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to the height of 600 feet, and to be encircled by a grand colonnade or pantheon, 250 feet in diameter and 100 feet high; over the portico of which is a colossal statue of Washington, 30 feet high, in a chariot drawn by six horses, driven by Victory, all of colossal proportions. The colonnade is to consist of 30 columns, 12 feet in diameter and 45 feet high, surrounded by an entablature of 20 feet, and a balustrade 15 feet in height. The entablature will be decorated with the arms of the States, inclosed in wreaths of bronze. The portico consists of a projection supported by four columns, and is reached by a grand flight of marble steps. Over the centre of the portico will be emblazoned the arms of the United States. The interior, or rotunda, will be ornamented with statues of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, set in niches in the surrounding wall; and upon the wall, above the niches, will be represented, in basso-relievo, the principal battles of the Revolution. Conspicuous in front of the entrance of the rotunda, will stand a statue of Washington. Within the stylobate or base of the monument, will be a labyrinth of apartments arranged in a most intricate man


The material of which the facing of the monument is constructed, is what is known as Symington's large crystal marble, procured from the vicinity of Baltimore. The body of the wall is of blue gneiss. The interior lining is to be decorated with blocks presented by the different States and foreign nations, societies and city corporations, ornamented with coats of arms and appropriate inscriptions, and so disposed in the wall as to be visible in ascending the shaft of the monument. The ascent will be by a spiral iron staircase, lighted with gas,—the only open

ings, except the doors below, being star-shaped windows near the top. It is proposed to close the apex with a cone of glass. Besides the staircase, the ascent will be made by means of machinery up the centre of the shaft. The present height of the structure is 184 feet. It is to be hoped that more active measures will be taken, and that the plan will be carried out by the government; as that is the only proper and effective method of securing the necessary means for its completion.

The United States has not yet reached the age of monument building. This nation has not even emerged from the youth of action into the prime of its history, and has yet to run a long and brilliant career before it shall pass into a dotage of inactivity, when it can afford to rest upon the laurels of the past. It can then spend its second childhood in recording the annals of gathered glories, and in erecting splendid monuments over the ashes of departed merit. When our wealth and population shall have increased, and the federal and democratic spirit of the present shall have yielded to the sway of interest, and an inevitable aristocracy; then an austere administration will possess the power and means of dedicating magnificent memorials to the merit of which the age will find itself most in need.

The great monuments of other nations have all been erected at government expense, and at the will of despotic rulers. The pyramids of Egypt would never have been built by voluntary subscription. The Dacian victories of Trajan would have remained uncommemorated, if his pictured column had awaited the denarii of the Roman people. The column of Antonine, the triumphal arches of the Roman emperors, the Hotel des Invalides, and all great monuments, have been government works. The Peter-pence for the stupendous monument to the original of apostolic succession, were also collected under a peremptory tax; the subscription for the Nelson monument, barely sufficed for the admission fee of the proposed memorial into Westminster Abbey. We can scarcely expect to be more successful in the United States, and deserve little reproach on account of the fact that, in a few years, we have not succeeded in perpetuating, in brass and stone, the memory of Washington. His glory is so fresh in the appreciation of his countrymen, that they neglect the importance of securing to posterity an enduring record of their veneration. The work should not depend upon casual contributions, but be completed immediately at the expense of the government.

When this national memorial shall raise its head towards heaven, a tower of strength amid the clouds and tempests which environ it, and when the sun shines out upon it in the calm repose of its majesty, it will then become a fitting symbol of the great hero and sage, first in war and first in peace,

"adversis major par secundis."

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It will be observed that we have designated the contents of this chapter as descriptive of governmental and national establishments, as distinct from the topics belonging to the former chapters upon the executive, legislative, and judicial departments. We were led to this choice by the consideration that there are, in the federal city, certain institutions which are national, both in their objects and organization, and, in a greater or less degree, under the patronage or control of the national Government, or else deserving of national recognition.

The Smithsonian Institution is so far identified with the Government, that while it involves the nation in no expense, except perhaps for printing, the fund from which its income is derived belongs to the people of the United States, in trust for special purposes; and, with a view to the faithful discharge of that trust, the President of the United States, Vice-President, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Attorney-General, Secretaries of War, Navy, and Treasury, Postmaster-General, and Commissioner of Patents, are, ex officio, Regents of the Institution.

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The building is situated on that portion of the public grounds extending westward from the capitol to the Potomac River, and known as the Mall. The style of architecture is the early Gothic, and a fine specimen of the richness of detail and ornamentation peculiar to the

last half of the twelfth century, the transition period of architecture. It was designed by James Renwick, Jr., of New York, and is built of light-red sandstone obtained from the vicinity of Seneca Creek, a tributary of the Potomac, about twenty-three miles from Washington. The color of the stone harmonizes with the style of architecture, and produces a rich and solid effect.

The main building has, in the centre of its north front, two towers, of which the higher reaches an elevation of about 150 feet. On the south front is a tower, 37 feet square and 91 feet high. On the northeast corner is a campanile tower, 17 feet square and 117 feet high; at the southwest corner an octagonal tower, in which is a spiral staircase. There are nine towers in all.

The entire length of the building, from east to west, is 447 feet; its greatest breadth is 160 feet. The east wing is 82 by 52 feet, and 421 feet high to the top of its battlement; the west wing, including its projecting apsis, is 84 feet by 40, and 38 feet high; and each of the connecting ranges, including its cloister, is 60 feet by 49. The main building is 205 feet by 57, and, to the top of the corbel course, 58 feet high. The corner-stone was laid, with Masonic ceremonies, in the presence of President Polk, May 1st, 1847.

The founder of this Institution, James Smithson, was an Englishman, claiming a descent from the noble families of Northumberland and Somerset; until manhood he was known as James Lewis Macie, when he asserted his right to the family name of the Duke of Northumberland, and ever after called himself James Smithson. He possessed great scientific attainments and furnished many valuable memoirs for the Royal Society of England. After his

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