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personage" which was upon the waters of the river ADVANTAGES OF A TASTE FOR NATURAL said to the prophet, “Go thy way, Daniel: for the words are closed up and sealed, till the time of the When a young person, who has enjoyed the benefits of a end” (Dan. xii. 9.); and Isaiah speaks of an obscure liberal education, instead of leading a life of indolence, prophecy, as “ the words of a book that is sealed." dissipation, or vice, employs himself in studying the marks (Isaiah xxix. 11.)

of infinite wisdom and goodness which are manifested in The seal of a king was sometimes, as a mark of every part of the visible creation, we know not which we

ought most to congratulate, the public or the individual. special favour, imprinted with ink or some other

Self-taught naturalists are often found to make no little coloured material on the forehead or face of a person progress in knowledge, and to strike out many new lights, appointed to some especial dignity. Thus we read in by the mere aid of original genius and patient application. the Gospel of St. John“ Labour not for the meat But the well-educated youth engages with these pursuits which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth

with peculiar advantage. He takes more comprehensive unto everlasting life, which the Son of man shall give from the early habits of his mind, is more accurate and

views, is able to consult a greater variety of authors; and, unto you ; for him hath God the Father sealed.(John more methodical in all his investigations. The world at vi. 27.) To this use of the seal there is a more remark- large, therefore, cannot fail to be benefited by his labours; able allusion in the Book of Revelations: “And I saw and the value of the enjoyments which at the same time another angel ascending from the east, having the seal he secures to himself

, is beyond all calculation. No tedious, of the living God : and he cried with a loud voice to

vacant hour ever makes him wish for he knows not what the four angels, to whom it was given to hurt the earth complain, he knows not why. Never does a restless impaand the sea, saying Hurt not the earth, neither the mentary stimulus to his dormant powers in the tumultuous

tience at having nothing to do, com pel him to seek a mosea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of pleasures of the intoxicating cup, or the agitating suspense our God in their foreheads.” (Rev vii. 2, 3.)

of the game of chance. Whether he be at home or abroad, Amulets, fetiches, and other instruments of idolatry, in every different clime, and in every season of the year, were frequently made of glass or porcelain; and universal nature is before him, and invites him to a banquet hence, in the second commandment, the prohibition is richly replenished with whatever can invigorate his under

“thou shalt not make unto thyself any graven he treads, the air in which he moves, the sea along the general,

standing, or gratify his mental taste. The earth on which image,” after which comes the special prohibition of margin of which he walks, all teem with objects to keep images, “nor the likeness of anything that is in heaven his attention perpetually awake, excite him to healthful above, or in the earth beneath.” These small images, activity, and charm him with an ever-varying succession which were supposed to act as charms, were great of the beautiful, the wonderful, the useful, and the new. temptations to idolatry, and we find that when Jacob And if, in conformity with the direct tendency of such ocfled secretly from Laban's house, that his favourite cupations, he rises from the creature to the Creator, and

considers the duties which naturally result from his own wife Rachel stole her father's domestic images, which situation and rank in this vast system of being, he will must have been of small size from the ease with derive as much satisfaction from the anticipation of the which they were concealed. “Now Rachel had taken future, as from the experience of the present, and the re the images and put them in the camel's furniture, collection of the past. and sat upon them. And Laban searched all the

The mind of the pious naturalist is always cheerful,

always animated with the noblest and most benign feelings. tent, but found them not.” (Gen. xxxi. 34). It was probably to prevent this perversion of the glass manu

Every repeated observation, every unexpected discovery,

directs his thoughts to the great Source of all order, and facture, that the inspired lawgiver of the Hebrews all good; and harmonizes all his faculties with the general did not make use of glass ornaments in the tabernacle, voice of nature. and that no effort was made to introduce the process

The men into Judea.

Whom nature's works can charm, with God himsell
Hold converse ; grow familiar, day by day,
With His conceptions; act upon His plan,

And form to His the relish of their souls.
If I were to pray for a taste which should stand me in

Wood. stead under every variety of circumstances, and be a source of happiness and cheerfulness to me through life, and a shield against its ills, however things might go amiss, and the world frown upon me, it would be a taste for reading.

We are obliged to these duties of humanity, upon account I speak of it, of course, only as a worldly advantage, and

of common interest, benefit, and advantage. The welfare not in the slightest degree as superseding or derogating and safety, the honour and reputation, the pleasure and from the higher office and surer and stronger panoply of quiet of our lives are concerned, in our loving correspond

ence with all men. religious principles—but as a taste, an instrument and a mode of pleasurable gratification. Give a man this taste,

For so uncertain is our condition, so obnoxious are we to and the means of gratifying it, and you can hardly fail of manifold necessities, that there is no man, whose good will making a happy man, unless, indeed, you put into his

we may not need, whose good word may not stand us stead, hands a most perverse selection of books. You place him

whose helpful endeavour may not sometimes oblige us. in contact with the best society in every period of history

The great Pompey, the glorious triumpher over nations, with the wisest, the wittiest—with the tenderest, the bravest,

and admired darling of fortune, was beholden at last to and the purest characters who have adorned humanity: funeral obsequies. The honour of the greatest men depends

a slave for the composing his ashes, and celebrating his You make him a denizen of all nations—a contemporary of all ages. The world has been created for him. It is hardly

on the estimation of the least, and the good will of the possible but the character should take a higher and better

meanest peasant is a brighter ornament to the fortune, a tone from the constant habit of associating in thought with greater accession to the grandeur of a prince, than the most a class of thinkers, to say the least of it, above the average

radiant gem in his royal diadem, of humanity. It is morally impossible but that the manners

It is but reasonable, therefore, if we desire to live seshould take a tinge of good breeding and civilization from curely, comfortably, and quietly, that by all honest means having constantly before one's eyes the way in which the

we should endeavour to purchase the good will of all men, best-bred and the best-informed 'men have talked and con

and provoke no man's enmity needlessly; since any man's ducted themselves in their intercourse with each other. I love may be useful, and every man's hatred is dangerous.

-Isaac BARROW. There is a gentle, but perfectly irresistible coercion in a habit of reading well directed, over the whole tenour of a man's character and conduct, which is not the less effectual Life's evening, we may rest assured, will take its character because it works insensibly, and because it is really the from the day which has preceded it; and if we would last thing he dreams of. It civilizes the conduct of men, close our career in the comfort of religious hope, we must and suffers them not to remain barbarous.—Sir JOHN prepare for it by early and continuous religious habit. HERSCHEL.





was, that the ink drying upon the pen, in a great No. II. THE HISTORY OF STEEL PENS.

measure neutralized the action of the spring.

Metallic pens appear to have been introduced into The first attempt at the construction of Permanent various seminaries, from time to time as rarities, Pens, appears to have consisted in arming the nibs of among writing materials ; they were given as prizes, Turkey-quill pens with metallic points or nibs. As rewards for merit, &c. But the first mention that the friction of the quill pen upon the paper, and the we find of steel pens for writing, is in 1803, when Mr. softening produced by the ink, are the causes which Wise constructed barrel-pens of steel, mounted in a wear away the nibs of ordinary pens, it obvious bone case for convenience of carrying in the pocket. that metal is better calculated to withstand these two These pens were very dear, and produced to their influences than quill. But although the metallic inventor but a scanty income. For many years, nibs greatly increased the durability of the pen, it however, Wise's pens were the only steel pens that was at the expense of the elasticity of the quill; and could be had, and by means of great activity in since the durability of the metallic-nibbed pen was pushing a sale" of them, they were to be had at not adequate to its additional cost over the common almost

every stationer's shop in the kingdom. quill pen, this method was soon abandoned.

About twelve years ago, the celebrated Perryan In our “ History of the Quill Pen," we have given pens first appeared. Mr. Perry may be regarded in a mode of cutting up the quill in the direction of its the light of a great improver; many of his pens are length, (as practised by Mr. Bramah,) whereby a ingenious and original in construction. He arranges great many pens could be formed out of one barrel.

his pens into genera and species, advertises their The object of this process was to prevent pen-mend- beauties and their merits in prose and rhyme, and ing, an operation which most writers feel to be an has thus, not altogether undeservedly, acquired fame

, infliction.

and renown, and, we doubt not, profit, to which, years Pens have been made, from time to time, out of ago, a mere pen-maker would not have aspired. Mr. horn and tortoise and other shells. These pens were Perry first overcame the rigidity complained of in of course more expensive than common quills, and steel pens generally, by introducing apertures between nearly all of them more durable. Nibs have even been the shoulder and the point of the pen; thus transformed, somewhat successfully, of precious stones, ferring the elasticity of the pen to a position below the advantage of which is, that they are subject to instead of above the shoulder. This was the object no wear and corrosion. In 1823 Messrs. Hawkins of his patent of 1830. In 1832 further improveand Mordan employed horn and tortoise-shell

, which ments suggested to him the propriety of seeking were cut into nibs, and softened in boiling water; a second patent, which he obtained for a pen now small pieces of diamond, ruby, and other precious bearing the odd cognomen of “The Double Patent stones were then embedded into them by pressure. Perryan Pen.” Perry's “Regulating Spring Pen” is In this way were insured durability and great elas- furnished with a sliding spring, which increases or ticity. In order to give stability to the nib, thin diminishes its flexibility, according as it is placed pieces of gold, or other metal, were affixed to the farther from or nearer to the point. In another case, tortoise-shell. Pens somewhat similar were formed Mr. Perry employs a thread of India-rubber round by Mr. Doughty; his nibs were rubies set in fine

the nibs of his pens, the yielding of which allows the gold. With these pens a person could write as finely points to open in proportion to the pressure. as with a crow-quill, or as firmly as with a swan- One of the most extensive manufacturers of steel quill, or the two modes might be combined. These pens is Mr. Joseph Gillott, of Birmingham. This pens possessed considerable elasticity, and by their gentleman employs three hundred pairs of hands, and means an uniform manuscript, unattainable by means consumes fifty tons of steel annually. Now one ton of ordinary pens, could be produced. Pens of this of steel is sufficient to make about two millions of construction have been in constant use for upwards pens; hence this manufacturer alone furnishes of six years, and at the end of that time exhibited no about one hundred millions of pens annually. signs of wear, they were as perfect then as ever. In The kind of pen made by Mr. Gillott is similar to using them, however, care is necessary to preserve the original pen by Wise. The improvement of the the nibs from contact with hard bodies; they require modern maker consists in employing metal of a occasional washing with a brush in soap and water. better quality, and in a thinner and more elastic state; Mr. Doughty states that, although they are costly at in making the slit shorter, and in carefully attending first, yet, in the end, they will be found economic, on to the finish and temper of the metal. These imaccount of their permanency. To prevent injury to provements have been attended with such a reduction the points, in the act of dipping this pen into an ink- in price, that a gross is now sold for very little more stand, Mr. Doughty lines the interior of his elegant than was formerly charged for one of Wise's pens. ink-stands with India-rubber, or places a bottle of The common “ Three-slit Pen” has long been, and that material within the stand to contain the ink, still is, a favourite with steel pen writers. Its pecu

Dr. Wollaston also constructed pens from two flat liarity consists in having a slit on each side of the censlips of gold, placed angularly side by side, and which tral slit, the elasticity being thereby much increased. were tipped with the metal rhodium ; others have The nibs of all pens increase in breadth by use, so employed the metal iridium ; but these pens have that steel, as well as quill pens, require mending, or been abandoned on account of their expense, and the rejecting for a new one. The difference is a question great care necessary to their preservation. These of time, for while a quill pen will increase in breadth pens were, however, very durable, though not equal in an hour, the steel pen may be used for many days to the ruby nibs.

without the necessity of mending or rejection. But Many of the pens to which we have alluded, were steel pens may be mended by means of a fine file sadly deficient in that indispensable quality, elasticity. or an oil-stone, by which the nibs can be brought to To supply a remedy to this defect, it was proposed to points sufficiently acute for the purposes of the writer; place springs on the backs of such pens, sliding but the present low price of steel peus renders it backwards and forwards, to vary the elasticity accord- very questionable, whether the time employed in ing to the different hands required in writing. This mending them would not be thrown away. plan was somewhat successful, but a great objection Mr. Gillott has taken out a patent for an improved


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pen, the object of which is to remedy the defect com- i will perform its office for a whole day without renewplained of, that the nibs increase in breadth by use. ing its edge; this superior quality is given to the În the new pen, the nibs are made parallel-sided for steel by hammering it for several hours. This is an about one-eighth of an inch long, the remaining por- important fact, and seems to have been discovered by tion being cut in the usual curved manner, so that the pen-makers. When the other slits and openings one-eighth of an inch may be worn away without have been made, and the maker's name stamped, the increasing the breadth of the nibs. We have not next operation is called dishing, by which the proper used any of these pens, but it occurs to us, that by shape is given to the pens by means of a metallic the above means the equable opening and closing of punch and die, accurately fitting each other, the two the nib during writing cannot be insured, that the ink being the exact form of the pen. would not flow down in sufficient quantity, and that The pens are now hardened by being heated to unless the pen were held in one particular direction, redness, and being then plunged into cold oil, which the equal wearing away of the nibs would not occur. must be at least three feet deep. The oil in a few We should rather fear that the pen would often act weeks loses its properties and becomes charred. The the part of a chisel, and dig into the paper instead next operation is cleaning and polishing; this is of moving over its surface; but these objections are effected by a very curious machine. It consists of a offered without ever having used the pen which sug- tin cylinder, eight or nine inches in diameter, and gests them.

three feet long, with a hole in the middle of its length, The oblique position in which the pen is held in- for putting in and taking out the pens, which hole is duced Messrs. Mordan and Brockeden, in 1831, to covered by a lid. This cylinder is hung on joints at make their oblique pens, in order that the two sides each end to cranks, formed one on each of two axles of the nib should bear equally on the paper. The furnished with a fly-wheel, and one of them with a form of this pen is that of a bird's head and bill; handle. As this latter is turned, the cylinder is the slit, or mouth of the bird, is the part employed thrown up and down and backwards and forwards, in writing, and this slit is inclined, at an angle of 35°, and the pens are agitated in a manner similar to to the general direction of the pen. They hold a great materials shaken in a bag. This motion is continued deal of ink, and their use is pleasant to the writer. for eight hours, when many thousands of pens, by

Other pens, called Lunar Pens, have been adopted. rubbing against each other, are found to be entirely Their under surface being large and concave, a great deprived of any roughness which might have otherportion of ink is taken up by them, and thus the wise existed on them, and which, though invisible to writer's time is economized.

the eye, might offer serious impediments to free Mr. Gowland has invented a pen with an addi- writing. They are now tempered by being placed on tional nib, called the “ Three-nibbed Slit Pen." The a furnace-plate, and as soon as they have acquired a additional nib is formed by cutting it out of the bright blue colour they are removed ; this colour inshank, and turning it back over the nibs. This pen dicates the best temper for the pens, and is due to a is manufactured by Mordan, as also “ Mordan's thin film of oxide formed on the surface; were they Counter-oblique Pen." Both these pens hold much hcated in vacuo, or in any medium containing no ink, and the awkward appearance of obliquity in the oxygen, the blue colour would not appear. The last bird's-head pen is removed, while, at the same time, operation consists in cracking the slits, which is done the oblique effects are preserved.

by pressing the nibs suddenly with a pair of pincers; There are many other forms of steel pens, which the slit, which was cut only two-thirds through, then we need not stop to describe, since the examples suddenly opens. already given will afford to the reader a sufficiently It is calculated that the total quantity of steel accurate idea of their forms and uses. We proceed, employed in this manufacture, amounts to 120 tons therefore, to perhaps the most interesting portion of per annum, from which upwards of 200,000,000 of this article, viz., the processes by which steel pens pens are produced. are manufactured.

There is, however, a considerable waste of mateThe steel with which the pens are made is rolled rial in this branch of art. The pieces of steel cut into very thin plates; it is then cut into slips, about out of the pens cannot be applied to any use ; it is four inches broad and three feet long, then annealed so thin that it cannot be welded, and it cannot be for fourteen hours, and again submitted to the roller; meited, because it takes fire and burns, in consethe thickness of these bands is not more than jaoth of quence of access of air between the thin pieces. an inch. The bands are then passed under a stamp- It is a cheering statement, that in spite of the ing-press, and pieces of the proper size for the pens immense consumption of steel pens, the demand for are cut out with great rapidity. These pieces are quills has not abated, but, on the contrary, is on the called blanks, or flats, and are so cut out, that the increase. This is to be accounted for by considering fibres of the steel shall run in the direction of the that, within the last few years, population has greatly length of the pen. The blanks are now submitted to increased, and that by the diffusion of the refining the action of a hardened steel punch and matrix, of influence of education, that class of persons now can the exact size and shape of the pen, and which are write which twenty years ago was altogether illiterate. attached to a powerful fly-press. The pens are then Besides this, the Continent and America are supplied softened by being put into an iron box containing by us with steel pens. When first introduced, they tallow; this box is placed in a furnace and equally were as high as 88. per gross, then they fell to 4s., and heated. When the box is withdrawn, the pens are now they are manufactured at Birmingham at so low emptied upon hot ashes and covered with the same, a price as four-pence per gross ! As yet, it appears and so allowed to cool gradually; by this means they that the only branch of trade that has suffered by are sufficiently soft for the subsequent processes. the introduction of steel pens is the cutlery trade : They are then marked for the slits; this is done by pen-knives are in less requisition than formerly. means of an extremely fine-edged chisel, brought down separately upon each pen, and so admirably

LONDON: adjusted that two-thirds only of the substance of JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. the pen is cut through. The edge of this chisel is PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND $X MONTHLY PARTI finer than any razor, but much harder, because it

Sold by all Booksellers and Newsrenders in the Kingdom


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him, and this declaration rendered further evidence JULY 8th.—The morning of Monday had scarcely superfluous. dawned, when licentious bodies of rioters appeared The viceroy under these circumstances endeavoured parading the streets, renewing the scenes of the to palm on the populace a forged document similar former day with tenfold violence. In this, as in to that which they required. There had not been every other instance of a popular outbreak, it was sufficient time to give such a fraud even a chance of found that the disposition to riot, like every other success; it was at once detected, and popular indigevil principle, is greatly strengthened by indulgence, nation was directed against the Duke of Matalone. and that the calamities of licentiousness accumulate The fiercer insurgents seized on his person, loaded with frightful rapidity. The Duke of Arcos resolved him with chains, and dragged him to prison. to negotiate, and he employed a Neapolitan noble- Masaniello's malady had been aggravated by a man, the Duke of Matalone, whom he held at the sleepless night; he incited his followers to fresh acts time as a prisoner in the castle, to act as his mediator of violence, and begun to display a fierce hatred of with the insurgents.

the nobility and gentry. With his sanction, the No more puzzling question could be put to the houses of all who were regarded as enemies to the Neapolitans, than to ask what was the substance of people, were gutted and destroyed; his followers, their demands. The expectations of a mob are the lowest and most licentious of the Lazzaroni, always vague, and hence they insist upon impossi- paraded the streets with boat-hooks to drag the bilities. The leaders of the insurrection demanded gentlemen from their horses, and inspired such not only the abolition of all imposts, but the produc- terror, that the appearance of one of them was sufftion of a charter, written, as they said, in letters of cient to clear a crowded street. The very women gold, and granted by the Emperor Charles the Fifth, joined in these excesses, with muskets on their to the citizens of Naples. No such document had shoulders, swords by their sides, and daggers in the ever existed, but nothing short of a miracle could folds of their dress ; and even the children were made convince the multitude of their delusion. Masaniello to bear their part in the national frenzy. A second averred that it had been supernaturally described to night of revolution closed in, and the results of the VOL. XII.


tyranny of a mob were traced in characters of blood of the popular leader. All agreed that the Duke of and flame on the once lovely city of Naples. Matalone and his brother, Don Joseph Caraffa, were

July 9th.—The excesses of the former days were the contrivers of the conspiracy; but some, probably renewed with fresh violence. Masaniello led a body in the vain hope of preserving their lives, added of his followers against the steeple and church of St. many other horrors, declaring that a plot had been Lorenzo, which had been garrisoned by a company laid for undermining the place of assembly, and blowof Spanish soldiers, who were too few to offer any ing all the insurgents together into the air. These effective resistance. Henceforth, the church of St. revelations scarcely delayed their fate, as each told Lorenzo became the chief focus of the insurrection, all he was supposed to know, he was hewn down, and its great bell was used to sound the tocsin, beheaded, and mutilated in barbarous triumph. whenever Masaniello and his successors deemed it The assembly still continued its meeting ; Masanecessary to summon an assembly of the people. niello, guarded by the most ferocious of the Lazzaroni, In the evening of the day, the viceroy made a new bearing on pikes the gory heads of the slain baneffort to open a negotiation with the insurgents, em- ditti,

ditti, harangued the multitude, exaggerating the ploying as his ambassador Cardinal Felomarino, Arch- dangers from which he and they had escaped, and bishop of Naples, who was rather a favourite with the calling for vengeance on the whole body of the nobles. populace. He persuaded the people and their leaders Horrid outcries rent the air as he concluded; a that he had full power to arrange all the points of party instantly departed in search of the duke and difference, and he produced copies of the charters his brother, while others, in anticipation of their granted by Ferdinand the Catholic, and Charles the capture, hastily prepared a wooden scaffold ; the Fifth. Though these documents contained nothing bleeding bodies of those who had been slain were like the stipulations ignorantly expected by the mul- tied to the tails of horses and dragged through the titude, they were received with satisfaction, and the streets; the fishermen, the Lazzaroni, and hordes of night was passed more peacefully than either of the degraded women, incensed by fury, mutilated the preceding

senseless carcasses, while children wallowed in the July 10th.-—The expectations of peace to which blood, and seemed to take a premature delight in the cardinal's embassy had given rise, were disap- slaughter. Matalone escaped his pursuers, but Capointed by a new series of events. Large parties of raffa was taken and dragged towards the square. banditti, which had long infested the kingdom of His captors could not delay their eagerness for his Naples, flocked to the capital, and were gladly re- blood, and, before he reached the scaffold, a butcher ceived by Masaniello. To one of these criminals, by struck off his head with a blow of a cleaver. When name Perrone, he intrusted the charge of the pri- intelligence of this event reached Masaniello, he soners. But the Duke of Matalone found little diffi- ascended the scaffold, still in his sailor's dress, with culty in persuading the bandit to become a traitor to a drawn sword in his hand, and exclaimed, “Bring the popular cause, and to join with another bandit, here the head of the traitor.” His orders were obeyed, named Palombe, in a plot for the assassination of and the furious demagogue insulted and spurned the Masaniello. As a preliminary, the duke was permitted corpse of the unfortunate nobleman, until to make his escape, and he took good care to remove followers could not conceal their feelings of disgust. himself to a safe distance.

During this dreadful day the Neapolitan clergy Masaniello summoned a general assembly, to deli- kept the churches open, covered the altars with the berate on the proposals made by the cardinal; an

; ornaments used in the services for the dead, offered immense multitude thronged into the square ap- up prayers for peace, and repeated the service of their pointed for the meeting ; but the appearance of five church called "supplications for the passing soul," hundred banditti, armed to the teeth, well mounted, usually recited for persons at the point of death. and acting in concert, excited some alarm. They Even this spectacle failed to produce the intended rode forward to the place where Masaniello stood; effect; murderers with their weapons of slaughter, some exclamations from the crowd excited his alarm, incendiaries waving their blazing torces, stopped at and he commanded the bandits to dismount. Instead the gates of the churches as they passed, uncovered of obeying the order, seven of them discharged their their heads, knelt for a few moments to go through carbines at him, but though his shirt was burned by the mummery of devotion, and then went on their the gunpowder, not a ball struck him. The enraged way to continue the work of destruction. mob immediately assailed the bandits ; thirty of them July 11th.—The Duke of Arcos was far from fell at the very first discharge, and the rest sought breaking off the negotiations in consequence of the

, shelter in a church, trusting that the Neapolitans, preceding horrors. Cardinal Felomarino again prewho are proverbial for superstition, would respect the sented himself as a mediator; Masaniello, who was sanctuary.

unable to write, dictated to his secretaries certain But in the terrible excitement of popular fury, conditions for peace, principally insisting on the religion ceases to curb violence, and superstition is total abolition of taxes, and full indemnity for all of course still more inefficacious. The enraged mul- who had engaged in the insurrection. When the titudes forced the gates, the work of butchery went articles were prepared, they were read to the people in on in the sacred precincts, the floor was flooded the church of the Carmelites, and received with loud with blood, wretches were slaughtered while they acclamation. Cardinal Felomarino then proposed grasped the altar, and the images of the Virgin and that Masaniello should accompany him to the Spanish the Saints were stained with the gore of the victims. governor; the proposition was adopted, and the A few were reserved for a worse fate; they were tor- demagogue exchanged his sailor's dress for a superb tured to force a confession ; cords were drawn round robe of silver tissue. He then mounted a splendid their thumbs, and tightened until blood spouted from charger, richly caprisoned, and, accompanied by a the nails; the heads of others were subjected to vast multitude, proceeded to the viceroy. similar compression until their eyes were starting The Duke of Arcos, though imbued with a double from the sockets : they confessed the plot that had portion of Spanish pride, received the imperious been laid for the murder of Masaniello, and the inten- fisherman with the utmost respect, and treated him tion of their masters to fall upon the mob during the as if he had been the first of the grandees. The confusion that must necessarily result from the loss courtly ceremonies were tedious; they were pro


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