancients that

we all are the work of Egypt produced a peculiar species of earth without thy hand.” (Isaiah lxiv. 8). The lesson of our de which glass of the best quality could not be manupendence on our Creator is also inculcated by a factured; it is not easy to discover the nature of this reference to the same imagery. “ Woe unto him substance from the loose descriptions transmitted to that striveth with his Maker! Let the potsherd us, but it is said that the beads and ornaments formed strive with the potsherds of the earth. Shall the clay from it possessed all the lustre and brilliancy of the say to him that fashioneth it, What makest thou ? or diamond. The specimens of Egyptian beads preserved thy work, He hath no hands ?" (Isaiah xlv. 9). A in the different museums of Europe, show that this still more remarkable use of this illustration is in Jere- description is far from being exaggerated. In some miah, where, under the type of a potter, God shows of them colours are blended with more exquisite skill his absolute power in disposing of nations. “ The than in any specimens of modern art with which we word which came to Jeremiah from the Lord, saying, are acquainted; and in others pieces of coloured glass Arise, and go down to the potter's house, and there I are made to form beautiful mosaics, an art which is now will cause thee to hear my words. Then I went so rarely practised on account of the great difficulty down to the potter's house, and, behold, he wrought a of finding a proper flux for the glass, that many work on the wheels. And the vessel that he made writers have doubted the possibility of the process. of clay was marred in the hand of the potter : so he It is singular that glass beads, both round and made it again another vessel, as seemed good to the oblong, were used by ladies in ornamental work so potter to make it. Then the word of the Lord came early as the days of Moses just as they are by modern to me, saying, O house of Israel, cannot I do with embroiderers. The oblong beads, or as they are you as this potter? saith the Lord. Behold, as the usually called, bugles, were strung into a great variety clay is in the potter's hand, so are ye in mine hand, of fanciful patterns. In the Egyptian collection O house of Israel." (Jeremiah xviii. 1—6).

belonging to the king of the French, there is a lady's When the vessels were formed by the potter, they reticule formed of bugles, whose workmanship is of

were burned or baked in a extraordinary beauty. The sacred beetle is a conspi-
kiln. It will be seen from cuous ornament in the centre, and at the sides there
the accompanying engrav- are figures of stags, wrought with a life and spirit
ing, that the fire was kindled which could scarcely be expected from such a'me-
at the bottom, and a great chanical process.
heat produced by the draft The glass manufacturers were particularly skilful
of hot air through a long in the art of counterfeiting precious stones. Specimens
and narrow chimney. Seve- of these are frequently found in the tombs, and we
ral of the vessels find that the artists were most successful in imitating
broken in the manufacture, the rich green of the emerald, and the brilliant purple
and these, when thrown into of the amethyst. This manufacture of false stones
a heap, afforded shelter to seems to have been practised, not so much for the

snakes, reptiles, and disgust. purposes of deception, as with the design of enabling ing insects, so that the phrase of “ being among the persons in the middle and lower ranks of life to potsherds” was frequently used in the East, to signify imitate, at a cheap rate, the luxuries of their superiors. the lowest degree of degradation. This circumstance The Jewellers in the following engraving are probably may, perhaps, explain a passage, usually regarded as employed in preparing some of these factitious ornaone of the most difficult in the Psalms :-"Though ments which were no where so common as in Egypt. ye have lien among the pots, yet shall ye be as the Mr. Wilkinson, whose valuable and interesting work on wings of a dove covered with silver, and her feathers the Domestic Manners of the Ancient Egyptians has with yellow gold.” (Psalms Lxviii. 13).

been published since these papers were commenced, It only remains to be added, that pottery among makes the following remarks on this subject : the Egyptians was a more honourable employment

• See Saturday Magasine, Vol. VIII., p. 32.







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Many false stones, in the form of beads, have been met of ornamental oordering on some of the caskets, and
with in different parts of Egypt, particularly at Thebes ; the spirit of the figures portrayed upon them, coulu
and so far did the Egyptians carry this spirit of imitation, scarcely be paralleled even by the best of our modern
that even small figures, scarabæi, and objects made of ordi-

nary porcelain, were counterfeited, being composed of still
cheaper materials. A figure, which was entirely of earthen-
ware, with a glazed exterior, underwent a somewhat more
complicated process than when cut out of stone, and simply
covered with a vitrefied coating; this last could therefore
be sold at a low price: it offered all the brilliancy of the
former, and its weight alone betrayed its inferiority; by
which means, whatever was novel, or pleasing from its ex-
ternal appearance, was placed within reach of all classes;
or, at least, the possessor had the satisfaction of appearing
to partake in each fashionable novelty.

Such inventions, and successful endeavours to imitate
costly ornaments by humbler materials, not only show the
progress of art among the Egyptians, but strongly argue
the great advancement they had made in the customs of
civilized life; since it is certain, that until society has
arrived at a high degree of luxury and refinement, arti-
ficial wants of this nature are not created, and the lower
classes do not yet feel the desire of imitating their wealthy
superiors, in the adoption of objects dependent on taste or
accidental caprice.

Connected with this branch of Egyptian manufactures, we may notice the seal-rings, many of which were made of glass, because the impressions could be carved more easily upon this substance than upon stone. Job speaking of the subjection of the earth to the Almighty, says “it is turned as clay to the seal," whence we find that even before the days of Moses, the process of taking impressions upon some soft substance with a seal was so common that it was used as a familiar illustration in a poem, whose date is probably anterior to the invention of alphabetic

writing. The seal was worn as a ring upon the finger, Though glass was principally used for fancy works, or as the ornament of a bracelet; the former custom it was also employed in the manufacture of bottles, prevailed every where before the invention of watches, vases, and other utensils, but especially wine cups. In and is not yet wholly disused. In the Bible we find the later ages, when the Romans conquered Egypt, the seal of a king, or of a witness to an important the use of glass vases nearly superseded those of gold deed, frequently substituted for the sign manual. and silver. Indeed, some of them were so exquisitely Thus in the case of a royal decrec, we read in the wrought, that they were more valuable than if they book of Esther, “Then were the king's scribes called had been formed of the precious metals.

on the thirteenth day of the first month, and there It is said that Alexander the Great was buried in a was written according to all that Haman had comglass coffin, and there is no doubt that the Egyptian manded unto the king's lieutenants, and to the artists could have produced a vitrefied mass sufficiently governors that were over every province, and to the large for the purpose. But it is more probable that the rulers of every people of every province according coffin, or sarcophagus, was only glazed over; because to the writing thereof, and to every people after their we find that it was not unusual to have a granite language ; in the name of king Ahasuerus was it sarcophagus after it had been carved, covered with a written, and sealed with the king's ring." Esther iii. 12. coating of vitrefied matter, not very different from that it will be remembered by most of our readers, that used in the manufacture of our common green bottles. recourse was had in England to the same expedient This process displayed the sculptures and hieroglyphics when the increasing disease of his majesty George IV., carved upon the granite with great clearness, while it rendered it impossible for him to aflix his signature preserved their point and finish safe from the injuries to papers of state. The seal in Eastern nations, in. of time.

deed, is still frequently used as a stamp, being rubbed The porcelain of the Egyptians was a species of over with ink and then applied to the necessary docuglass very similar to that invented in modern times ment. The use of the seal by subscribing witnesses by the celebrated Reaumur, who, almost within our to bonds or deeds is mentioned by Jeremiah: “Men memory, discovered the art of working glass into a shall buy fields for money, and subscribe evidences, substance not very unlike china-ware.

and seal them, and take witnesses in the land of BenFrom the great beauty of the Egyptian glass-works, jamin, and in the places about Jerusalem, and in the they were esteemed very highly in the remote ages. cities of Judah, and in the cities of the mountains, It is distinctly mentioned by Job, who calls it Zekukith, and in the cities of the valley, and in the cities of the a word which our translators have rendered “crystal," south: for I will cause their captivity to return, saith because when their translation was made, the antiquity the Lord.” (Jeremiah xxxii. 44). The seal was also of glass had not been so decisively proved, as in our used, to detect whether any particular door of a box, cimes. "The gold and the crystal cannot equal it safe, or building was opened without the owner's (wisdom)." (Job xxviii. 17.)

permission, and it was also applied to bags for the same The manufacture of caskets and other such articles purpose. Thus Job, “my transgression is sealed up in of combined ornament and utility was very extensive; a bag, and thou sewest up mine iniquity.” (Job. xiv. 17). these, indeed, were, next to the linens and cottons, the It seems also probable that documents were frequently most important exports from the valley of the Nile. sealed up like modern wills, in order that they should Some were enamelled, others very elaborately carved not be opened until after a certain specified time. and adorned with studs of metal. The peculiar style Thus in the visions of Daniel we read that the celestial

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