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Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then, from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose, to consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice; and if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President, elected by the Senate, shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President shall be the VicePresident, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then, from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose

shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

There are certain hours of every day, except the days of Cabinet meetings, usually from 11 until 1 o'clock, during which the President may properly be approached either upon business or with the intention simply to pay him respect.

Inauguration of the President. The Constitution of the United States prescribes no form for the installation of the Chief Executive into the duties of his office; it only requires of him that, before he enters on the execution of his duties, he shall take the following oath or affirmation: “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.” There is no law specifying where this oath or affirmation shall be taken, and it would be equally valid if attested by a village magistrate or the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Each incumbent of the office, therefore, has been governed by the dictates of his own fancy or judgment in the ceremonies attending his induction.

Thus, when George Washington was first inaugurated President, on the 1st of May, 1789, he was escorted from his house to the city hall, where the custom-house has since been erected, in Wall street, New York, and the oath of office was administered to him by Chancellor Livingston. After his re-election, in 1793, delegations from the Senate and House of Representatives, with other dignitaries, assembled in the Senate chamber to witness the renewal of General Washington's oath. John Adams, in 1797, informed the Senate and House of Representatives of his election to the office of President of the United States,

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and of his readiness to take the constitutional oath. On the 4th of March, at noon, he took his seat in the chair of the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and, after delivering an inaugural address, took the oath of office and retired. On the 2d of March, 1801, Thomas Jefferson informed the Speaker of the House of Representatives of his intention to take the oath of office in the Senate chamber, on the 4th day of the same month, at noon. He also delivered an inaugural address, and was the first President whose inauguration took place in Washington. Upon the re-election of Jefferson, he omitted the address, and assumed his oath in the presence of Chief Justice Marshall and Justices Cushing, Patterson, and Washington, of the Supreme Court; and it is stated that amongst the distinguished witnesses was the gallant Commodore Preble. On the 4th of March, 1809, James Madison, who had been Secretary of State during the two terms of Jefferson's administration, took the oath of office, after delivering his inaugural address, in the chamber of the House of Representatives. Having been re-elected, he appeared at the Capitol on the 4th of March, 1813, and, after delivering his second inaugural address, he was sworn into office by Chief Justice Marshall. The first time that a public address, outside the Capitol, was delivered, was when, in 1817, James Monroe was inducted into the presidential honors and responsibilities. On that occasion the Vice-President was first sworn in; the President then, from an elevated platform, pronounced his inaugural address, took the oath in the presence of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and, after a salute of artillery, retired to the Executive Mansion. On the 4th of March, 1821, President Monroe having been re-elected, could not be sworn into office,—that date happening to fall upon Sunday, dies non in law. On the following day, howeverMonday, the 5th of March, a very inclement day—the oath was again administered by Chief Justice Marshall. The next President was John Quincy Adams, who, at twenty minutes after 12 o'clock of the 4th day of March, 1825, placed himself in the chair of the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and having delivered an address, which occupied about three quarters of an hour, he read, from a copy of the laws of the United States, handed to him by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, the appointed obligation. This ceremony having been performed, he received the congratulations of those present, including General Andrew Jackson, and with proper formalities and an escort was conducted to the Executive Mansion. Andrew Jackson was inducted into the presidency on the 4th of March, 1829. The VicePresident, John C. Calhoun, having passed through the necessary preliminaries, assumed his seat as President of the Senate, at eleven o'clock of the above-named day. Precisely at twelve o'clock General Jackson commenced the delivery of his inaugural address, standing upon the eastern portico of the Capitol, and in presence of an immense concourse of people. At the conclusion of the discourse, Chief Justice Marshall administered the oath of office prescribed by the Constitution. Jackson was again installed President of the United States on the 4th of March, 1833,-Martin Van Buren having been chosen by the people for Vice-President. On this occasion Jackson delivered an address and took the oath of office in the hall of the House of Representatives. Martin Van Buren, having served during four years as the Vice-President under Jackson, was, on the 4th of March, 1837, inducted into the presidential office. The Vice-President was sworn into his office, and, having made a brief speech, assumed his position as President of the Senate. At twelve o'clock Van Buren, accompanied by Jackson, repaired to the Senate chamber, and from thence to the east portico, where, the former having pronounced his address in the presence of an immense multitude, amongst whom Webster and Clay were conspicuous, the oath of office was administered by Chief Justice Taney. The remarkable episode in the political history of the United States, detailed in the records of 1840, resulted in the election of William H. Harrison, who was inaugurated into his office on Friday, the 4th of March, 1841. General Harrison proceeded from his quarters to the Capitol, mounted upon a white charger, and surrounded by an enthusiastic throng of friends. In the Senate chamber, Mr. Tyler having taken the oath of Vice-President, delivered an address. At twenty minutes after twelve General Harrison was ushered in, after which the assemblage proceeded to the eastern portico, where the President delivered the greater portion of his address, and, having received the obligation of office from the Chief Justice, finished his speech, and, under escort, took possession of the Executive Mansion.

The presidency of General Harrison, like that of Taylor, was of brief duration, for, on the 4th of April, 1841, one month from the date of his installation, he died, and the duties and responsibilities of the position devolved upon the Vice-President, John Tyler, who, upon the 6th of April, appeared before the Chief Judge of the Circuit Court, and, for prudential reasons, assumed the

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