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tunately for us, the publishers, who have an inalienable right to literary despotism, and, if not the foes of authors, are the censors of literary limits, have so hedged us in that we can give only a hasty glance at the numerous art treasures in the possession of Mr. Maguire, whose hospitable doors are always open to artists and lovers of art. In view of our amenability to the chancery of art, however, we dare not omit a reference to a landscape by Paul Weber, which we venture to pronounce equal in drawing and color to any American picture ever painted. It is so full of delicate touches that, after looking at it for a few moments, you expect to see the cattle step out of the canvas and frame. The rivulet winding down the mountain was never done by any but a master's hand. And right here we must take the liberty to introduce into our theme an artistic suggestion. We hear a great deal said, amongst artists and connoisseurs of art, about “old masters,” and it is suggested that an old master is no better than a new master. But it ought to be borne in mind that what are technically described as “ old masters,” are those whose industry and excellence were so great that their works have outlived those of their cotemporaries. No doubt there were many artists who executed paintings and sculpture at the date of those works we now seek so anxiously as the productions of “old masters,” but we are eager to obtain the works of old masters of excellence; we seek for their works not because of their date, but for their beauty. Thus, there are many men and women who can now paint tolerable horses and dogs, but three centuries hence these may be forgotten, and Rosa Bonheur and Landseer counted more valuable than gold or diamonds. In the collection of Mr. Maguire
there is a rare masterpiece, which, from its attribute, only to be discovered after long examination, proves to be a head of St. Paul, by an old master. It is probably by Rubens, but it may be a Veronese. Nothing can be finer than the “Study of Cattle," by Delatrie, the Madonna de la Peche, or the “ Head of Danae,” by Wertmuller. Many other pictures in this collection would enable us to fill many pages of description, which we regret we are compelled to abandon.
Mr. Janvier's collection is very rich, and was obtained by its possessor during several years' residence in Italy. Like every lover and friend of art, Mr. Janvier opens his hospitable door to painter, poet, or lover of art. Among the most valuable paintings in this collection are,
portrait of Pope Paul III., attributed to Titian; a portrait of King William III. when a child, in which the artist, Van der Dom, has gratified his love of allegory by representing the youthful prince as blowing bladders, while before him are the fleeting treasures of money and jewels, and the more reliable wealth indicated by an open missal; à portrait of the Duchess de la Valliere, by Mignard, in which the lips seem about to part, the eyes to move, and the bosom, of which there is a liberal display, to heave; and a work of Andrea Vaccaro, the subject of which is described in the “ Leggende delle Vergine.” There are several other pictures the coloring and drawing of which seem to establish their title to the rank of originals by old masters.
Mr. King, a veteran artist, has a large collection, principally of portraits, in his studio on Twelfth street.
The Washington artists, with whom some fine productions have originated, frequently exhibit their works in the gallery belonging to Philp & Solomons, the room having been constructed with an especial view to their accommodation, and is admirably suited for its purpose.
FRATERNITIES AND BENEVOLENT
There are in Washington the usual quantity of charitable organizations, but we are obliged to content ourselves with the simple mention of the Young Men's Christian Association, Columbia Typographical Society, Ladies' Union Benevolent Society, Washington Orphan Asylum (Protestant), St. Joseph's Male Orphan Asylum (R. C.), and St. Vincent's Female Orphan Asylum.
Free and Accepted Masons.—This old and wide-spread fraternity was early established in the District, Washington having served as Master of lodge No. 22, in Alexandria, at one time within the limits of the District. A convention of lodges met in the District, on December 11th, 1810, in which there were representatives of the following lodges :—Brooke Lodge, No. 42, of Virginia, and the following Lodges chartered by the Grand Lodge of Maryland: Federal Lodge, No. 15; Columbia Lodge, No. 35; Washington Naval Lodge, No. 41; and Potomac Lodge, No. 37. From these lodges the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia was formed, and new charters were issued. Washington Lodge, of Alexandria, was allowed to remain under the jurisdiction of Virginia, owing to the peculiar fact that its charter was granted to George Washington, and the craft were unwilling to cancel the record of the masonic standing of so illustrious a brother. The first lodge established in California was chartered by this Grand Lodge. At present, there are in existence, within the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of the District, the following branches of the Order : Washington Commandery of Knights Templar, Columbia and Washington Royal Arch Chapters, and eleven lodges.
Ancient and Accepted Rite.—This branch of freemasonry is governed by a Supreme Council of those possessing the Thirty-Third Degree, which is an exclusive and executive degree, difficult of attainment, and conferred only upon those who, without an application for it, are selected as proper persons to be received into its mysteries. Under this governing body there have been established in the District, a Grand Consistory, Council of Kadosch, and Osiris Lodge of Perfection.
Independent Order of Odd-Fellows.—This Order was first introduced into the District of Columbia, November 26, 1827, by the establishment of Central Lodge, No. 1, in the city of Washington; the Grand Lodge of the District was instituted November 28, 1828. The Encampment, or Patriarchal branch of the Order, was established by the institution of Columbian Encampment, No. 1, in the city of Washington, in January, 1834. The Grand Encampment of the District was instituted at Alexandria, in April, 1846. Upon the retrocession of Alexandria to Virginia, in 1846, the Grand Encampment was removed to Washington. There are four subordinate encampments and thirteen lodges under the Grand Lodge, eleven in Washington and two in Georgetown.
Washington is supplied with food by four good markets. The one known as the centre market, on Pennsylvania avenue, needs a new building, and the corpora
tion have long promised to provide what would conduce to the comfort and cleanliness of the people, and add much to the beauty of the most prominent part of the main avenue in the city.
The oldest and best known cemetery in the District is called the Congressional Cemetery, because when a member of Congress or a Senator of the United States dies, his memory is perpetuated in this graveyard, by a monument erected at the public expense; and thus a cemetery really belonging to a corporation has become known as, par excellence, “ The Congressional.” The cemetery thus designated is situated about a mile and a half east of the Capitol. The original name of this residence of the dead was the “ Washington Parish Burial Ground,” and amongst its early promoters, we find the names of Henry Ingle, George Blagden, Griffith Coombe, Samuel N. Smallwood, Frederick May, Peter Miller, J. T. Frost, and Thomas Tingey, all identified with the early history of the seat of government.
Another cemetery, of greater beauty, is called “ Glenwood,” and is situated about a mile north of the Capitol, and in a few years will become one of the best improved in the country, its natural advantages only needing time and labor to improve them.
The guardianship of the city is divided between the municipal police and the Auxiliary Guard, who, contrary to the usages of other cities, do not separately patrol the entire city, but are to be found in bodies at the most public places.