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To this legislation the country is indebted for the magnificent building dedicated to the relief of the various unfor. tunates who require its assistance. The location is beautiful and commanding, and the accommodations are ample for all the patients that are entitled to admission. The number of inmates has increased from year to year. On the first of July, 1860, there were from the army, 24;
from from the navy, 19; from the Soldiers' Home, 4; and from civil life, 120—total, 167.
The grounds around the buildings should be laid off and improved, and the entire tract of land substantially inclosed ; and for these purposes some additional appropriations will be needed. The institution has heretofore been managed with great efficiency, and bids fair soon to become a model of its kind in every respect.
This society occupies a handsome building, of gray freestone, with iron casings and mouldings, recently erected on the south side of Pennsylvania avenue, at the corner of 4į street. The Colonization Society was established December 21st, 1816, and chartered by the legislature of Maryland, March 23d, 1837. The government is vested in a board of directors, composed of the life-directors and delegates from the different State societies. The republic of Liberia, on the west coast of Africa, has been formed by the labors of this society. It owns a territory extending about five hundred miles along the coast, and indefinitely in the interior, which was purchased from the natives, who are permitted still to reside upon it, and to become citizens of the republic when sufficiently civilized. About 200,000 of them reside within the limits of the republic and under its government.
The society has removed from the United States to Liberia 10,545 persons. The present population (Ameri
is not more than this number. The independence of Liberia has been recognized by several of the leading European nations. From its beginning up to January 1st, 1861, the society received from all sources $2,247,407.
This society claims and is entitled to rank with the Royal Agricultural Society of England and the Imperial Agricultural Society of France. The importance of the interests over which it watches was indicated to the foresight of Washington, as is evidenced by his letter to Sir John Sinclair, under date of July 20th, 1794, wherein he says: “It will be some time, I fear, before an agricultural society, with congressional aid, will be established in this country. We must walk, as other countries have, before we can run; smaller societies must prepare the way for greater; but, with the lights before us, I hope we shall not be so slow in maturation as older nations have been. Aen attempt, as you will perceive by the inclosed outlines of a plan, is making to establish a State society in Pennsylvania, for agricultural improvements. If it succeeds, it will be a step in the ladder; at present, it is too much in embryo to decide upon the result.”
Two years afterward, the same eminent authority made the following statement to Congress : “ It will not be doubted that, with reference to either individual or national welfare, agriculture is of primary importance. In proportion as nations advance in population and other
circumstances of maturity, this becomes apparent.” On the 14th of June, 1852, a National Agricultural Convenvention was held at the Smithsonian Institution, in the City of Washington, under a call issued by the following agricultural societies, at the instance of the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture: The Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture; Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society; Maryland State Agricultural Society; New York State Agricultural Society ; Southern Central Agricultural Society; Ohio State Board of Agriculture; American Institute, New York; Massachusetts Society for the Promotion of Agriculture; Indiana State Board of Agriculture; New Hampshire Agricultural Society; Vermont Agricultural Society; and the Rhode Island Society for the Encouragement of American Industry. This convention resulted in the formation of the United States Agricultural Society, whose permanent office is now in the City of Washington.
In 1860, Congress authorized the Superintendent of Public Printing to negotiate for the purchase or erection of a printing office for the public use. After making the most diligent inquiry, the Superintendent came to the conclusion that his official trust would be best discharged by the purchase of the vast establishment owned by Mr. C. Wendell. In pursuance of the instruction of Congress, he agreed to pay Mr. Wendell $135,000 for his printing office, which is equal in extent to any in the world. This bargain received the indorsement of both branches of Congress in the second session of the thirty-sixth Congress. The immense building which has thus become national, and in which may be found the most recent and perfect machinery belonging to the typographical art, is directly north of the Capitol, and is generally the first remarkable object observed by persons entering the city on the Baltimore Railroad.
The Constitution of this Association provides for its nationality by declaring that artisans of every profession and vocation, throughout the Union, who are interested in the welfare and honor of their country and in the cause of art, shall be eligible to election as members of the Association. The volume of the Constitution contains a long list of members' signatures—names of men eminent in every department of art, science, literature, instruction, invention, jurisprudence, and statesmanship; names also of noble and accomplished women.
It aims at the devel. opment and fostering of American genius, and has proposed to itself an immense task.
The Jackson Monument Committee were authorized, by resolution of Congress, dated August 11, 1848, to receive the brass guns captured by Jackson at Pensacola, “ to be used as material for the construction of a monument to that distinguished patriot;" the monument to be erected on such portion of the public grounds in the city of Washington as might be designated by the President; and, by acts of July 29 and September 20, 1850, other condemned brass guns were also granted for the purpose, with the privilege of exchange.
Clark Mills was appointed to execute the statue, and immediately proceeded to model a design, for which purpose he procured and trained the finest breed and build of horses, and made thorough study of the anatomy and pose of the animal, sparing no labor or care in arriving at the precise nature of his subject. He erected his own foundry, being a natural mechanic, and cast the statue himself.
President Fillmore selected the site for the statue, when completed, in the centre of the square in front of the Executive Mansion, where it was inaugurated, January 8, 1853, the anniversary of Jackson's victory at New Orleans, in 1815.
General Jackson is represented in the exact military costume worn by him,—with cocked hat in hand, saluting his troops. The charger, a noble specimen of the animal, with all the fire and spirit of a Bucephalus, is in a rearing posture, poised upon his hind feet, with no other stay than the balance of gravity, and the bolts pinning the feet to the pedestal. The work is colossal, the figure of Jackson being eight feet in height, and that of the horse in proportion. The whole stands upon a pyramidal pedestal, of white marble, seven feet in height, at the base of which are planted four brass six-pound guns, taken by the hero at New Orleans. The cost of the statue to the government, including the pedestal and iron railing, was $28,500.
THE EQUESTRIAN STATUE
Congress passed an act, as early as 1783, authorizing the erection of an equestrian statue of Washington at the seat of government, and the minister to France was empowered to engage an artist for the work to be done, in