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VII. REMARKS ON THE ENGLISH BY THE INDIAN

KINGS.

No. 50.]

Friday, April 27, 1711.

[Addison.

Nunquam aliud Natura, aliud Sapientia dixit.

Juv. Sat. xix. 321.

Good taste and nature always speak the same.

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When the four Indian kings were in this country about a twelvemonth ago, I often mixed with the rabble, and followed them a whole day together, being wonderfully struck with the sight of everything that is new or uncommon. I have, since their departure, employed a friend to make many inquiries of their landlord, the upholsterer, relating to their

manners and conversation, as also concerning the remarks 10 which they made in this country ; for, next to the forming

a right notion of such strangers, I should be desirous of learning what ideas they had conceived of us.

The upholsterer, finding my friend very inquisitive about these his lodgers, brought him some time since a little bundle of papers, which he assured him were written by King Sa Ga Yean Qua Rash Tow, and, as he supposes, left behind by some mistake. These papers are now translated, and contain abundance of very odd observations, which I find this little

fraternity of kings made during their stay in the isle of 20 Great Britain. I shall present my reader with a short

specimen of them in this paper, and may perhaps communicate more to him hereafter. In the article of London are the following words, which, without doubt, are meant of the Church of St. Paul.

“On the most rising part of the town there stands a huge house, big enough to contain the whole nation of which I am king. Our good brother, E Tow O Koam, King of the Rivers, is of opinion it was made by the hands of that

moon,

great God to whom it is consecrated. The kings of Granajah and of the Six Nations believe that it was created with the earth, and produced on the same day with the sun and

But for my own part, by the best information that I could get of this matter, I am apt to think that this prodigious pile. was fashioned into the shape it now bears by several tools and instruments, of which they have a wonderful variety in this country. It was probably at first a huge misshapen rock that grew upon the top of the hill, which the natives of the country, after having cut it into a 10 kind of regular figure, bored and hollowed with incredible pains and industry, till they had wrought in it all those beautiful vaults and caverns into which it is divided at this day. As soon as this rock was thus curiously scooped to their liking, a prodigious number of hands must have been employed in chipping the outside of it, which is now as smooth as the surface of a pebble ; and it is in several places hewn out into pillars that stand like the trunks of so many trees, bound about the top with garlands of leaves. It is probable that when this great work was begun, which 20 must have been many hundred years ago, there was some religion among this people, for they gave it the name of a temple, and have a tradition that it was designed for men to pay their devotions in. And, indeed, there arė several reasons which make us think that the natives of this country had formerly among them some sort of worship, for they set apart every seventh day as sacred ; but upon my going into one of these houses on that day I could not observe any circumstance of devotion in their behaviour. There was indeed a man in black who was mounted above the 30 rest, and seemed to utter something with a great deal of vehemence; but as for those underneath him, instead of paying their worship to the deity of the place, they were most of them bowing and curtseying to one another, and a considerable number of them fast asleep.

The queen of the country appointed two men to attend

us that had enough of our language to make themselves understood in some few particulars. But we soon perceived these two were great enemies to one another, and did not always agree in the same story. We could make a shift to gather out of one of them, that this island was very

uch infested with a monstrous kind of animals, in the shape of men, called Whigs ; and he often told us that he hoped we should meet with none of them in our way, for

that if we did they would be apt to knock us down for 10 being kings.

“Our other interpreter used to talk very much of a kind of animal called a Tory, that was as great a monster as the Whigs, and would treat us as ill for being foreigners. These two creatures, it seems, are born with a secret antipathy to one another, and engage when they meet as naturally as the elephant and the rhinoceros.

But as we saw none of either of these species, we are apt to think that our guides deceived us with misrepresentations and fictions,

and amused us with an account of such monsters as are not 20 really in this country.

“These particulars we made a shift to pick out from the discourse of our interpreters, which we put together as well as we could, being able to understand but here and there a word of what they said, and afterwards making up the meaning of it among ourselves. The men of the country are very cunning and ingenious in handicraft works, but withal so very idle that we often saw young lusty raw-boned fellows carried up and down the streets in little covered rooms by a

couple of porters who are hired for that service. Their dress 30 is likewise very barbarous, for they almost strangle them

selves about the neck, and bind their bodies with many ligatures, that we are apt to think are the occasion of several distempers among them which our country is entirely free from. Instead of those beautiful feathers with which we adorn our heads, they often buy up a monstrous bush of hair which covers their heads, and falls down in a large fleece

seen.

below the middle of their backs, with which they walk up and down the streets, and are as proud of it as if it was of their own growth.

“We were invited to one of their public diversions, where we hoped to have seen the great men of their country run.ning down a stag or pitching a bar, that we might have discovered who were the persons of the greatest abilities among them ; but instead of that they conveyed us into a huge room lighted up with abundance of candles, where this lazy people sat still above three hours to see several feats of 10 ingenuity performed by others, who it seems were paid for it.

As for the women of the country, not being able to talk with them, we could only make our remarks upon them at a distance. They let the hair of their heads grow to a great length; but as the men make a great show with heads of hair that are not of their own, the women, who they say have very fine heads of hair, tie it up in a knot and cover it from being

The women look like angels, and would be more beautiful than the sun were it not for little black spots that are apt to break out in their faces, and sometimes rise in very 20 odd figures. I have observed that those little blemishes wear off very soon, but when they disappear in one part of the face they are very apt to break out in another, insomuch that I have seen a spot upon the forehead in the afternoon, which was upon the chin in the morning.”

The author then proceeds to show the absurdity of breeches and petticoats, with many other curious observations, which I shall reserve for another occasion. I cannot, however, conclude this paper without taking notice that amidst these wild remarks there now and then appears something very 30 reasonable. I cannot likewise forbear observing that we are all guilty in some measure of the same narrow way of thinking which we meet with in this abstract of the Indian journal, when we fancy the customs, dress, and manners of other countries are ridiculous and extravagant, if they do not resemble those of our own.

C.

VIII. VISION OF MARRATON.

V No. 56.]

Friday, May 4, 1711.

[Addison.

Felices errore suo.—Lucan, 1. 454.
Happy in their mistake.

The Americans believe that all creatures have souls, not only men and women, but brutes, vegetables, nay, even the most inanimate things, as stocks and stones. They believe the same of all the works of art, as of knives, boats, lookingglasses: and that as any of these things perish, their souls go into another world, which is habited by the ghosts of men

and women. For this reason they always place by the corpse 10 of their dead friend a bow and arrows, that he may

make use of the souls of them in the other world, as he did of their wooden bodies in this. How absurd soever such an opinion as this may appear, our European philosophers have maintained several notions altogether as improbable. Some of Plato's followers in particular, when they talk of the world of ideas, entertain us with substances and beings no less extravagant and chimerical. Many Aristotelians have likewise spoken as unintelligibly of their substantial forms. I

shall only instance Albertus Magnus, who in his dissertation 20 upon the loadstone, observing that fire will destroy its

magnetic virtues, tells us that he took particular notice of one as it lay glowing amidst an heap of burning coals, and that he perceived a certain blue vapour to arise from it, which he believed might be the substantial form, that is, in our West Indian phrase, the soul of the loadstone.

There is a tradition among the Americans, that one of their countrymen descended in a vision to the great repository of souls, or, as we call it here, to the other world ; and that

upon his return he gave his friends a distinct account of 30 everything he saw among those regions of the dead. A

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