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of the District, the following branches of the Order : Washington Commandery of Knights Templar, Columbia and Washington Royal Arch Chapters, and eleven lodges.
Ancient and Accepted Rite.—This branch of freemasonry is governed by a Supreme Council of those possessing the Thirty-Third Degree, which is an exclusive and executive degree, difficult of attainment, and conferred only upon those who, without an application for it, are selected as proper persons to be received into its mysteries. Under this governing body there have been established in the District, a Grand Consistory, Council of Kadosch, and Osiris Lodge of Perfection.
Independent Order of Odd-Fellows. This Order was first introduced into the District of Columbia, November 26, 1827, by the establishment of Central Lodge, No. 1, in the city of Washington; the Grand Lodge of the District was instituted November 28, 1828. The Encampment, or Patriarchal branch of the Order, was established by the institution of Columbian Encampment, No. 1, in the city of Washington, in January, 1834. The Grand Encampment of the District was instituted at Alexandria, in April, 1846. Upon the retrocession of Alexandria to Virginia, in 1846, the Grand Encampment was removed to Washington. There are four subordinate encampments and thirteen lodges under the Grand Lodge, eleven in Washington and two in Georgetown.
Washington is supplied with food by four good markets. The one known as the centre market, on Pennsylvania avenue, needs a new building, and the corporation have long promised to provide what would conduce to the comfort and cleanliness of the people, and add much to the beauty of the most prominent part of the main avenue in the city.
The oldest and best known cemetery in the District is called the Congressional Cemetery, because when a member of Congress or a Senator of the United States dies, his memory is perpetuated in this graveyard, by a monument erected at the public expense; and thus a cemetery really belonging to a corporation has become known as, par excellence, “The Congressional.” The cemetery thus designated is situated about a mile and a half east of the Capitol. The original name of this residence of the dead was the “ Washington Parish Burial Ground,” and amongst its early promoters, we find the names of Henry Ingle, George Blagden, Griffith Coombe, Samuel N. Smallwood, Frederick May, Peter Miller, J. T. Frost, and Thomas Tingey, all identified with the early history of the seat of government.
Another cemetery, of greater beauty, is called “Glenwood,” and is situated about a mile north of the Capitol, and in a few years will become one of the best improved in the country, its natural advantages only needing time and labor to improve them.
The guardianship of the city is divided between the municipal police and the Auxiliary Guard, who, contrary to the usages of other cities, do not separately patrol the entire city, but are to be found in bodies at the most public places.
Washington is connected with the North and West by railroad and canal, and the beautiful Potomac bears the traveler to Alexandria.or Acquia creek, where another railroad connection conveys him southward. Between Washington and Alexandria there is an hourly communication by omnibus, and a railroad commencing on the Virginia side of the Long bridge, which spans the Potomac. Besides these principal channels of locomotion, there are the usual stage-coach accommodations for reaching the surrounding country, while two lines of omnibuses convey passengers from Georgetown to the Capitol, or from any part of Seventh street to the Navy Yard. A city railroad is so greatly needed, that the strife for the pecuniary profits to accrue from it cannot much longer prevent its construction.
The city of Georgetown is situated on the Potomac, three miles west of the Capitol, and only separated from the city of Washington by Rock Creek, which is spanned by a beautiful iron bridge, constructed on a novel plan. The city is located upon high ground, and commands a beautiful prospect of the Capital and the valley of the Potomac. It was laid out by an act of the colonial government of Maryland, passed June 8th, 1751, and was incorporated by act of the general assembly of Maryland, passed December 25, 1789. It is a port of entry, and carries on a considerable foreign and coasting trade; and is, also, the greatest shad and herring market in the United States, large quantities of these fish being caught in the Potomac and brought here for barreling. The flouring business is extensively carried on, and keeps about fifty mills in constant operation. Manufacturing has also been introduced, and has lately become an important branch of industry. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is carried over the Potomac at this place, upon an aqueduct 1,446 feet long and 36 feet high, costing, in its construction, two million dollars. There are eight churches in the city, two banks, a college, a nunnery, and several hotels. A line of two steamers has lately been established between this port and
New York, for carrying freight and passengers. There is one newspaper in the place, the Georgetown Advocate, published tri-weekly and weekly. The population is about eight thousand. A line of stages runs every three minutes between this city and the Capitol, making it convenient for persons doing business in Washington, and members of Congress, to reside here and enjoy the salubrious air and quiet retirement of the place.
This institution of learning was established in 1791, by the Roman Catholics, under the auspices, and at the suggestion, of the Rev. John Carroll.
The buildings were commenced in 1788, and completed in 1795, but the terms opened before the buildings were finished, in 1791. Professors were selected from the Jesuits who sought an asylum in this country from European persecution. The system of education adopted is one long tried and fully approved, being the ratio dicendi et discendi of Père Jouvency, and keeps pace with the spirit of development and genius of our age and country,-embracing all literature and modern inventions, and cherishing the principles of liberty and republicanism. The morality of the college is preserved with the most vigilant solicitude ; the nature of the system precluding almost the possibility of the pupils contracting any vicious habits. The seclusion of the site, vigilance of the prefects, and attendance of the professors in their walks within the college grounds, keep the students under a decorous restraint.
The local advantages yield to none in any country ; elevated and sequestered, though within the limits of the town, it lifts its turrets high above the forest that sur