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was dressed in her best attire, covered with all the ornaments the settlement could command; after which she was placed in the midst of a circle of warriors dressed in their war suits, who seemed to escort her for the purpose of showing her deference. Besides their usual arms, each one carried several pieces of wood which he had received from the girl. She had carried wood to the rock on the preceding day which she had helped gather in the forest. Believing she was to be elevated to a high rank, her ideas being of the most pleasing character, the poor girl advanced to the altar with rapturous feelings of joy and timidity, which would naturally be raised in the bosom of a young female of her age. As the procession proceeded, which occupied some time, savage music accompanied them, and chaunts invoking the intervention of their Manitou, that the Great Spirit would prosper their enterprise; so that, being excited by the music and dancing, the deceitful delusion under which she had been kept remained till the last moment. But as soon as they had reached the place of sacrifice, where nothing was to be seen but fires, torches, and instruments of torture, her eyes were opened-her fate was revealed to her--and she became aware of her horrible destiny, as she had often heard of the mysterious sacrifices of the Copper Rock.

She conjured the stern warriors who surrounded her to have pity on her youth, her innocence, but all in vain; the Indian priests coolly proceeded with the horrid ceremonies.

She was tied with withes to the top of the rock. The fire was gradually applied to her body with torches made of the wood which she had with her own hands distributed to the warriors. When exhausted with her cries, and about expiring, her tormentors opened the circle that surrounded her, and the great chief shot an arrow into her heart, which was followed by the spears and arrows of his followers, which, after being turned and twisted in the wounds, were torn from her body in such a manner that it presented but one shapeless mass of human flesh, and the blood poured down the glisten


ing sides of the rock in streams. When the blood had ceased to flow, the high priest approached the body of the victim, and, to crown the horrible deed, tore out her heart, and after invoking the blessing of the bloody Manitou, devoured the bleeding flesh, amid the acclamations of the whole tribe. The mangled remains were then left to be destroyed by wild beasts. Their weapons were sprinkled with her blood to render them invincible, and all retired to their cabins cheered and encouraged with the hope of a glorious victory.

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This department of the government, as

we have intimated above, is the child of the War Department. The first intention of the fathers of the American Republic seems to have been simply to provide for a chief clerk under whose direction contracts might be made for munitions of war, and the inspection of provisions necessary for carrying on war by land or

As the maritime warfare of the United States increased in the brilliancy of its victories, the necessity for a separate organization to control its officers and to provide for the feeding, equipment, and payment of its seafaring warriors gradually became apparent; but it was not until the thirtieth day of April, 1798, that Congress was sufficiently apprised of this necessity to pass and secure the approval of an act “to establish an Executive Department, to be denominated the Department of the Navy,” and on the twenty-second of June of the same year an act was passed granting the franking privilege to the Secretary of the Navy. Subsequent legislation has dealt more with the morale of the navy than with the functions of the department; reference to various other

acts is therefore omitted. The building in which the duties of the department are at present discharged is immediately behind the War Department, and its architecture is so manifestly faulty and meagre that we defer a description until it shall have a dwelling-place to some extent commensurate with the important interests it controls and represents. As organized in 1860, the department consists of the following officials :—The Secretary; Chief Clerk; Bureau of Navy Yards and Docks; Bureau of Construction, Equipment, and Repairs; Bureau of Provisions and Clothing; Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography; and the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery; comprising in all, including the head of the department, and exclusive of messengers, forty nine persons.

The division of labor is as follows:

Secretary's Office.—The Secretary has charge of everything connected with the naval establishment, and the execution of all laws relating thereto is intrusted to him, under the general direction of the President of the United States, who, by the Constitution, is commander-in-chief of the army and navy. All instructions to commanders of squadrons and commanders of vessels, all orders of officers, commissions of officers both in the navy and marine corps, appointments of commissioned and warrant officers, orders for the enlistment and discharge of seamen, emanate from the Secretary's office. All the duties of the different bureaus are performed under the authority of the Secretary, and their orders are considered as emanating from him. The general superintendence of the marine corps forms also a part of the duties of the Secretary, and all the orders of the commandant of that corps should be approved by him.


Bureau of Navy Yards and Docks.—Chief of the bureau, four clerks, one civil engineer, and one draughts.

All the navy yards, docks, and wharves, buildings and machinery in navy yards, and everything immediately connected with them, are under the superintendence of this bureau. It is also charged with the management of the Naval Asylum.

Bureau of Construction, Equipment, and Repair.Chief of the bureau, eight clerks and one draughtsman. The office of the Engineer-in-chief of the Navy, who is assisted by three assistant engineers, is attached to this bureau. This bureau has charge of the building and repairs of all vessels of war, purchase of materials, and the providing of all vessels with their equipments, as sails, anchors, water-tanks, &c. The Engineer-in-chief superintends the construction of all marine steam-engines for the navy, and, with the approval of the Secretary, decides upon plans for their construction.

Bureau of Provisions and Clothing.–Chief of bureau and four clerks. All provisions for the use of the navy, and clothing, together with the making of contracts for furnishing the same, come under the charge of this bureau.

Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography.Chief of bureau, four clerks, and one draughtsman. This bureau has charge of all ordnance and ordnance stores, the manufacture or purchase of cannon, guns, powder, shot, shells, &c., and the equipment of vessels of war, with everything connected therewith. It also provides them with maps, charts, chronometers, barometers, &c., together with such books as are furnished to ships of war. “ The United States Naval Observatory and Hydrographical Office” at

Washington, and the Naval Academy at Annapolis, are also under the general superintendence of the chief of this bureau.

Bureau of Medicine and Surgery.-Chief of bureau, one passed assistant surgeon United States Navy, and two clerks. Everything relating to medicines and medical stores, treatment of sick and wounded, and management of hospitals, comes within the superintendence of this bureau.

The following statistics may be interesting to some of our readers : In 1806, the number of seamen authorized by law was 925, to which number 3,600 were added in 1809. In 1812, Congress authorized the President to employ as many as would be necessary to equip the vessels to be put in service, and to build as many vessels for the lakes as the public service required. In January, 1814, there were in actual service seven frigates, two corvettes, seven sloops of war, two blockships, four brigs, and three schooners, for sea, besides the several lake squadrons, gunboats, and harbor barges; three ships of the line and three frigates on the stocks. The whole number of men and officers employed was thirteen thousand, three hundred and thirty-nine, of which 3,729 were able seamen, and 6,721 ordinary; the marine corps, as enlarged in 1814, was 2,700 men and officers. The commissioned naval officers combatant were 22 captains, 18 commanders, 107 lieutenants, and 450 midshipmen. In 1814, Secretary Jones reported to the Senate that there were three 74-gun and three 44-gun ships building; six new sloops of war built; twenty barges and one hundred and twenty-five gunboats employed in the Atlantic waters; 33 vessels of all sizes for sea, afloat or building, and 31

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