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actual political power. One has only to remember the influence and power which the Roman Papacy has had and still has in the affairs of the world, and that which great newspapers, like the London Times of a halfcentury ago, have exercised in international politics, to realize that advisory power in a person or personality of acknowledged leadership, especially if accompanied with the power of investigation and publication, must be classed, in its actual effect, as real political power. Against even the advisory action of a body recognized as having international leadership, each nation must be prepared. Each nation must have knowledge of world affairs equal to that of the body sitting at Geneva, or the advice of Geneva will be in effect the command of a superior to an inferior. The United States, in particular, must be prepared for the new emergency; for, if it is not intellectually prepared to meet with facts and arguments the advice emanating from Geneva, its geographical location may lead to political situations in which the body sitting at Geneva, voicing the sentiment of Europe, or of Europe and Asia, may succeed in giving advice to the United States or to America which will in fact be a command. Against such contingencies, provision should, it seems, be made at the instant the United States decides to enter into the League, if it does so decide. To delay the institution of the new department or organ would tend to involve the nation in a maze of complications caused by the attempt of the existing departments to deal with the new relations. It seems clear, therefore, that the question of the adoption of the Covenant and of the institution of the new department should be considered and decided together so that the moment the League begins to operate, at that moment the new department of the United States may begin also to operate. The principle that “eternal vigilance is the price of liberty" evidently applies to the new situation presented by the proposal to enter the League, in all its phases, present and future.

THE MANDATARY SYSTEM UNDER THE COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE

OF NATIONS

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