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Celts. Here again these different populations occupy different parts of this territorial division. Most of the western island and the extreme western and extreme northern parts of the eastern island are inhabited chiefly by Celts. The English chiefly occupy all the rest; but each variety is scattered in greater or less degree over the territory principally occupied by the other. Of these two only the Celtic is an original race. The English nationality is Teutonic, with a slight Celtic and a very slight Roman admixture. The English manifests the inclination and the power to absorb more and more the Celtic element. At present they stand in the numerical proportion of about 34,000,000 English to about 3,500,000 Celts.1 I reckon the number of Celts at a designedly generous figure.

In the geographical division which I have numbered as third are found no less than six ethnical varieties of population inhabiting different parts of this territory, viz; French, Walloons, Italians, Teutons, Celts and Basques 2- to say nothing of the unamalgamated elements scattered through the whole. The French occupy by far the greater part of this division. The other varieties inhabit districts lying close upon the boundaries: the Basques are along the Pyrenees; the Celts occupy the outer half of the western peninsula; the Walloons and Teutons are upon the northeast, and the Italians upon the extreme southeast. In numerical strength we may reckon the French in round numbers at about 36,000,000, the Walloons at about 4,500,000, the Teutons at about 3,000,000, the Celts at about 1,250,000, the Basques at about 150,000, and the Italians at about 125,000.3 Of these, the Basques, Celts and Teutons (Flemings) may be regarded as probably simple races; the rest are amalgamated populations. The French blood con

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tains Iberian, Celtic, Roman and Teutonic (Frankish, Burgundian and Norman) elements.1 The Walloons are a mixture of Celt, Teuton and Roman, and the Italians in this division have the same ethnical composition.

In our fourth division of the European territory we find the lines of physical geography and ethnography most nearly coincident. The population is so nearly pure Italian that the variation is not worth the mention in a treatise upon political science. The Italian is an amalgamated population, and it is of great importance that we observe the fact that, in the different parts of this territory, different elements enter into the compound, and the same elements in far different degree. In the north, Celt, Roman and Teuton make it up, with the latter as the preponderating component; in the middle, we have the same elements, but with the Roman in the ascendency; while in the south, Greek and Saracen, and later, French and Spaniard, have contributed to the ethnic constitution of the population. The numerical strength of the entire Italian nation is now about 31,000,000.2

On the other hand, great ethnical variety is to be found in the fifth division, the eastern peninsula of Europe. The entire extremity of the peninsula, the eastern half of it and the coasts of the Ægean Sea, of the Sea of Marmora and of the Black Sea, are inhabited by an exclusively or a mainly Greek population. The western half of the peninsula, excluding the extremity but reaching up to the northern boundary of the division, is occupied by the Albanians. The middle lands above the extremity of the peninsula are inhabited by South Slavs; and between these and the Greeks upon the coasts of the Sea of Marmora and the Black Sea, a Turkish population resides. The numerical strength of these ethnically different populations may be roughly estimated at 3,000,000 Greeks, 1,500,000 Turks, 1 Andree, Geographisches Handbuch, S. 684. 2 Statesman's Yearbook, 1889, pp. 356, 521.

1,500,000 Slavs, and 1,750,000 Albanians.1 Of these four populations, only two can be regarded as simple and original races, viz; the Turks and the Slavs. The Greeks are a mixture of Hellenic, Slavic and Turkish elements, with the former greatly preponderant; and the Albanians are probably compounded from Greek, Epirotic and Illyrian elements. Even the Slavs in this division have a little Teutonic admixture.

Our sixth geographic division shows again a greater ethnical harmony in the population. The great mass are Teutons, of the northern or Scandinavian branch, numbering about 7,000,000; but a wedge-shaped bit of territory reaching from the neck almost to the crotch of the peninsula, inhabited by about 25,000 Finns and Lapps, separates the Teutons, as to their places of abode, into an eastern and a western branch.2 The influence of this separation upon the politics of the peninsula has been very great, as we shall see further on.

In the seventh division, on the other hand, the lines of geography and ethnography again separate. The great mass of the population are, indeed, Teutons, of the Germanic branch, to the number of nearly 60,000,000; but upon the southwest boundary exists a French-Walloonish element, to the number of about 3,700,000; and a very large block of this territory, upon the east, is occupied by Slavs, to the number of more than 10,000,000 of souls. Moreover, the 2,250,000 Teutons inhabiting the peninsula on the north of this division must be reckoned with the Scandinavian branch of the Teutonic stock. The dominant race in this division is also scattered

1 Spruner-Menke Handatlas, No. 13; Statesman's Yearbook, 1889, pp. 325, 538; Andree, Geographisches Handbuch, S. 790.

2 Spruner-Menke, Handatlas, No. 13; Statesman's Yearbook, pp. 496, 498, 507.

8 Spruner-Menke, Handatlas, No. 13; Statesman's Yearbook, 1889, pp. 23, 58, 85, 86, 117, 378, 439, 521.

throughout those parts chiefly inhabited by the other ethnical elements; and upon the northeast, Slavic components are to be found in the parts occupied chiefly by the Germans.

The eighth geographic division presents us with a popula-. tion of decided ethnical variety. Some of the other divisions, indeed, offer as great variety in this respect, but in none are the different elements so evenly balanced numerically as in this. In the west and northwest are the 1,600,000 Teutons; in the north, south and southeast, the 10,000,000 Slavs; in the centre the 12,000,000 Hungarians; in the east the 2,500,000 Rumans.1 If we connect the valley of the Danube from the Iron Gate to its mouth with this division, then we have 3,000,000 more Rumans, 1,400,000 more Slavs and about 550,000 Turks; but from a geographic standpoint, as I have before indicated, I think it questionable if we should do this. Of these populations, the Hungarians and Rumans are mixed races. The predominant simple element in the Hungarian compound is the Magyar, originally a Turanian branch. The other elements are Teuton, Slav and Ruman. In the Rumanic compound the predominant element is Roman. The Rumans are the descendants of the Roman colony planted by Trajan during the second century in the province of Dacia. They have become somewhat modified in their pure Romanism by contact and amalgamation with Slavic elements.

The ninth geographic division of Europe presents the greatest ethnical variety in its population, but contains a decidedly dominant race. It is calculated that about one hundred and twenty different race-branches inhabit this territory, speaking at least forty different languages or linguistic dialects.2 I shall enumerate only the different races, and not descend into the details of tribes and idioms. First, the

1 Spruner-Menke, Handatlas No. 13; Statesman's Yearbook, pp. 23, 463, 546. 2 Andree, Geographisches Handbuch, S. 764.

great Slavic race, numbering about 75,000,000 of souls, occu pies the centre and reaches out nearly to the circumference upon all sides. On the western limits are about 2,000,000 Teutons, 3,000,000 Jews, 2,500,000 Lithuanians and 1,000000 Tschuds; on the northern, about 2,000,000 Finns; on the eastern, about 1,500,000 Finns, 2,000,000 Tartars and 100,000 Kalmucks; and on the southern, about 2,000,000 Caucasians, about 1,000,000 Tartars and about 700,000 Rumans.1 If we connect with this division the valley of the Danube below the Iron Gate, as appears to me more scientific geographically, then we must add to the population. about 3,000,000 more Rumans, 1,400,000 more Slavs and 550,000 Turks.2 It should be remarked that the Slavic element in the northern part of this division is by no means so pure as in the middle and southern parts. In the north it is considerably amalgamated with both the Germanic and Scandinavian branches of the Teutonic race, and also with Finnish elements. This ethnical fact has had immense influence upon the political conditions within this territory, as will become apparent in our further considerations.



We come now to the continent of North America. the purposes of this work, it will be necessary to analyze that population only which inhabits the territory lying between the thirtieth and fiftieth degrees of north latitude and stretching from sea to sea. It will be seen by referring to pages 11 and 12 that this territory comprehends the second, third and fifth geographic unities. In ethnic character there is no very sharp distinction between the populations occupying these different divisions. In all of them an amalgamated Teutonic race is the dominant factor. But there are many qualifications to be noted in regard to this progressing amalgamation and domination. In the first place, the different branches of the Teutonic race are not yet fully amalgamated.

1 Statesman's Yearbook, 1889, pp. 439, 440.

2 Ibid. p. 407.

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