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under the pensionary De Witt. They had been defeated in a great naval battle at La Hogue, by Admiral Blake; but not till they had obtained some signal triumphs under their own renowned admirals, Van Tromp and De Ruyter. Cromwell made peace with them after another naval victory, in which General Monk distinguished himself together with Blake; and he entered into commercial treaties with Denmark, Sweden, and Portugal. Foreign nations saw how little the Protector was afraid of them, by the vigorous justice which he executed on a brother of the Portuguese ambassador (notwithstanding the remonstrance of the other ambassadors), for a murder which he had committed. Spain and France were rivals for the Protector's favour. Spain, however, he demanded that the trade in the Atlantic should be free to the English; and while he sent one fleet to the Mediterranean to exact satisfaction from the Deys of Algiers and Tripoli, he sent another under Admiral Penn to the West Indies; and the conquest of Jamaica was the fruit of this expedition.


In the midst of these successes, the life of Cromwell was a burden to him. He read a book called "Killing no Murder;" which was written on the fatal principle, that to kill an usurper is an act of virtue; and from that time was never seen to smile. He wore armour under his clothes, and never slept more than two or three nights in the same chamber. Harassed by this continual suspicion and alarm, he was also afflicted with the loss of his favourite daughter; who is said to have reproached him with his crimes on her death-bed. With all his faults, he was ever tenderly attached to his family. His health gave way, and he died in the 59th year of his age, Sept. 3, 1658, a miserable instance of the bitter fruits of successful rebellion and gratified ambition. He began, perhaps, by being a sincere enthusiast, but became a regicide and usurper; and we cannot doubt that he ended by being an hypocrite and selfdeceiver. On his death-bed he is said to have asked his chaplain whether it was possible to fall from grace; and received the awful and delusive assurance that such a fall is not possible. "Then,” said he, "I am safe; for I am sure I was once in a state of grace.

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Richard Cromwell was proclaimed Protector on his father's death; but it was plain that he had not energy to

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grasp the power which was put within his reach. of a weak, though amiable character; and in the end retired into private life. The remains of the Long Parliament were now once more assembled, and it seemed likely that the supreme power would be seized by some popular general. The commander in Scotland at this time was General Monk, and his influence overshadowed the interest of the other companions of Cromwell. His behaviour was for a time very mysterious; but he probably saw that the people were weary of the late military rule, and sighed for the restoration of their ancient government. He determined to throw his weight into the royal cause; and having marched to London, he called together the members of the Long Parliament, who had been expelled by Colonel Pride, in 1648. The house thus constituted, dissolved itself, after having summoned a new parliament, in which the king's restoration was agreed on with wonderful unanimity. Commissioners were sent to Breda to invite his return.

Charles lost no time in availing himself of the tide that had turned in his favour. He was received by Monk at Dover, and entered London, on his own birthday, May 29, 1660. All ranks poured forth to see and welcome him. He was greeted by the army with joyful acclamations as he passed. The houses were hung with tapestry; and such was the general joy, that Charles in his lively manner observed, "It must have been my own fault that I did not come back before, for every one tells me that he always wished for my restoration."

Before we enter upon the affairs which ensued upon Charles's return, it may be well to consider for a moment what had been the state of religion, literature, and the fine arts, during the eventful period from 1642 to 1660. The Church, as we have seen, had been trodden under foot. Presbyterianism rose for a time in its room. The outward character of this form of religion, if form it may be called, was stern and forbidding: the most innocent amusements were considered sinful; holydays and holyday sports, even to the may-pole and the puppet-show, were put down by civil enactment, and Christmas itself changed from a cheerful Festival into a Fast for national sins. In matters of faith, the Presbyterians, although they had themselves objected to any thing like restraint, proved that they possessed

more intolerance than they had complained of in others. "They interdicted (says a recent writer), under heavy penalties, the Book of Common Prayer. It was a crime in a child to read by the bedside of a sick parent one of those beautiful collects which had soothed the griefs of forty generations of Christians. Severe punishments were denounced against such as should presume to blame the Calvinistic mode of worship"." At length Presbyterianism gave way to Independency, that is, to the more open avowal of the principle that every man may make a religion for himself. Sects multiplied daily; and each new sect seemed to endeavour to surpass its predecessor in extravagance. Most daring claims were made to special Inspiration from the Almighty; and he was esteemed most spiritual whose heresy was most startling. The very names of the greater number of these sects have passed away; but it is worth noticing, that the origin of Quakerism is to be traced to this period. George Fox, the son of a Lancashire weaver, was the founder of a body of persons who named themselves "Friends." They were called "Quakers," in consequence of the distortions and convulsions with which their devotional exercises were not unfrequently accompanied.

Such, in matters of religion, were the Puritans. It need not be a subject of wonder, that in neither of its forms, whether of Presbyterianism or of Independency, was Puritanism the parent of men of taste and literature. One great exception exists, it is true. John Milton was secretary to the usurping council of state; he attacked Prelacy; he even defended the murder of Charles I.: but he was the author of "Paradise Lost." A few other names might be cited; but, in general, the learned men of the day were Churchmen. At any rate, Clarendon, Jeremy Taylor, Hammond, Usher, Cowley, Boyle, Chillingworth, and Davenant, were not Puritans-Dryden was at one time a Cromwellite, but he soon gave up that side of politics and religion. The fine arts were sadly neglected during the whole time of the rebellion. It was not uncommon to regard them as a perversion of the faculties which God has given to man. Under the

7 Macaulay, Hist. of England, vol. i. p. 160.

8 The Royal Society was not incorporated until after the Restoration.

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influence of this feeling, cathedrals were defaced, and paintings, statues, and ancient monuments and brasses ruthlessly destroyed.

It may surely be hoped that the kingdom learnt a lesson which will never be forgotten, from the iron rule of Oliver Cromwell, as well as from the anarchy and fanaticism which it superseded. England was thus taught the value of an hereditary monarchy, and the blessedness and moderation of that Church on which it had so madly trampled. The Great Rebellion, which caused such misery to our forefathers, will not have been fruitless of good, if it makes us cling more fondly to that ancient constitution in Church and State which was now so happily restored.



CHARLES rewarded General Monk by making him Duke of Albemarle. Hyde, who had attended the king in his exile, and afterwards became Earl of Clarendon, was appointed chancellor; and Lord Southampton treasurer. The royalists, in general, complained of the king's ingratitude, and many who had lost their all in his service were left in neglect. On the other hand, Charles was averse to severity; and though some persons who had signed the warrant for his father's execution were brought to the scaffold or confined for life, the royalists (on the whole) did not disgrace their triumph by showing a vindictive temper. In arranging the royal revenue, many abuses which had arisen from the feudal system were done away with; and a permanent income was settled on the crown, instead of the profits which had been derived from wardships, and the other incidents of military tenure. A conference was held at the Savoy Palace1 to settle the affairs of religion; the result of which was unfavourable to the wishes of the Presbyterians. A few alterations indeed were made in the Prayer Book, but they were rather improvements of

1 So called from Peter of Savoy, uncle of the queen of Henry III., by whom it was built.

arrangement than changes of doctrines; and the judicious preface by which it is introduced was composed. This is the last revision which our excellent Liturgy has undergone.

Having been thus revised, the Prayer Book was approved by convocation, and confirmed by the king under the great seal. It was next adopted by the parliament in the Act of Uniformity, called the Bartholomew Act. The principal provisions of this Act were as follows:- All who were not duly ordained were excluded from performing acts of ministry in the Church; assent and consent to all things contained in the Book of Common Prayer was required from all who would hold ecclesiastical preferment; and the right to rebel against the king, or the lawfulness of taking the covenant, were to be disowned. Whosoever refused to comply with the terms of this Act by St. Bartholomew's day, was declared to be ipso facto deprived of his living. About 2000 Presbyterian or Independent ministers refused, and were deprived accordingly; but very many had conformed already, among whom was Reynolds, who was raised to the see of Norwich.


The bishops who had survived the rebellion had resumed their sees, or had been advanced to others immediately on the king's return. Juxon, bishop of London, whom we have seen with Charles I. on the scaffold, though in extreme old age, was made Archbishop of Canterbury; Sanderson was consecrated bishop of Lincoln; and other men of high character were placed in other sees. clergy, who had suffered for conscience sake, returned to their livings; and the property of the Church, which had been confiscated by the rebels, was given back to it. These arrangements were effected within two years of the restoration, and for a short time every thing seemed to be going on prosperously. It was, however, soon discovered that the character of Charles was some alloy to the blessings which the country enjoyed in the revival of their ancient government in Church and State. Though affable and witty, the king was unprincipled and selfish. A Romanist at heart, he had not the courage to follow the example which his brother James (Duke of York) soon gave him, of avowing his religion. During his exile, he had contracted the most dissolute habits; and on his return, he copied the disregard

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