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properly placed in the control of this department, and is not identified with the United States Navy.

Some idea of the magnitude and importance of this executive branch of the government may be formed by an examination of the following statement of the value of foreign merchandise imported, re-exported, and consumed annually, from 1821 to 1859, inclusive, and the estimated population and rate of consumption per capita during the same period :

Value of Foreign Merchandise.
YEARS ENDING-

Popula-
Consumed

tion.
Re-expor- and

Imported ted. on hand. September 30, 1821.... $62,585,724*21.302,488 $41,283,286 9,960,974 $4 14

1822. 83,241,541 22,286,202 60,955,339 10,283,757 5 92 1823 77,579 267 27,543,622 50,035, 645 10,606,540 4 71 1824.. 80,549,007 25,337,157 65,211,850 10,929 323 5 05 1825. 96,840,075 32,590 643 63,749,432 11.252,106 5 66 1826. 84,974,477 24,539 612 60,434,865 11,574 889 6 22 1827. 79,484,068 23,403,136 56,080,932 11.897,672 4 71 1828 88,509,824 21,595,017 66,914 807

12,220,455 5 47 1829. 74,492,527 16,658,478 67,834,049 12,243 238 4 61 1880 70,876,920 14,387,479! 66,489,441 12 566,020 4 89 1831. 103,191,124 20.033,526 83,157,598 18 286,864 6 25 1832.

101,029,266 24,089 473 76.989,793 18,706 707 5 61 1833. 108,118,311 19'822,785 88 295 576 14,127,050 6 25 1834.. 226,521 832 23,312,811 103,248,521 14.547,393 7 09 1885.... 149,895,742 20,504,495 129,891,247 14,967,736 8 64 1886. 189,980,035 21,746,860 168,238,675 15,388,079 10 93 1837. 140,989 217 21,854,962 119,134,255 15.808,422 7 53 1838.... 113,717,404 12,452,795 101,264,609 16,228,765 6 23 1889 162,092,182 17,494,525 144,597,607 16 649,108 8 63 1840 107,141,519 18,190.312 88,951,207 17,069,453 5 21 1841. 127,946,177 15,469,081 112 477,096 17,612,507 6 88

1842 100.162,087 11,721,538 88 440 549 18' 155,561 4 87 9 months to June 30, 1843.... 64,753, 799 6,552,697| 58 201,102 18,698, 615 3 11 Year to June 30, 1844. 108,435,035 11,484,8671 96,950,168 19,241,670) 5 03

1845. (117,254,564 15,346,830 101.907.734 19,784,725 5 15 1846.... 121,691,797 11,346,623 110.315, 174 20,827,780 5 42 1847. 146,545,638 8,011,158 138,534, 480 20,780,885 6 60 1848. 154,998.928 21,128,010 133.870,918 21,413.890 6 25 1849.... 147,857,439 13.098,865 154,768,574 21.956,945 6 13 1850. 178,138,818 14,951.808 163,186 510 28.246,301 7 02 1951. 216,224 982 21.698,293 194,526, 639 24,250,000 8 (2 1852. 212,945,442 17,289,882 195,656,060 24,500,000.800 1858. 267,978,647 17,558,460 250,420,187 25.000,00 10 00 1854.. 304,562,881 24,850,191 279.712.187 25 750,000 10 00 1855. 261,462,620 28,448,293 238,020,227 26,500,000 8 79 1856. 814,639.942 16,378 578 298.261.364 27,400,000 10 88 1857. 860,89,141 23,975.617 836,914,524 28,500,000 11 62 1859. 282,613 150 80,886,142 251.727,008 29 500,000 8 00 1959. 398,768.180' 20,895.177 817 878,003 30,885,000 10 46

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The exigencies to which the colonies were exposed forced them at an early period to concentrate their defensive

power. The military successes of Washington and his generals were greatly retarded by the cumbersome arrangements of direct correspondence with and instructions from Congress, in which parties and cliques were frequently stronger than patriotism; the frozen and bleeding feet of revolutionary soldiers, as at Valley Forge, being sometimes counted of less consequence than the interest of controlling votes. The first recorded legislation of importance upon the military affairs of the nation is the act of Congress of the twenty-seventh day of January, 1785, entitled “An Ordinance for ascertaining the Powers and Duties of the Secretary at War.” By this Act the duties of the Secretary are defined; and amongst them is a provision requiring him to visit“ at least once a year,

"66 all the magazines and deposits of public stores, and report the state of them, with proper arrangements, to Congress.” Immediately after the confederation of the States by the adoption of the Constitution, this legislation was superseded by an act of Congress, approved on the seventh day of August, 1789, defining the duties of the department; which was again modified by the fifth Congress, in the act of the thirtieth day of April, 1798: “To establish an Executive Department, to be denominated the Department of the Navy." Of the efficiency of this department, and its services to the republic, there can be no better testimony than that which has been extorted from history, in the following words: “The United States, from the peace of Independence, in 1783, achieved by war and merely acknowledged by treaty, have always (?) lost by treaty, but never by war.” This sentiment, which is not as true now of our relations with Great Britain as in 1814, contains within it a compliment to the department which, with limited means, and encountering the natural jealousy of civism, has so administered its scanty finances that the army has been made not only a defense for the frontiers, but a recognized national force, able in any emergency to afford a nucleus around which the strength and bravery of the republic may safely crystallize. By the act of the fourteenth of April, 1814, the Secretaries of War and of the Navy were placed in custody of the flags, trophies of war, &c., to deliver the same for presentation and display in such public places as the President may

deem

proper. Although many trophies which a monarchical power would have jealously preserved have been lost, or at least detached from their proper resting-place, there are still enough in both departments to stir the patriotic emotions of all who take the trouble to inquire for them. The building in which the duties of this important branch of the government are performed is situated on Pennsylvania avenue, west of the Executive Mansion, and will in a few years be replaced by an edifice worthy of description. The present organization of the department is divided amongst the following bureaus :

Secretary's Office.The Secretary of War is charged, under the direction of the President, with the general control of the military establishment, and the execution of the laws relating thereto. The functions of the several bureaus are performed under his supervision and authority. In the duties of his immediate office he is assisted by a chief clerk, claims and disbursing clerk, requisition

clerk, corresponding clerk, registering clerk, and three recording clerks.

The Adjutant-General's Office is the medium of com'munication to the army of all general and special orders of the Secretary of War relating to matters of military detail. The rolls of the army and the records of service are kept, and all military commissions prepared, in this office.

The Quartermaster-Generals Office has charge of all matters pertaining to barracks and quarters for the troops, transportation, camp and garrison equipage, clothing, fuel, forage, and the incidental expenses of the military establishment.

The Commissary-General's Office has charge of all matters relating to the procurement and issue of subsistence stores to the army.

The Paymaster-General's Office has the general direction of matters relating to the pay

of the

army. The Surgeon-General's Office has charge of all matters relating to the medical and hospital service.

The Engineer's Office, at the head of which is the chief engineer of the army, has charge of all matters relating to the construction of the fortifications, and to the military academy. At present the Washington Aqueduct is being built under its direction.

The Bureau of Topographical Engineers, at the head of which is the chief of the corps, has charge of all matters relating to river and harbor improvements, the survey of the lakes, the construction of military roads, and generally of all military surveys.

The Ordnance Bureau, at the head of which is the chief of ordnance, has charge of all matters relating to the manufacture, purchase, storage, and issue of all ordnance, arms, and munitions of war. The management of the arsenals and armories is conducted under its orders.

Exclusive of the office of the Commanding General, there are ninety-five persons, military and clerical, employed in the business of the department.

Between this building and the Navy Department, which is directly to the south of it, there is a large mass of copper from Ontonagon, Lake Superior. This curiosity cost the United States $5,654. It was originally used by the Indians as a sacrificial rock, and they regarded it with a peculiar awe and veneration, in the belief that if seen by a white man, the control of the country would pass out of their hands. The following thrilling description of a human sacrifice once offered on this block of copper, is from the pen of Father Charlevoix, a Jesuit missionary: In my first

voyage to the country, I had heard of the Manitou of the savages, which was of pure copper, and used as a place of sacrifice.

I listened with horror to the circumstances that attended the sacrifice of a young female, who had been taken prisoner during an excursion of a war-party of the natives.

An expedition had been resolved upon, and they thus thought to insure success and the favor of their powerful Manitou. The young maiden was only fifteen years old. After having a lodge appointed for her use, attendants to meet every wish, her neck, arms, and ankles covered with bracelets of silver and copper, she was led to believe she was to be the bride of the son of the head chief. The time appointed was the end of winter; and she felt rejoiced as the time rolled on, waiting for the season of her happiness.

The day fixed upon for the sacrifice having dawned, she passed through all the preparatory ceremonies, and

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