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St. Matthew. Thus did the Church, to which he was so truly attached, direct his mind at that moment to the only foundation for a Christian's hope, our Lord's atoning sufferings, and the model which they present for His followers.

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The scaffold was erected opposite his chamber in the royal banqueting-house at Whitehall, and guarded by regiments of foot and horse. The streets within sight of the scaffold were thronged with people. Charles walked at his usual quick pace through the park, calling out to the guard, March on apace." He showed anxiety that the axe should be sharp and keen; for he disliked pain, though he did not fear death. After speaking with calmness and dignity to those about him, he was reminded by Juxon that he had only one stage more to take, which, though turbulent and troublesome, would carry him from earth to heaven. "I go," said the king, "from a corruptible crown to an incorruptible, where no disturbance can be." He gave his cloak and George to the bishop, saying, "Remember." His head was struck off at one blow; and a groan arose from the multitude, when the fatal deed was done, as if to the last moment they expected some other end to this tragedy. Many ran to dip their handkerchiefs in his blood; and the saintly meekness with which he bore adversity, as well as the firmness with which he struggled and suffered for the English Church, will ever justify the title which has now been given him by many generations-King Charles the Martyr.




Born at St. James's Palace. Buried in Westminster Abbey. Reigned 36 years. From A.D. 1649 to A.D. 1685.


Archbishops of Canterbury.

(Vacancy 16 years, from A.D. 1645—| Gilbert Sheldon, a.d. 1663–1678. William Sancroft, A.D. 1678-1691. William Juxon, A.D. 1660-1663.

Usurpation of the Cromwells, from A.D. 1649 to A.D. 1660. THE murderous execution of Charles was followed by Acts to abolish the House of Peers and the office of a king. An engagement to be true to the Commonwealth of England

was substituted for the oaths of allegiance and supremacy; and all acts were to run in the name of " the keepers of the liberties of England." A council of state was appointed, of which Bradshaw was president; and it found full employment in quelling the mutinous temper of the army, as well as in the affairs of Ireland and Scotland.

In Ireland the royal cause was supported by the Marquesses of Ormonde and Clanricarde; and in Scotland Prince Charles was received as king. The Scots had assisted the parliament in their rebellion, but were not prepared to abolish the royal office. Charles was however forced to take the covenant in favour of the presbyterian system, and was treated with great rudeness by the Scotch preachers and their supporters.

The energy of Cromwell brought the parliament through their difficulties. Being sent to Ireland as lord-lieutenant, he conquered great part of that island, and was then entrusted with the command of the English forces in Scotland. He routed the Scotch at Dunbar (Sept. 3, 1650), and great part of the country submitted to him. Charles was, however, crowned at Scone, and resolved on the bold measure of a march into England. He was followed by Cromwell, and a battle took place at Worcester (Sept. 3, 1651), in which the Scots, after a brave resistance, were completely defeated. Vast numbers of them were sent as slaves to the West Indies, or to work in the mines of Africa. Charles himself escaped, and wandered about in various disguises for six weeks with a price set on his head. He once concealed himself in the foliage of an oak at the very time when his pursuers were passing under the tree. In the course of his wanderings his secret became known to upwards of forty persons, but none betrayed the trust. At length he embarked in a collier vessel at Shoreham, and was put ashore at Fechamp in Normandy. Scotland was annexed to England as a conquered province; and a settlement of Ireland was effected by the severe measure of confiscating the estates of such persons as had been concerned in the late troubles, and transporting them in vast numbers to other parts of the island.

Cromwell now thought that the time was come, when he might take the reins of government into his own hands: and with this view he resolved to rid himself of the remnant

of the Long Parliament. He went down to the house with a party of soldiers whom he left in the lobby, and having taken his seat, proceeded to reproach the members with their faults. At length he stamped with his foot, and exclaimed, "You are no parliament. I say you are no parliament. Bring them in." The soldiers then entered, and when Sir Harry Vane (a republican) remonstrated against this violence, Cromwell cried out, "Sir Harry Vane! O Sir Harry Vane! The Lord deliver me from Sir Harry Vane!" Then charging other members with their vicious lives, he desired the soldiers to clear the house, and (pointing to the mace) told them to take away "that fool's bauble."

His next measure was to summon a kind of parliament of his own, which was called Barebones' Parliament; from one Praise-God Barebones, who was a member of it. This assembly (as Cromwell probably foresaw) soon made itself ridiculous by its proceedings, and was dismissed. His friends had thus some pretence for alleging that it had become necessary to confer upon Cromwell supreme power, with the title of Lord Protector. He was installed into his office with much solemnity, and governed England with a far more despotic sway than the Stuarts had ever attempted to exercise. He called, indeed, some parliaments, and attempted to organize an upper house, being exceedingly desirous of obtaining from them the name as well as the power of a king; but those only were admitted o these assemblies who obtained a warrant from his counci, and he dismissed them when they became refractory. The title of king was offered him; but he found it necessary to decline it, for fear of estranging some of his chief supporters. England was parcelled out into eleven military districts, under as many major-generals, to levy the taxes, which were laid with great severity on all who were attached to the royal cause.

His government at home was disturbed by continual conspiracies; for his person was not more hateful to the royalists than to the republicans and fanatics, whom he had used as a ladder to his exalted office. Abroad, however, his government was eminently successful. A war had been going on with the Dutch, who at this time had dismissed the Orange family from the chief magistracy, and were

under the pensionary De Witt. They had been defeated in a great naval battle at La Hogue, by Admiral Blake; but not till they had obtained some signal triumphs under their own renowned admirals, Van Tromp and De Ruyter. Cromwell made peace with them after another naval victory, in which General Monk distinguished himself together with Blake; and he entered into commercial treaties with Denmark, Sweden, and Portugal. Foreign nations saw how little the Protector was afraid of them, by the vigorous justice which he executed on a brother of the Portuguese ambassador (notwithstanding the remonstrance of the other ambassadors), for a murder which he had committed. Spain and France were rivals for the Protector's favour. Spain, however, he demanded that the trade in the Atlantic should be free to the English; and while he sent one fleet to the Mediterranean to exact satisfaction from the Deys of Algiers and Tripoli, he sent another under Admiral Penn to the West Indies; and the conquest of Jamaica was the fruit of this expedition.


In the midst of these successes, the life of Cromwell was a burden to him. He read a book called "Killing no Murder;" which was written on the fatal principle, that to kill an usurper is an act of virtue; and from that time was never seen to smile. He wore armour under his clothes, and never slept more than two or three nights in the same chamber. Harassed by this continual suspicion and alarm, he was also afflicted with the loss of his favourite daughter; who is said to have reproached him with his crimes on her death-bed. With all his faults, he was ever tenderly attached to his family. His health gave way, and he died in the 59th year of his age, Sept. 3, 1658, a miserable instance of the bitter fruits of successful rebellion and gratified ambition. He began, perhaps, by being a sincere enthusiast, but became a regicide and usurper; and we cannot doubt that he ended by being an hypocrite and selfdeceiver. On his death-bed he is said to have asked his chaplain whether it was possible to fall from grace; and received the awful and delusive assurance that such a fall is not possible. "Then," said he, "I am safe; for I am sure I was once in a state of grace."

Richard Cromwell was proclaimed Protector on his father's death; but it was plain that he had not energy to

grasp the power which was put within his reach. He was of a weak, though amiable character; and in the end retired into private life. The remains of the Long Parliament were now once more assembled, and it seemed likely that the supreme power would be seized by some popular general. The commander in Scotland at this time was General Monk, and his influence overshadowed the interest of the other companions of Cromwell. His behaviour was for a time very mysterious; but he probably saw that the people were weary of the late military rule, and sighed for the restoration of their ancient government. He determined to throw his weight into the royal cause; and having marched to London, he called together the members of the Long Parliament, who had been expelled by Colonel Pride, in 1648. The house thus constituted, dissolved itself, after having summoned a new parliament, in which the king's restoration was agreed on with wonderful unanimity. Commissioners were sent to Breda to invite his return.

Charles lost no time in availing himself of the tide that had turned in his favour. He was received by Monk at Dover, and entered London, on his own birthday, May 29, 1660. All ranks poured forth to see and welcome him. He was greeted by the army with joyful acclamations as he passed. The houses were hung with tapestry; and such was the general joy, that Charles in his lively manner observed, "It must have been my own fault that I did not come back before, for every one tells me that he always wished for my restoration.”

Before we enter upon the affairs which ensued upon Charles's return, it may be well to consider for a moment what had been the state of religion, literature, and the fine arts, during the eventful period from 1642 to 1660. The Church, as we have seen, had been trodden under foot. Presbyterianism rose for a time in its room. The outward character of this form of religion, if form it may be called, was stern and forbidding: the most innocent amusements were considered sinful; holydays and holyday sports, even to the may-pole and the puppet-show, were put down by civil enactment, and Christmas itself changed from a cheerful Festival into a Fast for national sins. In matters of faith, the Presbyterians, although they had themselves objected to any thing like restraint, proved that they possessed

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