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support; the regular, conformable Clergy sequestered, ejected, and turned out of all, to the utter undoing of themselves, their wives, and their children "."

The rise of Cromwell was the more important, because he was at the head of a sect called the Independents, who were distinguished for their stern and fanatical temper; and as much opposed to the Presbyterians as these had been to the Church of England. The principles of this sect spread widely in the army, and that portion which embraced these views succeeded in obtaining possession of the king's person from the guards which the parliament had placed about him. He was now brought to Hampton Court, and treated with outward respect. There was even some hope that Cromwell might embrace his cause; but the distrust of Charles, which was so general, seems to have stood in the way of any such arrangement, though it is not unlikely that Cromwell connived at the king's escape, who withdrew himself from Hampton Court, and fled to Titchfield-house in Hants. His friends then opened a correspondence with Colonel Hammond, the governor of Carisbrook Castle in the Isle of Wight; the result of which was, that Charles passed over to the island; but soon found himself a prisoner in that castle. Efforts in his favour were made by the royalists; but with ill success; and treaties were opened with him by the Scots as well as by the parliament, which came to nothing. The Scots, however, sent an army into England, which was defeated by Cromwell, who then sent Colonel Pride to purge the parliament of all the more moderate members. This measure, which was effected by violence, is known as "Pride's purge," and the miserable remnant of the house was called "The Rump.' The king made some vain attempts to escape from Carisbrook, and was brought to Windsor. From thence he was removed to London, as the house (under the influence of the army) had resolved to bring him to trial. A court, of which one Bradshaw was president, was constituted in Westminster-hall; and though the peers refused to concur in this proceeding, Charles was arraigned on a charge of high treason, for having levied war against his parliament. His behaviour in these last scenes of his life was kingly Quoted by Archdeacon Berens.

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and Christian. He had steadily refused to sacrifice whatever is essential to the episcopal government of the Church, and he now met the violent death which he saw before him with mildness and constancy. Throughout the trial (which lasted more than a week) he denied the right of subjects to sit in judgment on their sovereign; and was not suffered to speak when judgment was passed upon him. The soldiers grossly insulted him as he passed up the hall; and one of them even spat on him. "Poor souls!" he said, "they would do the same to their own generals for sixpence." One soldier was struck down by his officer for imploring a blessing upon him:-"Surely," said the king, "the punishment exceeds the offence." The warrant for his death was signed by fifty-nine commissioners. The brutal levity which was joined to the fanaticism of the regicides may be seen in the fact, that as Cromwell approached the table with the pen in his hand to sign the warrant, he drew it across the face of a member of the court named Marten, who did the same to Cromwell.

Happily the eldest sons of Charles were at the Hague. He was allowed to see the Duke of Gloucester and the Princess Elizabeth; and the meeting which took place was as tender as might be expected, from the depth and purity of his affections. He told his daughter that he died a martyr for his people; an expression which he repeated on the scaffold; and desired her also to tell the queen that he had never even in thought swerved from his fidelity to her. The Duke of Gloucester was only three years of age. The king took him in his arms, and said: " My child, they will cut off thy father's head, and will perhaps make thee a king; but remember, thou must not be a king as long as thy brothers Charles and James are alive. They will cut off their heads when they can take them: and they will cut off thy head at last, and therefore I charge thee do not be made a king by them." The child burst into tears, and said, "I will be torn in pieces first." The king was allowed the attendance of Bishop Juxon, who administered to him the Holy Communion. During the night that preceded his execution, he slept soundly; and, on rising, desired to be dressed with great care, as for the day of his second marriage. Juxon prayed with him, and read the lesson for the day (Jan. 30), which is the 27th chapter of

St. Matthew. Thus did the Church, to which he was so truly attached, direct his mind at that moment to the only foundation for a Christian's hope, our Lord's atoning sufferings, and the model which they present for His followers.

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The scaffold was erected opposite his chamber in the royal banqueting-house at Whitehall, and guarded by regiments of foot and horse. The streets within sight of the scaffold were thronged with people. Charles walked at his usual quick pace through the park, calling out to the guard, March on apace." He showed anxiety that the axe should be sharp and keen; for he disliked pain, though he did not fear death. After speaking with calmness and dignity to those about him, he was reminded by Juxon that he had only one stage more to take, which, though turbulent and troublesome, would carry him from earth to heaven. "I go," said the king, "from a corruptible crown to an incorruptible, where no disturbance can be." He gave his cloak and George to the bishop, saying, “Remember." His head was struck off at one blow; and a groan arose from the multitude, when the fatal deed was done, as if to the last moment they expected some other end to this tragedy. Many ran to dip their handkerchiefs in his blood; and the saintly meekness with which he bore adversity, as well as the firmness with which he struggled and suffered for the English Church, will ever justify the title which has now been given him by many generations-King Charles the Martyr.



Born at St. James's Palace. Buried in Westminster Abbey. Reigned 36 years.

Archbishops of Canterbury.

From A.D. 1649 to A.D. 1685.

Gilbert Sheldon, A.D. 1663-1678.
William Sancroft, A.D. 1678-1691.

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William Juxon, A.D. 1660-1663.

Usurpation of the Cromwells, from A.D. 1649 to A.D. 1660.

THE murderous execution of Charles was followed by Acts to abolish the House of Peers and the office of a king. An engagement to be true to the Commonwealth of England

was substituted for the oaths of allegiance and supremacy; and all acts were to run in the name of "the keepers of the liberties of England." A council of state was appointed, of which Bradshaw was president; and it found full employment in quelling the mutinous temper of the army, as well as in the affairs of Ireland and Scotland.

In Ireland the royal cause was supported by the Marquesses of Ormonde and Clanricarde; and in Scotland Prince Charles was received as king. The Scots had assisted the parliament in their rebellion, but were not prepared to abolish the royal office. Charles was however forced to take the covenant in favour of the presbyterian system, and was treated with great rudeness by the Scotch preachers and their supporters.

The energy of Cromwell brought the parliament through their difficulties. Being sent to Ireland as lord-lieutenant, he conquered great part of that island, and was then entrusted with the command of the English forces in Scotland. He routed the Scotch at Dunbar (Sept. 3, 1650), and great part of the country submitted to him. Charles was, however, crowned at Scone, and resolved on the bold measure of a march into England. He was followed by Cromwell, and a battle took place at Worcester (Sept. 3, 1651), in which the Scots, after a brave resistance, were completely defeated. Vast numbers of them were

sent as slaves to the West Indies, or to work in the mines of Africa. Charles himself escaped, and wandered about in various disguises for six weeks with a price set on his head. He once concealed himself in the foliage of an oak at the very time when his pursuers were passing under the tree. In the course of his wanderings his secret became known to upwards of forty persons, but none betrayed the trust. At length he embarked in a collier vessel at Shoreham, and was put ashore at Fechamp in Normandy. Scotland was annexed to England as a conquered province; and a settlement of Ireland was effected by the severe measure of confiscating the estates of such persons as had been concerned in the late troubles, and transporting them in vast numbers to other parts of the island.

Cromwell now thought that the time was come, when he might take the reins of government into his own hands : and with this view he resolved to rid himself of the remnant

of the Long Parliament. He went down to the house with a party of soldiers whom he left in the lobby, and having taken his seat, proceeded to reproach the members with their faults. At length he stamped with his foot, and exclaimed, "You are no parliament. I say you are no parliament. Bring them in." The soldiers then entered, and when Sir Harry Vane (a republican) remonstrated against this violence, Cromwell cried out, Sir Harry Vane! O Sir Harry Vane! The Lord deliver me from Sir Harry Vane!" Then charging other members with their vicious lives, he desired the soldiers to clear the house, and (pointing to the mace) told them to take away "that fool's bauble."

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His next measure was to summon a kind of parliament of his own, which was called Barebones' Parliament; from one Praise-God Barebones, who was a member of it. This assembly (as Cromwell probably foresaw) soon made itself ridiculous by its proceedings, and was dismissed. His friends had thus some pretence for alleging that it had become necessary to confer upon Cromwell supreme power, with the title of Lord Protector. He was installed into his office with much solemnity, and governed England with a far more despotic sway than the Stuarts had ever attempted to exercise. He called, indeed, some parliaments, and attempted to organize an upper house, being exceedingly desirous of obtaining from them the name as well as the power of a king; but those only were admitted o these assemblies who obtained a warrant from his counc, and he dismissed them when they became refractory. The title of king was offered him; but he found it necessary to decline it, for fear of estranging some of his chief supporters. England was parcelled out into eleven military districts, under as many major-generals, to levy the taxes, which were laid with great severity on all who were attached to the royal cause.

His government at home was disturbed by continual conspiracies; for his person was not more hateful to the royalists than to the republicans and fanatics, whom he had used as a ladder to his exalted office. Abroad, however, his government was eminently successful. A war had been going on with the Dutch, who at this time had dismissed the Orange family from the chief magistracy, and were

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