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was absurdly high, considering the much superior quality of the imported Hong Kong opium, which was taxed by the same act at twelve dollars a pound, a tax since reduced by the act of August 28, 1894, to six dollars per pound. The requirement that the manufacturer should be a citizen of the United States excluded all Chinese from the business; and, as only the Chinese know anything about the manufacture of smoking-opium, this provision would seem to indicate a design on the part of Congress to suppress the domestic manufacture. But the law is absurdly defective in its penal provisions, and Congress has never seen fit to amend it, although twice requested by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue to do so. The result has been chiefly to promote the illicit manufacture of smoking-opium, and to bring into full play those underground arts of which the Chinese are past inasters. I believe that, although this act has been law for four years, only $875 has ever been collected under it, and this was from stamps bought to stamp illicit, unstamped opium seized and sold, and no person has ever qualified as a lawful manufacturer. The useless regulations framed for the use of lawful manufacturers, of whom there are none, are known as Int. Rev. Reg., Series 7, No. 16.

Crude or unmanufactured opium, not adulterated, and containing over nine per cent of morphia, from which the domestic smoking-opium is made, as well as all our preparations and tinctures of which opium forms a part, has been for four years free from duty. There is no raw or crude opium made in the United States, so far as known.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN.

THE INCOME TAX LAW OF 1894.

Act August 28, 1894. Sec.

Sec. 27. Annual income tax imposed. 33. Tax on salaries of United States 28. Inclusions to be made and deduc- officers over $4,000.

tions allowed in est ating in- | 34. (Amends Secs. 3167, 3172, 3173, come.

and 3176 R. S.]. 29. By whom returns are to be made. 3167 R. S. Officer disclosing operation

Penalties for neglect or making of manufacturer, or contents of false returns.

any income return. Appeals to commissioner.

Penalty. 30. When tax is due and payable. 3172 R. S. Canvass of districts. Penalty for non-payment.

3173 R. S. Return of persons liable to 31. Income of non - resident persons

tax. and corporations.

3176 R. S. When collector may enter 32. Annual tax on net profits of cor- premises and make returns. porations.

35. Returns of corporations. Penalties for neglect or refusal to 36. Books of corporations. make statement.

37. Duty of collectors to give reExemptions from tax.

ceipts. SEC. 27. That from and after the first day of January, eighteen hundred and ninety-five, and un

Act Aug. 28, til the first day of January nineteen hundred, 1994.

Annual income there shall be assessed, levied, collected, and text pre citizens

imposed for paid annually upon the gains, profits, and in- years 1891 to

1899 inclusive ; come received in the preceding calendar year by every citizen of the United States, whether residing at home or abroad, and every person residing therein, whether said gains, profits, or income be derived from any kind of property, rents, interest, dividends, or salaries, or from any profession, trade, employment, or vocation carried on in the United States or rate two per elsewhere, or from any other source whatever, exemption

$4,000. a tax of two per centum on the amount so derived over and above four thousand dollars; and a

cent ;

was absurdly high, considering the much superior quality of the imported Hong Kong opium, which was taxed by the same act at twelve dollars a pound, a tax since reduced by the act of August 28, 1894, to six dollars per pound. The requirement that the manufacturer should be a citizen of the United States excluded all Chinese from the business; and, as only the Chinese know anything about the manufacture of smoking- opium, this provision would seem to indicate a design on the part of Congress to suppress the domestic manufacture. But the law is absurdly defective in its penal provisions, and Congress has never seen fit to amend it, although twice requested by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue to do so. The result has been chiefly to promote the illicit manufacture of smoking-opium, and to bring into full play those underground arts of which the Chinese are past inasters. I believe that, although this act has been law for four years, only $875 has ever been collected under it, and this was from stamps bought to stamp illicit, unstamped opium seized and sold, and no person has ever qualified as a lawful manufacturer. The useless regulations framed for the use of lawful manufacturers, of whom there are none, are known as Int. Rev. Reg., Series 7, No. 16.

Crude or unmanufactured opium, not adulterated, and containing over nine per cent of morphia, from which the domestic smoking-opium is made, as well as all our preparations and tinctures of which opium forms a part, has been for four years free from duty. There is no raw or crude opium made in the United States, so far as known.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN.

THE INCOME TAX LAW OF 1894.

Sec.

come.

Act August 28, 1894.

Sec. 27. Annual income tax imposed. 33. Tax on salaries of United States 28. Inclusions to be made and deduc- officers over $4,000. tions allowed in estimating in- 34. [Amends Secs. 3167, 3172, 3173,

and 3176 R. S.]. 29. By whom returns are to be made. 3167 R. S. Officer disclosing operation

Penalties for neglect or making of manufacturer, or contents of false returns.

any income return. Appeals to commissioner.

Penalty. 30. When tax is due and payable. 3172 R. S. Canvass of districts. Penalty for non-payment.

3173 R. S. Return of persons liable to 31. Income of non- resident persons

tax. and corporations.

3176 R. S. When collector may enter 32. Annual tax on net profits of cor- premises and make returns. porations.

35. Returns of corporations. Penalties for neglect or refusal to 36. Books of corporations. make statement.

37. Duty of collectors to give reExemptions from tax.

ceipts. Sec. 27. That from and after the first day of January, eighteen hundred and ninety-five, and un

Act Aug. 28, til the first day of January nineteen hundred, 29. there shall be assessed, levied, collected, and stand eros sitizens paid annually upon the gains, profits, and in- years 1894 to

1899 inclusive; come received in the preceding calendar year by every citizen of the United States, whether residing at home or abroad, and every person residing therein, whether said gains, profits, or income be derived from any kind of property, rents, interest, dividends, or salaries, or from any profession, trade, employment, or vocation carried on in the United States or rate two per elsewhere, or from any other source whatever, exemption

$4,000. a tax of two per centum on the amount so derived over and above four thousand dollars; and a

Annual income residents taxed.

and collected on income of the preceding

Act Aug. 28, 1894.

like tax shall be levied, collected, and paid annually upon the gains, profits, and income from all property owned, and of every business, trade, or profession carIncome of non- ried on in the United States, by persons re

siding without the United States. And the tax herein provided for shall be assessed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue and collected and paid upon the gains, profits, and income for the year endTo be assessed ing the thirty-first day of December next pre

ceding the time for levying, collecting, and calendar year. paying said tax.

Compare this section with Sec. 116, act June 30, 1864, as amended, infra. Sec. 28. That in estimating the gains, profits, and

income of any person there shall be included What shall be all income derived from interest upon notes,

bonds, and other securities, except such curities, except bonds of the United States the principal and

interest of which are by the law of their issuance exempt from all federal taxation; profits realized

within the year from sales of real estate pur

chased within two years previous to the close of the year for which income is estimated; interest re

ceived or accrued upon all notes, bonds, mort

gages, or other forms of indebtedness bear ing interest, whether paid or not, if good and collectible, less the interest which has become due from said person, or which has been paid by him during the year;

the amount of all premium on bonds, notes, or coupons; the amount of sales of live stock,

sugar, cotton, wool, butter, cheese, pork, beef, mutton, or other meats, hay and grain, or other vegetable or other productions, being the growth or produce of the estate of such person, less the amount expended

included in income; interest on se

United States bonds;

profits from sales of real estate ;

interest received ;

premium on bonds, etc.; sales of produce ;

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