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merely acknowledged by treaty, have always (?) lost by treaty, but never by war.” This sentiment, which is not as true now of our relations with Great Britain as in 1814, contains within it a compliment to the department which, with limited means, and encountering the natural jealousy of civism, has so administered its scanty finances that the army has been made not only a defense for the frontiers, but a recognized national force, able in any emergency to afford a nucleus around which the strength and bravery of the republic may safely crystallize. By the act of the fourteenth of April, 1814, the Secretaries of War and of the Navy were placed in custody of the flags, trophies of war, &c., to deliver the same for presentation and display in such public places as the President may deem proper. Although many trophies which a monarchical power would have jealously preserved have been lost, or at least detached from their proper resting-place, there are still enough in both departments to stir the patriotic emotions of all who take the trouble to inquire for them. The building in which the duties of this important branch of the government are performed is situated on Pennsylvania avenue, west of the Executive Mansion, and will in a few years be replaced by an edifice worthy of description. The present organization of the department is divided amongst the following bureaus :
Secretary's Office.—The Secretary of War is charged, under the direction of the President, with the general control of the military establishment, and the execution of the laws relating thereto. The functions of the several bureaus are performed under his supervision and authority. In the duties of his immediate office he is assisted by a chief clerk, claims and disbursing clerk, requisition clerk, corresponding clerk, registering clerk, and three recording clerks.
The Adjutant-General's Office is the medium of com'munication to the army of all general and special orders of the Secretary of War relating to matters of military detail. The rolls of the army and the records of service are kept, and all military commissions prepared, in this office.
The Quartermaster-General's Office has charge of all matters pertaining to barracks and quarters for the troops, transportation, camp and garrison equipage, clothing, fuel, forage, and the incidental expenses of the military establishment.
The Commissary-General's Office has charge of all matters relating to the procurement and issue of subsistence stores to the army.
The Paymaster-General's Office has the general direction of matters relating to the pay
army. The Surgeon-General's Office has charge of all matters relating to the medical and hospital service.
The Engineer's Office, at the head of which is the chief engineer of the army, has charge of all matters relating to the construction of the fortifications, and to the military academy. At present the Washington Aqueduct is being built under its direction.
The Bureau of Topographical Engineers, at the head of which is the chief of the corps, has charge of all matters relating to river and harbor improvements, the survey of the lakes, the construction of military roads, and generally of all military surveys.
The Ordnance Bureau, at the head of which is the chief of ordnance, has charge of all matters relating to the
manufacture, purchase, storage, and issue of all ordnance, arms, and munitions of war. The management of the arsenals and armories is conducted under its orders.
Exclusive of the office of the Commanding General, there are ninety-five persons, military and clerical, employed in the business of the department.
Between this building and the Navy Department, which is directly to the south of it, there is a large mass of copper from Ontonagon, Lake Superior. This curiosity cost the United States $5,654. It was originally used by the Indians as a sacrificial rock, and they regarded it with a peculiar awe and veneration, in the belief that if seen by a white man, the control of the country would pass out of their hands. The following thrilling description of a human sacrifice once offered on this block of copper, is from the pen of Father Charlevoix, a Jesuit missionary:
In my first voyage to the country, I had heard of the Manitou of the savages, which was of pure copper, and used as a place of sacrifice.
I listened with horror to the circumstances that attended the sacrifice of a young female, who had been taken prisoner during an excursion of a war-party of the natives.
An expedition had been resolved upon, and they thus thought to insure success and the favor of their powerful Manitou. The young maiden was: only fifteen years old. After having a lodge appointed for her use, attendants to meet every wish, her neck, arms, and ankles covered with bracelets of silver and copper, she was led to believe she was to be the bride of the son of the head chief. The time appointed was the end of winter; and she felt rejoiced as the time rolled on, waiting for the season of her happiness.
The day fixed upon for the sacrifice having dawned, she passed through all the preparatory ceremonies, and
was dressed in her best attire, covered with all the ornaments the settlement could command; after which she was placed in the midst of a circle of warriors dressed in their war suits, who seemed to escort her for the purpose of showing her deference.
Besides their usual arms, each one carried several pieces of wood which he had received from the girl. She had carried wood to the rock on the preceding day which she had helped gather in the forest. Believing she was to be elevated to a high rank, her ideas being of the most pleasing character, the poor girl advanced to the altar with rapturous feelings of joy and timidity, which would naturally be raised in the bosom of a young female of her age. As the procession proceeded, which occupied some time, savage music accompanied them, and chaunts invoking the intervention of their Manitou, that the Great Spirit would prosper their enterprise ; so that, being excited by the music and dancing, the deceitful delusion under which she had been kept remained till the last moment. But as soon as they had reached the place of sacrifice, where nothing was to be seen but fires, torches, and instruments of torture, her eyes were opened—her fate was revealed to her
and she became aware of her horrible destiny, as she had often heard of the mysterious sacrifices of the Copper Rock.
She conjured the stern warriors who surrounded her to have pity on her youth, her innocence, but all in vain; the Indian priests coolly proceeded with the horrid ceremonies.
She was tied with withes to the top of the rock. The fire was gradually applied to her body with torches made of the wood which she had with her own hands distributed to the warriors. When exhausted with her cries, and about expiring, her tormentors opened the circle that surrounded her, and the great chief shot an arrow into her heart, which was followed by the spears and arrows of his followers, which, after being turned and twisted in the wounds, were torn from her body in such a manner that it presented but one shapeless mass of human flesh, and the blood poured down the glistening sides of the rock in streams. When the blood had ceased to flow, the high priest approached the body of the victim, and, to crown the horrible deed, tore out her heart, and after invoking the blessing of the bloody Manitou, devoured the bleeding flesh, amid the acclamations of the whole tribe. The mangled remains were then left to be destroyed by wild beasts. Their weapons were sprinkled with her blood to render them invincible, and all retired to their cabins cheered and encouraged with the hope of a glorious victory.
This department of the government, as we have intimated above, is the child of the War Department. The first intention of the fathers of the American Republic seems to have been simply to provide for a chief clerk under whose direction contracts might be made for munitions of war, and the inspection of provisions necessary for carrying on war by land or
As the maritime warfare of the United States increased in the brilliancy of its victories, the necessity for a separate organization to control its officers and to provide for the feeding, equipment, and payment of its seafaring warriors gradually became apparent; but it was not until the thirtieth day of April, 1798, that Congress was sufficiently apprised of this necessity to pass and secure the approval of an act to establish an Executive Department, to be denominated the Department of the Navy," and on the twenty-second of June of the same year an act was passed granting the franking privilege to the Secretary of the Navy. Subsequent legislation has dealt more with the morale of the navy than with the functions of the department; reference to various other