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regions, have been rewarded by many important discoveries. Such efforts lead not only to national greatness and the advancement of science, but are likely to confer still more important blessings on mankind at large. The English language is now spoken, and the English laws are established, over a great portion of the globe; and we cannot but believe that the design of Divine Providence in giving to England its vast colonial empire, has been to afford this country the opportunity of extending the religion of our Lord and Saviour all over the world. In some degree this paramount duty has been acknowledged, as we have already seen, by the establishment of colonial bishoprics, and the sending forth of colonial clergy. The last ten years have witnessed mighty and self-denying efforts on the part of the Church in the work of evangelizing the heathen.

And the Church has not been inactive at home. A new English bishopric, the first since the reign of Henry VIII., has been founded; measures have been taken to make the pastoral influence of the clergy felt in men's hearts and homes by reducing the size of dioceses and parishes; a vast number of new churches have been built; schools have been multiplied; and endeavours made to educate persons of every class in 'His statutes and His judgments, which, if a man do, he shall even live in them."

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It cannot be concealed that there have been objectionable circumstances in the manner in which even the best things have been brought about; that distrust has prevailed sometimes even among brethren labouring for the same good end; and that sound principles appear occasionally to have been in peril, and this remark is applicable to ecclesiastical as well as to civil affairs,-but, on the whole, the events of our history, and the conflicting passions and interests of men, have been so overruled hitherto as to issue in the establishment of the happiest government, which the world has ever seen. No country possesses in an equal degree the blessing of a rational and manly freedom; nor has any been more favoured with an intelligent and industrious population, and a succession of distinguished men in every branch of mental and practical excellence. Above all, God has wonderfully preserved, through all these generations,

2 See pp. 165, 166.

and all the trials to which it has been exposed, that branch of Christ's Holy Catholic Church, which we believe to be the purest that can be found in Christendom.

May we show our thankfulness for these blessings by using them rightly! May we value them duly in our own generation, and earnestly endeavour to hand them down unimpaired to those that shall come after us; and ever preserve a lively recollection of the duty incumbent on us, to labour diligently in the great work of making known God's way to all the earth, His saving health unto all nations.






BOLD were those Britons, who, the careless sons
Of Nature, roam'd the forest-bounds, at once
Their verdant city, high-embowering fane,
And the gay circle of their woodland wars:
For by the Druid1 taught, that death but shifts
The vital scene, they that prime fear despised;
And, prone to rush on steel, disdain'd to spare
An ill-saved life that must again return.


Witness, Rome,

Who saw'st thy Cæsar, from the naked land,
Whose only forts were British hearts, repell'd,
To seek Pharsalian wreaths. Witness, the toil,
The blood of ages, bootless to secure,
Beneath an empire's yoke, a stubborn isle,
Disputed hard, and never quite subdued.

The North remain'd untouch'd, where those who scorn'd
To stoop, retired; and to their keen effort
Yielding at last, recoil'd the Roman power.
In vain, unable to sustain the shock,

From sea to sea desponding legions raised

The wall immense; and yet, on Summer's eve,

While sport his lambkins round, the shepherd's gaze,
Continual o'er it burst the northern storm 2,

As often, check'd, receded; threatening hoarse
A swift return. But the devouring flood
No more endured control, when, to support
The last remains of empire, was recall'd
The weary Ron.an, and the Briton lay
Unnerved, exhausted, spiritless, and sunk.
Great proof! how men enfeeble into slaves.

1 The Druids, Bards, and other authorities of the Celtic nations taught that death in war was succeeded by life in another body.

2 The Caledonians, afterwards called Picts, and the Scots, pouring from the north like a storm on the southern part of the island, despite of the Roman fortifications.

The sword behind him flash'd; before him roar'd,
Deaf to his woes, the deep. Forlorn, around
He roll'd his eye, not sparkling ardent flame,
As when Caractacus to battle led

Silurian swains, and Boadicea taught
Her raging troops the miseries of slaves.

Thomson's Liberty.


THEN, (sad relief!) from the bleak coast that hears
The German ocean roar, deep-blooming, strong,
And yellow-hair'd, the blue-eyed Saxon came.
He came implored, but came with other aim
Than to protect. For conquest and defence
Suffices the same arm. With the fierce race
Pour'd, in a fresh invigorating stream,
Blood, where unquell'd a mighty spirit glow'd.
Rash war, and perilous battle their delight;
And immature, and red with glorious wounds,
Unpeaceful death their choice; deriving thence
A right to feast, and drain immortal bowls
In Odin's Hall 3; whose blazing roof resounds
The genial uproar of those shades, who fall
In desperate fight, or by some brave attempt;
And though more polish'd times the martial creed
Disown, yet still the fearless habit lives.
Nor were the surly gifts of war their all.
Wisdom was likewise theirs, indulgent laws,
The calm gradations of art-nursing peace,
And matchless orders, the deep basis still
On which ascends my British reign. Untamed
To the refining subtleties of slaves,

They brought an happy government along,
Form'd by that freedom, which, with secret voice,
Impartial Nature teaches all her sons,

And which of old through the whole Scythian mass
I strong inspired. Monarchical their state,
But prudently confined, and mingled wise
Of each harmonious power: only, too much
Imperious war into their rule infused,

Prevail'd their general-king, and chieftain-thanes.

3. The Saxons, a Gothic tribe, believed that men killed in war were carried to Odin's Hall, there to banquet for ever.

1. The poet supposes the Genius of Liberty to be relating the progress of liberty in Britain,

In many a field, by civil fury stain'd,
Bled the discordant heptarchy; and long
(Educing good from ill) the battle groan'd;
Ere, blood-cemented, Anglo-Saxons saw
Egbert and Peace on one united throne.

No sooner dawn'd the fair disclosing calm
Of brighter days, when, lo! the North anew,
With stormy nations black, on England pour'd
Woes the severest e'er a people felt.

The Danish raven 5, lured by annual prey,
Hung o'er the land incessant. Fleet on fleet

Of barbarous pirates unremitting tore

The miserable coast. Before them stalk'd,
Far-seen, the demon of devouring flame;

Rapine, and murder, all with blood besmear'd,
Without or ear, or eye, or feeling heart;

While close behind them march'd the sallow power
Of desolating famine, who delights

In grass-grown cities, and in desert fields;
And purple-spotted pestilence, by whom

Ev'n friendship scared, in sickening horrour sinks
Each social sense and tenderness of life.
Fixing at last, the sanguinary race

Spread, from the Humber's loud-resounding shore,
To where the Thames devolves his gentle maze,
And with superior arm the Saxon awed.
But superstition first, and monkish dreams,
And monk-directed cloister-seeking kings,
Had ate away his vigour, ate away

His edge of courage, and depress'd the soul
Of conquering freedom, which he once respired.
Thus cruel ages pass'd; and rare appear'd
White-mantled Peace, exulting o'er the vale,
As when with Alfred, from the wilds she came
To policed cities and protected plains.
Thus by degrees the Saxon empire sunk,
Then set entire in Hastings' bloody field.

Thomson's Liberty.


THE Woman-hearted Confessor prepares
The evanescence of the Saxon line.

Hark! 'tis the tolling Curfew!-the stars shine;
But of the lights that cherish household cares

5 The ancient Danish standard was a figure of a raven.

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