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Oath amended,

3rd June. Bill passed;

its effect.

tion of his ecclesiastical superiors. It would be per-
fectly nugatory to pass a law giving relief on the con-
dition of an oath, which many of the persons to whom
it is offered say,
“ We cannot take this oath.”

his oath.” The remedy would be to find one sufficient for the security of

government, which the majority of Roman Catholics have already taken, and the apostolical vicars, having themselves taken it, must approve. Such was the oath required by the law of 1778.

Several other peers spoke in the debate; the bill was committed ; and, on the motion of the Bishop of Saint David's, and contrary to his declared anticipation, the oath was so framed as to obviate all his objections, and the bill passed.

By this act, all the severe restrictions and penalties were removed from those Roman Catholics who would comply with its requisitions, to appear at one of the courts at Westminster, or at the quarter sessions, and make and subscribe a declaration that they profess the Roman Catholic religion, and also an oath exactly similar to that required by the statute of 1778. On this declaration and oath being duly made, they were enabled to profess and perform the offices of their religion, to keep schools, to exercise parochial and other offices in person or by deputy, and the ministers of that religion were exempted from serving on juries and from parochial offices. Their congregations were protected from disturbance; but their priests were restrained from officiating in places consecrated to the burial of protestants, and from wearing their habits, except in their own places of worship. They were also restrained from establishing religious orders; and the endowment of schools and colleges was still to be deemed superstitious and unlawful. No person could in future be summoned to take the oath of supremacy, and the declaration against transubstantiation. Nor were Roman Catholics, who had qualified, removable from London and Westminster; or punishable for coming into the presence or palace of the King or Queen. They were no longer obliged to register their names and estates, or enroll their deeds and wills;



and every Roman Catholic, who had qualified, might be permitted to act as a barrister, attorney, or votary*.

Among the subjects which engaged the attention of Parliament was a bill, introduced by Mr. Fox, for Libel bill. altering the law respecting libels; it occasioned several debates, but its progress was interrupted by the prorogation. A bill was also passed, regulating the Corn bill. trade in corn, and ineffectual motions were made for abolishing the test law, and for altering the constitution of the burghs of Scotland. The session was ter- Session ended. minated by a speech from the throne, in which the state of public affairs was mentioned, but without any indication of intentions or expectations.

June 10,

See a note by Professor Christian, in his edition of Blackstone's Commen. taries, vol. iv. p. 58.



Affairs of India.-System of Earl Cornwallis as Governor

general.-Hatred of Tippoo Sultan to the British Government.- His military preparations-attacks the Rajah of Travancore.-Cession of Crangenore and Jaycottah by the Dutch.- Pretensions of Tippoo.—Conduct of the Madras Government-of Earl Cornwallis- proposes a reference.Tippoo besieges Travancore--repulsed in an attack-refuses a reference-gains the lines-takes Crangenore-Jaycottah and other forts.—Situation of Earl Cornwallis—his plan of operations for the British troops—and the allies.—March of General Medows.-Tippoo retires-advance of the British -Coimbatore taken—other forts taken.—Masterly movement of Tippoo—forces the British to evacuate Sattimangulum-and retreat.-Action near Occaro-other actions -manæuvres of the opposed armies.—Junction of Colonel Maxwell with General Medows.-Tippoo offers to treathis attempt on the Carnatic-takes Trincomale and other forts—his intercourse with Pondicherry.- Debates in Parliament-motion of Mr. Hippisley-of Mr. Francis-debateMotion by Mr. Dundas-by Lord Porchester.—Progress of the war.-Earl Cornwallis takes the command-active hostilities begun.- The Nizam—the Mahrattas—the British troops-General Abercromby.- Earl Cornwallis.-Siege of Bangalore-its capture--consequences-junction with the Nizam-capture of Doonally-other places.-Earl Cornwallis advances toward Seringapatam.-Advance of Tippoo --battle at Arakeery . Difficulties of Earl Cornwallis.Retreat to Bangalore--state of Tippoo-he sends a flag of truce-British prisoners found at Hooliadroog.-Tippoo besieges Coimbatore-which is taken.-Exertions of the allies

- Capture of hill-forts.-Nundydroog.–Success of Tippoo. -Capture of Penagra.—Earl Cornwallis again advances. -Naval engagement.-Savandroog taken-other forts surrender.--Operations of Purseram Bhow.-Siege of Seringapatam formed.-Conduct of Tippoo.— Night attack on his camp—he proposes to treat.-Progress of the siege-preliminaries signed— Tippoo's sons given as hostages-insincerity of Tippoo-consequent proceedings of Earl Cornwallis--definitive treaty signed.—Observations.


1789. System of

In accepting the government of India, Lord Cornwallis proposed, as a system, to retain entire the British possessions, but not to enfeeble them by extension ; to observe and to enforce the observance of treaties, making Lord Cornwalthe acquiescence of native powers easy, adhering to the lis as governor rules of moderation and justice; and to avoid all peculiar connexions or compacts which could engage his country in war as an ally, when she had no hostility 23 a principal ;—a liberal and prudent line of conduct, dictated alike by his lordship's own brave and honourable mind, and imparted as the view of government and the Company in his instructions*.

Had all India been under the rule of princes en- Hatred of dowed with wisdom, justice, and moderation, this Tippoo Sultan course might have been preserved, and much calamity English. avoided ; but one spirit, ambitious, turbulent, and faithless, uniting with ferocious hatred a mean personality, prevented the accomplishment of the Governor-general's intentions, and drew upon the country the miseries of war. Ever since the treaty of Mangaloret, Tippoo Sultan had persisted in evading the fulfilment of its stipulations, and in making, with equal vigour and prudence, preparations for hostility and conquest. He was continually augmenting his troops by new levies ; and his artillery, ample in force, was directed by skilful Europeans engaged in his service.

* Malcolin's Political History of India, vol. i. p. 49. † 11th March, 1784. See chap. 50.




Chains of posts secured his own territory, while strong bodies of men, and abundant stores of provisions on the droogs*, secured him and menaced those whom he should consider his enemies. At an early period of his government, Lord Cornwallis adopted a similar plan for protection of the forts on the frontiers and the coast : but no immediate sign of active hostility ap

peared. He attacks

Ambition, avarice, and fanaticism, at length, dithe Rajah of rected the arms of Tippoo against the Rajah of Tra

vancore ; and, as he well knew the alliance between that potentate and the English government, he probably desired a consequence which he could not overlook, and flattered himself that he should at once expel the Hindoos of Travancore, and their allies, the English, from the Carnatic. The ground of his quarrel was remote and extraordinary; more than two hundred and eighty years had elapsed since the Portuguese had possessed themselves of two districts called Cranganore and Jycottah; both had been surrendered

to the Dutch, and retained, without paying tribute or Cession of acknowledging sovereignty to any power in India. At Cranganore and Jycottah

the present period, the Dutch, apprehensive that Tipby the Dutch. poo intended to take these settlements, as a step toward

their expulsion from Cochin, surrendered them to the Rajah, the Sultan. Desirous of obtaining possession of Travancore, which would place him in immediate contact with Tinnevally, an extreme and feeble point of

the British possessions, to establish a claim, and superTippoo.

sede the contract between the Dutch and the Rajah, the Sultan alleged that these territories had always formed part of the kingdom of Mysore, and that neither the Portuguese nor the Dutch had ever any right to them. Such a suggestion, from a sovereign so recent, against a title so ancient, seems almost ludicrous; but he who made it well knew, that in the field, and not in the closet, by arms and not by arguments, the ques. tion would be decided; and he made his preparations accordingly.

Pretensions of

Fortified hills: this word will frequently occur in the following parrative.

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