Obrázky stránek
PDF
ePub

CONTENTS

ENCES.

THE WORK OF THE SECOND HAGUE PEACE CONFERENCE. James Brown Scott.. 1 CONVENTION FOR THE PEACEFUL ADJUSTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DIFFERAmos S. Hershey

29 CONVENTION RELATIVE TO THE OPENING OF HOSTILITIES. Ellery C. Stowell.. 50 THE AMELIORATION OF THE RULES OF WAR ON LAND. George B. Daris. 63 HAGUE CONVENTION RESTRICTING THE USE OF FORCE TO RECOVER ON CoxTRACT CLAIMS. George W. Scott.

78 THE HAGUE CONVENTION CONCERNING THE RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF NEUTRAL

POWERS AND PERSONS IN LAND WARFARE. Antonio S. de Bustamante... 95 THE CENTRAL AMERICAN PEACE CONFERENCE OF 1907. James Broren Scott.. 121 THE PEACE CONFERENCE OF CENTRAL AMERICA. Luis Anderson..

144 BOARD OF EDITORS

152 EDITORIAL COMMENT Louis Renault

152 Second Annual Meeting of the American Society of International Law. 153 Expatriation and Protection of Naturalized Americans Abroad and in Turkish Dominions

156 The Remission of a Portion of the Chinese Indemnity.

160 Consular Administration of the Estates of Deceased Nationals.

170 The Integrity of Norway Guaranteed...

176 Edward Henry Strobel

178 CHRONICLE OF INTERNATIONAL EVENTS. Henry G. Crocker..

180 PUBLIC DOCUMENTS RELATING TO INTERNATIONAL LAW. Philip De Witt Phair .

201 JUDICIAL DECISIONS INVOLVING QUESTIONS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW.

204 BOOK REVIEWS: BOOK NOTES.....

242 PERIODICAL LITERATURE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW...

253

SUPPLEMENT — IMPORTANT TEXTS OF AN INTERNATIONAL CHARACTER. The Supplement of this number is a special double issue, comprising the acts and onventions of the Second Hague Peace Conference and the Central American P. V. Conference. In view of this double issue, no supplement will appear with o 'pril number of THE JOURNAL.

THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL Law is supplied to all members of the American Society of International Law without extra charge, as the membership fee of five dollars per annum includes the right to all issues of the JOURNAL published during the year for which the dues are paid.

The annual subscription to non-members of the Society is five dollars per annum (one dollar extra is charged for foreign postage), and may be placed with the Managing Editor or with Baker, Voorhis & Company, 47-49 Liberty Street, New York City.

Single copies of the JOURNAL will be supplied by the Publisher at $1.25 per copy.

Applications for membership in the Society, correspondence with reference to the JOURNAL, and books for review should be sent to James Brown Scott, Managing Editor, George Washington University, Washington, D. C.

THE WORK OF THE SECOND HAGUE PEACE

CONFERENCE

The Second International Peace Conference, like its predecessor of 1899, endeavored to humanize the hardships necessarily incident to war and to substitute for a resort to arms a pacific settlement of international grievances, which, if unsettled, might lead to war or make the maintenance of pacific relations difficult and problematical. The conference of 1907, no more than its immediate predecessor, satisfied the leaders of humanitarian thought. War was not abolished, nor was peace legislated into existence. Universal disarmament was as unacceptable in 1907 as in 1899, and some few nations were still unwilling to bind themselves to refer all international disputes not involving independence, vital interests, or national honor to a court of arbitration.

Deeply interested in the success of these projects, the great public felt that their failure necessarily involved the failure of the conference, notwithstanding that many wise and humanitarian measures falling short of the goal were incorporated into the law of nations. But we should not in our disappointment, and perhaps bitterness of soul, overlook positive and beneficent progress, and if we could not take the advanced position outlined by the friends of peace, we should nevertheless rejoice that many a mile-stone has been passed. We must not forget that an international conference is different from a parliament; that independent and sovereign nations are not bound by majorities, and that positive results are obtained by compromising upon desirable but perhaps less advanced projects. The aim of a conference is to lay down a law for all, not for the many, much less for the few; to establish a law which will be international because it is accepted and enforced by all nations.

The work of the conference concerned the modification of existing international law; international differences of opinion and interpretation were adjusted; doubt gave place to certainty; and, after much consideration and reflection, principles of international law were fortified, modified in part, or wholly discarded. A complete code was not established it is doubtful whether custom and usage are ripe for codification — but important topics of international law were given the symmetry and precision of a code.

It may be maintained that international law is law in the strict sense of the word, or it may be contended that it lacks an essential element of law, because there is no international sheriff; that it is international morality or ethics; or that finally a law of nations is the occupation of the theorist and the hope of the dreamer. However opinions may differ as to the nature of international law, there can be no doubt of the existence of certain rules and regulations which do by common consent control the conduct of independent nations; nor can there be any reasonable doubt that enlightened people of all countries take a deep and abiding interest in international law, and share the hope of the dreamer, not only that greater precision may be given to its principles, but that the principles themselves may be developed and applied with the certainty and precision of a municipal code.

From the cell of the cloister international law passed into the study of the philosopher, the jurist, and the scholar; from the study it entered the cabinets of Europe, and for two centuries and more a recognized system of international law has determined the foreign relations of nations; from the cabinet to courts of justice, where the rights of nations as well as individuals have been debated and enforced; and finally, from the court-room international law has made its way to the people, who, in last resort, dominate court and cabinet, and enlist in their service scholar as well as priest.

It was a wise remark of Sir James Mackintosh that constitutions are not made: they grow; for history demonstrates that unnatural unions dissolve; that unnatural alliances have little permanency; that constitutions struck off at the heat of a moment in times of excitement disappear with the causes to which they owe their origin. Constitutions are, in a large and broad sense of the word, codifications. They put into written and permanent form the usages and customs

« PředchozíPokračovat »