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it tore up:

Cannon and Bombs while the Compliment was returned by us with all our Artillery, still hoping for a Reinforcement from Fort Edward. A Shell fell into the South Bastion broke one man's Leg and wounded another; Split one of our 18 Pounders and burst a Mortar. Several of the Enemys Shells fell near the Camp S. SE of our Fort about 400 yards distance and on a line with the fort from the Enemys two Batteries, so that their Shot missing the Fort could Strike the Camp. It appeared that the Enemy could throw their Shells 1300 yards. A Shell fell amongst the officers whilst at dinner, but did no other mischief than Spoil their dinner by the dirt

Another Shell fell into the east or Aag Bastion and wounded two or three men.

Monday 8th We now began to believe we were much slighted, having received no reinforcement from Fort Edward as was long expected. The Enemy were continuing their Approaches with their Entrenchments from the 2d Battery towards the Hill on our old Camp Ground, where they were erecting a third Battery, which would have greatly distressed us: There were frequently during these last 2 or 3 days smart skirmishes near our Camp, but we beat them off the Ground. This night we could hear the Enemy at Work in our Garden, on which some Grape Shott was sent in amongst them, which had good Effect as it drove them off, however they had got their 34 Battery almost finished by Day Light.

Tuesday 9" This Day the Enemies Lines were finished, parallel to our West Curtain in the Garden, Distance about 150 Yards. Col. Munro, after a Council of War had been convened, wherein the Officers were of Opinion, that the Loss of our heavy Cannon viz! 2, 32 pounders, , 24 pounders, two 18 pounders, one 9 pounder & 3 Mortars bursting would render it impossible to defend the Fort much longer, as the Enemies Batteries had increased and our Metal failing us, & no help coming, wherefore it was thought advisable that a white Flag should be hung out in order to capitulate ; which was done accordingly, and the firing ceased: The Enemy very readily granted the Capitulation : had Monsieur Montcalm been a Man of Honor, he would have performed his part; but instead of that such a Scene of Barbarity ensued as is scarce to be credited: After the Articles were agreed on & signed, the Officers left the Fort to a Regiment of the French Regulars who were ready at the Gate, thro' which we marched with most of ur valuable Effects & Arms to the Camp and in the Evening three Companies of the

35th Regim had marched out & the other three Companies were on their march out of the Breastwork, when we received Orders to return to our Posts again where we remained till next morning.

Wednesday 10h This morning the Marquis MontCalm being desirous of our being eye witnesses of how well he was able to perform his part of the Capitulation (see the 7th Article), the Indian Doctors began with their Tomhawks to cure the sick and wounded. They began to seize on all the negroes and Indians whom they unmercifully draged over the breast work and scalped. Then began to plunder Col: Youngs and some other officers Bag. gage on which Col: Monro applyed to Montcalm to put a Stop to these inhuman Cruelties but to no purpose, for they proceeded with out interruption in taking the Officers Swords Hats Watches Fuzees Cloaths and Shirts leaving quite naked and this they did to every one they could lay hands on. By this time the 35 Reg! had almost formed their line of March and the Provincials coming out of the breast work the French officers did all they could to throw them into Confusion alledging as soon as the Indians had done stripping them they would fall on and scalp them which thru [sic] them in a panick that rushed on the front and forced them into Confusion, the Indians pursued tearing the Children from their Mothers Bosoms and their mothers from their Husbands, then Singling out the men and Carrying them in the woods and killing a great many whom we saw lying on the road side. The greates[t] part and best of the plunder was brought to the french General. Our officers did all in their power to quiet our Soldiers advising them not to take notice but suffer themselves to be stript without Resistance lest it should be Construed as a Breach of our part of the Capitulation and those that were in the rear Should fall a Sacrifice to their unbounded fury. Those therefore that had been able to perserve their arms carried them clubed. The French it is true had a detachm! of their men drawn up as is mentioned in the 1° & 6th Article of Capitulation but their only business was to receive the plunder by the Savages.




(Read April 15, 1898.)

In 1891, my attention was drawn by an article contributed to the Royal Society of South Australia,' by the Rev. L. Schultze, to the existence of eight classes or divisions among the native tribes inhabiting the Finke river in South Australia. On making further inquiries, I found that this eight-class system, with different modifications, extends northerly from the Finke river almost to Port Darwin and the Gulf of Carpentaria. It also prevails in a westerly direction, from the boundary of Queensland to that of West Australia, and may therefore be said to be in force over the greater part of the Northern Territory—a name given to the northern portion of South Australia.

Owing to the great apathy regarding native customs shown by the white population sparsely distributed over this immense tract of country, I have experienced much difficulty in obtaining particulars respecting these classes. Among my correspondents I was, however, fortunate enough to find Mr. S. N. Innes, the owner of a station in the Northern Territory. He had read a paper on the class systems of other tribes contributed by me in 1894 to the Geographical Society at Brisbane, which had awakened his interest in the subject, and when I wrote to him he willingly offered to collect particulars of the divisions among the natives in his district.

The tribes reported upon by Mr. Innes are divided into eight classes or sections—the names of the women being slightly different from those of the men in each section. Four of these sections form a group, which may be called A, and the other four sections become group B. This division will be readily understood by means of a table.

It will be seen by the accompanying table that the women of group A are the mothers of the men of group B, who marry

the women belonging to the latter group. The women of group B are likewise the mothers of the men who marry the women of group A. In other words, the sons of the women of one group marry the daughters of the women of the other group. Or, what amounts to the same thing,

1 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Australia, xiv, 210–246.
2 Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. Aust., Queensland, x, 18–34.

the men of



the sisters of the men of their own generation in group B, and vice versa.

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On examining the table further it will be observed that the daughters of the women of group A belong to the same group as their mothers, but to a different section or class of it. For example, Ningulum has a daughter Palyareenya; Palyareenya produces Nooralum; Nooralum produces Bungareenya ; Bungareenya is the mother of Ningulum, and this series is continually repeated. The women of the A group pass through each of the four classes in as many generations—the same class name reappearing in the fifth epoch. If our example had been taken from the B group, an analogous result would have been obtained.

When on the Culgoa river some years ago I collected some information respecting a large tribe speaking the Moorawarrie language, who occupy the country from about Goodooga on the Bokara river to Barringun on the Warrego, extending southerly about fifty miles and northerly into the Queensland frontier about the same distance. They are divided into four sections, having the same names for the men and women as those of the Kamilaroi tribe, with rules of marriage and descent as exemplified in the following table: Husband.


Sons and Daughters. Ippai,


Murri and Matha,


Kubbi and Kubbitha,


Kumbo and Butha,


Ippai and Ippatha.

The whole community is divided into two groups—the members of the Ippai and Kumbo sections forming the one, and the Kubbi and Murri people constituting the other. The families composing these groups bear the names of different animals, plants, or inanimate objects, which are called totems, a word copied by us from the North American Indians. Among the totems of the people constituting the Ippai and Kumbo sections may be mentioned the following: Wirroo (parrot), Bilbee,

Mulga Snake,
Gray Kangaroo,

Red Kangaroo,
Native Dog,

Bronze-wing Pigeon,

Plain Turkey,
Native Companion,

Common Ants,
Gray Frog,
Jew Lizard,

Wood Duck,
Common Fly, Galah,

Native Cat,
Kangaroo Rat,

Top-knot Pigeon,


Bush Mouse,
Water Hen,

Copi (Moganderra), Blue Bonnet (parrot),


North Wind,
West Wind,



River Gum,

Blood wood,

Leopard Tree,

Supple Jack, Whitewood,

Tea Tree,
Hop Bush,

Wild Orange Tree,
Lime Tree,

Nardoo (Bah),
Blue Grass,

Mitchell Grass.

Sensitive Plant,

The under-mentioned totemic names may be enumerated as belonging to some of the people comprising the Kubbi and Murri sections : Ground Iguana, Padamelon,

Carpet Snake, Brown Snake,

Black Duck,
Eagle Hawk, White Cockatoo,

Fish Hawk,

Bower Bird,
Tree Iguana, Porcupine,

Black Snake,
Death Adder,

Native Bee,
Scrub Turkey,
Silvery Fish,

Flying Squirrel,
Common Magpie, Black Magpie,

Green Frog,

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