When Humans Nearly Vanished: The Catastrophic Explosion of the Toba Volcano

Přední strana obálky
Smithsonian Institution, 16. 10. 2018 - Počet stran: 208
The fascinating true story of the explosion of the Mount Toba supervolcano--the Earth's largest eruption in the past 28 million years--and its lasting impact on Earth and human evolution

Some 73,000 years ago, the huge dome of Mount Toba, in today's Sumatra, Indonesia, began to rumble. A deep vibration shook the entire island. Jets of steam and ash emanated from the summit, followed by an explosion louder than any sound heard by Homo sapiens since our species evolved on Earth. The eruption of the Toba supervolcano released the energy of a million tons of explosives; seven hundred cubic miles of magma spewed outward in an explosion forty times larger than the largest hydrogen bomb and more than a thousand times as powerful as the Krakatau eruption in 1883. So much ash and debris was injected into the stratosphere that it partially blocked the sun's radiation and caused global temperatures to drop by five to nine degrees. It took a full decade for Earth to recover to its pre-eruption temperatures.

When Humans Nearly Vanished presents the controversial argument that the Toba catastrophe nearly wiped out the human race, leaving only about a thousand to ten thousand breeding pairs of humans worldwide. Human genes today show evidence of a "genetic bottleneck," an effect seen when a population of organisms becomes so small that their genetic diversity is greatly reduced. This group of survivors could be the ancestors of all humans alive today. Donald R. Prothero explores the geological and biological evidence supporting the Toba bottleneck theory; reveals how the explosion itself was discovered; and offers insight into how the world changed afterward and what might happen if such an eruption occurred today. Prothero's riveting account of this calamitous supervolcanic explosion is not to be missed.
 

Co říkají ostatní - Napsat recenzi

When Humans Nearly Vanished: The Catastrophic Explosion of the Toba Volcano

Recenze od uživatele  - Publishers Weekly

Despite the title, the Toba volcano makes not much more than a cameo appearance in this slim volume. Prothero (The Story of Earth in 25 Rocks), a paleontologist and geologist, describes Toba’s ... Přečíst celou recenzi

Obsah

A Very Bad
1
Mystery of the Missing Megavolcano
7
Data in Davy Joness Locker
14
Blowing the Case Wide Open
20
Vulcans Fury
27
Incineration
37
Why Do Volcanoes Behave
44
Krakatau Cracks
50
Too Many Genes
77
Mitochondria Eve
85
Bottlenecks in Humans
91
Out of Africa
113
Humanity at the Crossroads
137
Volcanoes of Doom
155
Future Shocks
171
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
185

Tambora and the Year without a Summer
57
Supervolcanoes
65

Další vydání - Zobrazit všechny

Běžně se vyskytující výrazy a sousloví

O autorovi (2018)

DONALD R. PROTHERO specializes in physics, planetary sciences, astronomy, earth sciences, and vertebrate paleontology. He taught for 35 years at the college level at Columbia, Knox, Pierce, and Vassar colleges, most recently as professor of geology at Occidental College and as lecturer in geobiology at the California Institute of Technology. He has authored or edited more than 300 scientific papers and 30 books, including Giants of the Lost World: Dinosaurs and Other Extinct Monsters of South America.

Bibliografické údaje