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I must now give some further particulars of the new camp erected by the women, referred to in an earlier page. The same camp may be occupied all the time the novices are away, or the women may shift to a fresh camping ground every few nights, in conformity with the movements of the kooringal. A patch of ground is cleared near each of these camping places, to which the mothers and sisters of the novices repair every evening for the purpose of singing and dancing during the time the boys are away in the bush with the headmen. As soon as the women are informed of the day which has been fixed for the return of the kooringal, they proceed to this cleared space and erect an avenue of boughs, called the arrowanga, in the following manner. In this work they are assisted by the old men who have been with them all the time, and also by the irghindaly contingent. A number of small green saplings are cut down with tomahawks, and the stems are inserted in holes made in the ground, all in a line-the bushy tops being sufficiently close together to make a leafy screen, about four feet high. A few feet from this, another line of saplings is set up, parallel with the other. The two rows of boughs are fixed in the ground with a slant toward each other, so that their tops almost meet overhead, forming a kind of arched avenue long enough to hold all the kooringal. few yards on one side of this avenue, and parallel thereto, the women light about four fires, beyond which they sit down in a row, and commence chanting in monotonous tones.
When all is ready, a signal is given by the men who have charge of the women, and the bush mob approach in single file, all painted white, as already stated. On coming in sight of the arrowanga, the novices and their guardians stop behind, and go to another camp a little way off, where they remain for the night. The women are now told to lie down, and are covered with bushes. The kooringal march on and enter the avenue of bushes, one after the other, and sit down with their legs gathered under them in the usual native fashion. During this time a small bull-roarer, called dhalgungun, is sounded out of sight in the rear. A few of the headmen jump round outside the avenue, beating together two boomerangs, and muttering wooh! wooh! After going round two or three times, they shout birr! birr ! and all the women stand up and dance round the men who are hidden in the avenue. After going round a few times, the women commence pulling down the bough screen, upon which all the kooringal rise to their feet, and also
commence pulling the bushes out of the ground, breaking them smaller and throwing them on the fires as they jump about. The women also assist in breaking the twigs off the boughs and placing them on the fires. By this time a dense smoke is issuing from the burning bushes, and some of the kooringal stand in the smoke. around each fire until they are all sufficiently fumigated. A few of the old headmen stand round directing the proceedings, and the irghindaly assist in throwing bushes on the fires when more smoke is required. While the kooringal are standing on the smouldering boughs, the women come up and rub their hands on them, ostensibly to wipe the white paint off them. When the ceremony is over it is getting near sundown, and the kooringal mix with the women and irghindaly, and all of them go into the camp adjacent.
During the forenoon of the following day the mothers and sisters of the novices, accompanied by some of the men, again muster at the arrowanga, but on this occasion no bough screen is erected, and the women are allowed to see everything which takes place. Some fires are lit and green bushes cut and laid round ready for use. At the camp to which the novices and their guardians went the evening before preparations are also made for the approaching ceremony. The bodies of the boys are smeared over with ashes from the camp fires, and the hair of their heads is singed, to make the women believe that they have been burnt by the evil spirit and have just emerged from the fire. After a mutual interchange of signals that everything is ready at both camps the guardians and novices start forward, marching two and two till they arrive at the arrowanga. As they approach the women shout "Heh! heh!" and throw pieces of bark over their heads. The irghindaly lay some of the green bushes on the fires and each guardian conducts his novice into the smoke, which curls upward around them both. The mothers of the boys, who have been standing on one side, now advance and rub their open hands over the bodies of their sons, after which they rub their teats on their mouths. The sisters of the novices next step forward and rub their feet on their brothers' ankles., During the whole of this ceremony the novices keep their eyes cast down, and do not look at their mothers or sisters. A signal is now given and they scamper off with their guardians to a camp which has been prepared for them not far away.
At the conclusion of the ceremonies at the arrowanga all the tribes shift camp to another place, perhaps a few miles away, and PRINTED MAY 25, 1898.
PROC. AMER. PHILOS. SOC. XXXVII. 157. E.
next morning the novices are brought up in close proximity, where they are again smoked, after which they are invited to partake of food spread upon nets by the women. They are then conducted to a camp a little way from the men's quarters, where the old headmen show them quartz crystals and other sacred substances; and also small pieces of wood called bandhanyay or kungara, on which certain mystic lines are made, said to be the work of Dharroogan. They are forbidden to eat certain kinds of food until released from these restrictions by the old men.
The ceremonies being now at an end, the visiting tribes make preparations for starting on their return journey, and in a few days most of them are on their way homeward, each tribe taking their own novices with them. The latter are kept under the control of their seniors for a considerable time, and must conform to certain rules laid down by the headmen. It is also necessary that they shall attend one or more additional Būrbũng gatherings before they can become thoroughly acquainted with the different parts of the ceremonial and be fully qualified to take their place as men of the tribe.
On the Macleay river there is an abbreviated form of inaugural rite, known as the Murrawin, and among the tribes occupying the Nymboi and Mitchell rivers there is a short ceremony called the Walloonggurra. Both these rites are of a probationary character, leading up to the fuller ceremonial of the burbùng, from which they differ in so many respects that I have thought it necessary to describe them in separate articles.
Before cannibalism ceased to be practiced by the tribes dealt with in this paper it was the custom to kill and eat a man during the burbung ceremonies. The victim was an initiated man of the tribe, and his flesh and blood were consumed by the men and novices. I am preparing an article dealing fully with this and similar customs, so that further reference is unnecessary at present.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE V.
The burbung described in the preceding pages completes a series of articles written by me on the different types of initiatory rites of the aboriginal tribes scattered over the whole of New South Wales. I have now prepared a map of the colony, defining the boundaries of the several districts within which each type of ceremony
is in force. On this map I have marked the approximate position of these boundaries, and have assigned to each district a distinguishing numeral, from 1 to 9, so that they can be readily identified. It is outside the purpose of this paper to define the areas occupied by the people speaking the different dialects prevalent in each district, but the names of some of the most important of them will be stated in a general way under each number. The reader will be referred to certain articles which I have published describing the initiation ceremonies, and also the totemic divisions of the tribes located inside the boundaries shown upon the map.
No. 1 on the map represents a wide zone of country stretching from near the Murray river almost to the Barwon, occupied chiefly by the Wiradjuri-speaking people. This includes the Wonghibons, a branch of the Wiradjuri, who are spread over the country from Mossgiel to Nyngan.1 On the Lower Murrumbidgee and extending up the Murray from about Euston are several small tribes speaking the following dialects: The Eetha-eetha, Watthi-watthi, Kianigani, Yuppila, Yota Yota, Boorabirraba and some others on the upper Murray whose initiation ceremonies are the same as the Wiradjuri. For my descriptions of the burbung of these people the reader is invited to peruse the following publications: Journ. Anthrop. Inst. London, Vol. xxv, pp. 295-318; Ibid., Vol. xxvi, pp. 272–275. Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. Aust. (Q.), Vol. xi, pp. 167-169, and Journ, Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xxxi, pp. 111-153. I have also dealt with their totemic division in the last-named work, pp. 171-176.
No. 2 includes the country of the Kamilaroi, Yookumble, Wallaroi, Pickumble, Yuollary, Wailwan, Moorawarree and a few others. The Bora ceremony of these tribes is described by me in the following works: Journ. Anthrop. Inst. London, Vol. xxiv, pp. 411-427; Ibid., Vol. xxv, pp. 318-339; Journ. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xxviii, pp. 98-129; Ibid., Vol. xxx, pp. 211-213; Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, Vol. ix, N. S., pp. 137-173. I have described their totemic divisions in Journ. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xxxi, pp. 156-168.
No. 3. In this tract of country the Bunan ceremony is in force. Some of the dialects are the Thurrawall, Wodi Wodi, Jeringin, Ngarroogoo, Beddiwell, Mudthang, Dhooroomba, Gundungurra
1 Mr. A. L. P. Cameron kindly furnished me with the location of the Wong hibon, Eethee Eethee and Watthi Watthi tribes.
and Wonnawal. I have given a comprehensive account of this ceremony, with a plate illustrating the Bunan ground and the different objects connected with it in the American Anthropologist, Washington, Vol. ix, pp. 327-344.
No. 4 represents the country occupied by the tribes speaking the Darkinung, Wannerawa, Warrimee, Wannungine, Dharrook and some other dialects. Their country commences at the Hunter river and extends southerly till it meets and merges into that of the people of No. 3. Their ceremony of initiation is known as the Narramang, which is described in a paper published in Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, Vol. x, N. S., pp. 1-12. Their totemic system is dealt with in Journ. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xxxi, pp. 170-171.
No. 5. Within this area, which extends from the Hunter river almost to the Macleay, the initiation ceremonies are of the Keeparra type described by me in Journ. Anthrop. Inst. London, Vol. xxvi, pp. 320-340. This tract of country is inhabited by the remnants of the tribes speaking different dialects, some of the most important of which are the following: Wattung, Gooreenggai, Minyowa, Molo, Kutthack, Bahree, Karrapath, Birrapee, etc. North of the Hunter river and extending along the sea coast to about Cape Hawk there is an elementary ceremony called Dhalgai, which I have included in the article last quoted.
No. 6 represents the hunting grounds of the tribes whose initiation ceremonies are dealt with in the preceding pages. Their sectional divisions are the same as the tribes in No. 5, and are described in Jour. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, Vol. xxxi, pp. 168–170.
No. 7 comprises the country of the Bunjellung, Gidjoobal, Kahwul, Nowgyjul, Watchee, Yackarabul, Ngandowul and some other small tribes, whose initiation ceremonies are of the Wandarral type, described by me in Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria, Vol. x, N. S., pp. 29-42. Districts Nos. 2, 7, 8 and 9 cross the boundary of Queensland, and Nos. 1 and 8 extend some distance into the Victorian frontier.
No. 8. On the west of Nos. 1 and 2 are the Barkunji, Bungyarlee, Bahroon gee, Wombungee, Noolulgo and some other tribes, occupying the country on both sides of the Darling river, as well as on the Lower Paroo and Warrego. South of the Murray river are several small tribes, among which may be mentioned the Wamba Wamba, Waiky Waiky, Latjoo Latjoo, Mutti Mutti, etc. I have