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:donderry was distinguished by its heroic defence, and refusal to surrender, notwithstanding the sufferings of the people for want of food. The city was at length relieved by a supply of provisions from England, and James was compelled to raise the siege.

William crossed into Ireland with an army composed in great measure of Dutch troops, and at the battle of the - Boyne (which James witnessed from a neighbouring eminence) completely overthrew that prince, who again withdrew to France. The war in Ireland was terminated by the reduction of Limerick, in 1691, when about 12,000 Irish passed over to France, and were taken into the pay of Louis.

The king throughout his reign employed his great increase of power in opposing the designs of the French monarch, and was continually engaged in wars in Flanders. A powerful fleet which James had collected by the aid of Louis, was defeated in a great battle at La Hogue, in 1692; and in 1695 the king succeeded in taking the city of Namur in the face of a French army of 100,000 men; an action by which he greatly enhanced his reputation. A peace, called the Peace of Ryswick, was concluded in 1697; and it was to discharge the expenses incurred in the war thus terminated, that money was first systematically borrowed by parliament; and the National Debt, which has been increasing ever since that time, first rose into importance. As the queen had died in 1694, and William had no children, the Princess Anne was heir by law to the crown. She had had several children, of whom the Duke of Gloucester only survived; and on the death of this young prince it became ne¿cessary to provide again for the succession by some legislative measure. The next heir of the ancient royal blood, not disabled by belonging to the Church of Rome, was Sophia, electress of Hanover, the daughter of the Queen of Bohemia, and therefore a grandchild of James I. An act called The Act of Settlement was passed, by which the crown was settled on this princess and her descendants, on the condition that they should not be members of the Church of Rome.

Though peace had been concluded with France, the affairs of Spain were likely to lead to a renewal of the war. Charles IV. of Spain had died without issue; and the chief

competitors for the crown were Charles, archduke of Austria, and Philip, a grandson of the French king. These princes were both descended from daughters of the royal house of Spain; and the states of Europe were generally favourable to the succession of Charles, from their mistrust of Louis XIV., and their fear of seeing the crowns of Spain and France on the same head. Louis, however, succeeded in obtaining from William a reluctant recognition of Philip as king of Spain; but when, on the death of James (which occurred in 1701), the court of France acknowledged the son of that prince as king of England, so strong a feeling of indignation was excited throughout the country, that large sums were placed at William's disposal for a renewal of the war. A bill was passed, requiring all persons to abjure the Pretender, (as the son of James was called,) and to swear allegiance to William, and his heirs, according to the Act of Settlement.

In the midst of this loyalty an accident occurred which deprived the nation of its king, at the time when, perhaps, he was more popular than at any former period. His horse fell with him as he was riding at Hampton Court, where he generally resided. His collar-bone was broken, and he died (March 8, 1702) of the fever which ensued on that injury. Some plots had been formed for the assassination of William during the latter years of his reign, and Sir John Fenwick was beheaded for his concern in the principal of these conspiracies. The management of affairs had latterly been entrusted to the Tories, and Lord Godolphin was treasurer at the time of William's death.

The bishops and clergy were not quite so devoted to their high calling as they should have been, nor was their office generally respected, during this and the two succeeding reigns. But it is worth mentioning that just before William's death the Church began in some sort to recognize its duty of missions to those who, though within her own borders, were heathens, or worse, and to the heathen in her foreign dependencies. Hence the origin of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and of the Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts. Never was the former of these works more necessary. To the over-strictness of the Puritans, and the excesses of Charles II.'s court and time, had succeeded a disregard



of the very appearance of religion, and a downright spirit of profaneness. The questions now asked were not, what religion is true? or, what interpretation of Scripture is correct? but, is any religion at all true? is Scripture to be reverenced as God's word? Atheism denied the existence of a God; Deism admitted a God of nature, but not a God of Scripture; Arianism and Socinianism denied the Supreme Deity of the Saviour, the one asserting Him only to be a sort of God, the other declaring Him to be a mere man. This began to be called freethinking; and so far from being rebuked, became at length even fashionable. Such a state of things moved the pity and zeal of a few pious members of the Church, and they became the originators of the Societies to which we have alluded. Eventually what were private undertakings were adopted as the organs of the Church.



Born at St. James's. Buried in Westminster Abbey. Reigned 12 years. From A.D. 1702 to A.D. 1714.

Archbishop of Canterbury.

Thomas Tenison, A.D. 1694-1715.

THE Constitution of England had now in great measure assumed the form and character which it still presents. Parliaments were regularly convoked, and the maxim was gradually admitted, that as the ministers of the crown are responsible for the advice which they give to the sovereign, so the sovereign is bound to defer to their advice while they continue in office. In the choice of ministers the will of the sovereign was now greatly influenced by the preponderance in the House of Commons of either of the two parties which are still known as the Whigs and the Tories. The Tories are generally favourable to the monarchical principle in the constitution, and to the full recognition of the Church as the guardian and dispenser of the national religion. The Whigs are more disposed to distrust the executive government, and to contend for a greater regard to the will and voice of the people on the part of the rulers, both in Church and State.

Queen Anne was strongly inclined to favour the Tory party; but Lady Marlborough, by whom she was greatly influenced, was attached to the principles of the Whigs: and though the ministry was at first chosen chiefly from the Tories, it was not long before the Whigs obtained many of the principal offices. The Earls of Godolphin and Marlborough, who acted at first with the Tories, appear to have endeavoured to hold the balance between the two parties; but in the course of the war, which was declared soon after the queen's accession, they became more identified with the Whigs.

This was the war for which the late king had made preparations at the time of his death. It is called the war of the Spanish succession: but was carried on in Flanders and Germany, as well as in Spain. England acted in alliance with the other European states, in support of the Archduke Charles; while the King of France upheld the cause of his grandson Philip. The allied armies were commanded by the earl, who was soon created Duke of Marlborough; and Prince Eugene, of the house of Savoy, was at the head of a chief division of the forces. In this war, which lasted from 1702 to 1712, the duke completely humbled the pride of France, and acquired for himself and his country a degree of military glory which has never been surpassed; unless by that success with which Divine Providence has in our own age been pleased to crown the efforts of a still greater man, the Duke of Wellington. The first battle in which Marlborough showed himself so consummate a warrior, was at Blenheim, in Germany, in 1704; and in memory of the great victory which he gained, the manor of Woodstock was settled on him and his heirs ; and a magnificent mansion, called Blenheim Palace, was built for him at the expense of the nation. The next great victory was at Ramillies, in 1706, against Marshal Villeroy; and its result was the submission of Brabant to the archduke. In 1708 the battle of Oudenarde gave the allies possession of French Flanders; and the following year was remarkable for the bloody battle of Malplaquet, and the surrender of the town of Mons. In 1711, Marlborough's last campaign opened a passage into the heart of France; and had the war been carried on, the allies would probably have become masters of Paris. Early in the war a naval

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armament, under Sir George Rooke, was sent to the coasts of Spain, and the strong fortress of Gibraltar, which has ever since remained in the hands of the English, was taken. English troops distinguished themselves in Spain, under the Earl of Peterborough, a nobleman of romantic character and chivalrous courage. At the siege of Barcelona he greatly signalized himself, and all Catalonia and Valencia rose in favour of Charles; but a battle was gained over the allies at Almanza (1707) by the Duke of Berwick, which restored the cause of Philip. Charles again got the advantage over his rival at Zaragoza, in 1710, where the English troops were commanded by General Stanhope; but it had become plain that the feeling of the Spanish nation was favourable to Philip, and the succession of Charles to the imperial crown of Germany changed the views of all who were engaged in the contest.

England derived little advantage from the victories of Marlborough, beyond the renown which they conferred upon the country; and the people had become generally desirous of peace. The influence of the Duchess of Marlborough over the queen had been weakened, not only by the haughtiness of her own temper, but by the intrigues of Mrs. Masham, a lady whom she had herself introduced to Anne, and who was attached to the Tory party, at the head of which were Harley, afterwards Earl of Oxford, and St. John, afterwards Lord Bolingbroke. The feeling of the people against the Whigs was exasperated by their imprudent prosecution of one Dr. Sacheverell, for preaching in favour of unlimited obedience to the sovereign; and Anne determined to place Harley and St. John at the head of the government. A peace was concluded at Utrecht (1713) by these ministers, which was reckoned highly dishonourable to this country, as most of the objects were abandoned for which so much blood and treasure had been expended. Marlborough himself was unjustly accused of peculation, and withdrew for a time to the continent.


The most important domestic measure of this reign was the union of the legislatures of England and Scotland. Great

1 But peace at any sacrifice was considered a great blessing. July 7th, 1713, was appointed by Queen Anne as a day of public thanksgiving, and both Houses of Parliament made a solemn procession to St. Paul's Cathedral.

[H. S. 1.]


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